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1.
Neurology ; 97(7): e706-e719, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400568

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine similarities and differences in key predictors of recovery of bimanual hand use and unimanual motor impairment after stroke. METHOD: In this prospective longitudinal study, 89 patients with first-ever stroke with arm paresis were assessed at 3 weeks and 3 and 6 months after stroke onset. Bimanual activity performance was assessed with the Adult Assisting Hand Assessment Stroke (Ad-AHA), and unimanual motor impairment was assessed with the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA). Candidate predictors included shoulder abduction and finger extension measured by the corresponding FMA items (FMA-SAFE; range 0-4) and sensory and cognitive impairment. MRI was used to measure weighted corticospinal tract lesion load (wCST-LL) and resting-state interhemispheric functional connectivity (FC). RESULTS: Initial Ad-AHA performance was poor but improved over time in all (mild-severe) impairment subgroups. Ad-AHA correlated with FMA at each time point (r > 0.88, p < 0.001), and recovery trajectories were similar. In patients with moderate to severe initial FMA, FMA-SAFE score was the strongest predictor of Ad-AHA outcome (R 2 = 0.81) and degree of recovery (R 2 = 0.64). Two-point discrimination explained additional variance in Ad-AHA outcome (R 2 = 0.05). Repeated analyses without FMA-SAFE score identified wCST-LL and cognitive impairment as additional predictors. A wCST-LL >5.5 cm3 strongly predicted low to minimal FMA/Ad-AHA recovery (≤10 and 20 points respectively, specificity = 0.91). FC explained some additional variance to FMA-SAFE score only in unimanual recovery. CONCLUSION: Although recovery of bimanual activity depends on the extent of corticospinal tract injury and initial sensory and cognitive impairments, FMA-SAFE score captures most of the variance explained by these mechanisms. FMA-SAFE score, a straightforward clinical measure, strongly predicts bimanual recovery. CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER: NCT02878304. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class I evidence that the FMA-SAFE score predicts bimanual recovery after stroke.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Conectoma , Mãos/fisiopatologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Paresia/fisiopatologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paresia/diagnóstico , Paresia/etiologia , Prognóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico
2.
Front Neurol ; 12: 634065, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33868144

RESUMO

Objective: Aphasia and apraxia of speech (AOS) after stroke frequently co-occur with a hand motor impairment but few studies have investigated stroke recovery across motor and speech-language domains. In this study, we set out to test the shared recovery hypothesis. We aimed to (1) describe the prevalence of AOS and aphasia in subacute stroke patients with a hand motor impairment and (2) to compare recovery across speech-language and hand motor domains. In addition, we also explored factors predicting recovery from AOS. Methods: Seventy participants with mild to severe paresis in the upper extremity were assessed; 50% of these (n = 35) had left hemisphere (LH) lesions. Aphasia, AOS and hand motor assessments and magnetic resonance imaging were conducted at 4 weeks (A1) and at 6 months (A2) after stroke onset. Recovery was characterized in 15 participants showing initial aphasia that also had complete follow-up data at 6 months. Results: All participants with AOS and/or aphasia had LH lesions. In LH lesioned, the prevalence of aphasia was 71% and of AOS 57%. All participants with AOS had aphasia; 80% of the participants with aphasia also had AOS. Recovery in aphasia (n = 15) and AOS (n = 12) followed a parallel pattern to that observed in hand motor impairment and recovery correlated positively across speech-language and motor domains. The majority of participants with severe initial aphasia and AOS showed a limited but similar amount of recovery across domains. Lesion volume did not correlate with results from behavioral assessments, nor with recovery. The initial aphasia score was the strongest predictor of AOS recovery. Conclusion: Our findings confirm the common occurrence of AOS and aphasia in left hemisphere stroke patients with a hand motor impairment. Recovery was similar across speech-language and motor domains, even in patients with severe impairment, supporting the shared recovery hypothesis and that similar brain recovery mechanisms are involved in speech-language and motor recovery post stroke. These observations contribute to the knowledge of AOS and its relation to motor and language functions and add information that may serve as a basis for future studies of post stroke recovery. Studies including neuroimaging and/or biological assays are required to gain further knowledge on shared brain recovery mechanisms.

3.
Stroke ; 51(3): 944-951, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906829

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Dexterous object manipulation, requiring generation and control of finger forces, is often impaired after stroke. This study aimed to describe recovery of precision grip force control after stroke and to determine clinical and imaging predictors of 6-month performance. Methods- Eighty first-ever stroke patients with varying degrees of upper limb weakness were evaluated at 3 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after stroke. Twenty-three healthy individuals of comparable age were also studied. The Strength-Dexterity test was used to quantify index finger and thumb forces during compression of springs of varying length in a precision grip. The coordination between finger forces (CorrForce), along with Dexterity-score and Repeatability-score, was calculated. Anatomical magnetic resonance imaging was used to calculate weighted corticospinal tract lesion load (wCST-LL). Results- CorrForce, Dexterity-score, and Repeatability-score in the affected hand were dramatically lower at each time point compared with the less-affected hand and the control group, even in patients with mild motor impairment according to Fugl-Meyer assessment. Improved performance over time occurred in CorrForce and Dexterity-score but not in Repeatability-score. The Fugl-Meyer assessment hand subscale, sensory function, and wCST-LL best predicted CorrForce and Dexterity-score status at 6 months (R2=0.56 and 0.87, respectively). wCST-LL explained substantial variance in CorrForce (R2=0.34) and Dexterity-score (R2=0.50) at 6 months; two-point discrimination and Fugl-Meyer score accounted for considerable additional variance. Absence of recovery in CorrForce was predicted by wCST-LL >4 cc and in Dexterity-score by wCST-LL >6 cc. Conclusions- Findings highlight persisting deficits in the ability to grasp and control finger forces after stroke. wCST-LL was the strongest predictor of performance at 6 months, but early two-point discrimination and Fugl-Meyer score had substantial additional predictive value. Registration- URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02878304.


Assuntos
Força da Mão , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polegar/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo
4.
J Rehabil Med ; 52(3): jrm00027, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31993671

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the usability and effects of an assistive soft robotic glove in the home setting after stroke or multiple sclerosis. DESIGN: A mixed methods design. METHODS: Participants with stroke (n = 10) or multiple sclerosis (n = 10) were clinically assessed, and instructed to use the glove in activities of daily living for 6 weeks. They reported their experience of using the glove via weekly telephone interviews and one semi-structured interview. RESULTS: The soft robotic glove was used by participants in a wide variety of activities of daily living. Perceived beneficial effects while using the glove were a sustained and a strong grip. Disadvantages of using the glove were a lack of assistance in hand opening function and the glove not being usable for fine hand use. The glove was found to be useful by two-thirds of participants who completed the study, mainly by participants with moderate limitations in hand activity and an overall level of functioning that allowed participation in everyday life activities. CONCLUSION: This study identified a subgroup of participants, who found the glove useful in activities requiring a strong and prolonged grip but not fine hand use, and highlights aspects for consideration in the further development of soft hand robotics for sustained use in a larger population living with a central nervous system lesion.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Mãos/fisiopatologia , Esclerose Múltipla/terapia , Robótica/métodos , Equipamentos de Autoajuda/normas , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Esclerose Múltipla/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia
5.
Front Neurol ; 10: 836, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456734

RESUMO

Objective: This longitudinal observational study investigated how neural stretch-resistance in wrist and finger flexors develops after stroke and relates to motor recovery, secondary complications, and lesion location. Methods: Sixty-one patients were assessed at 3 weeks (T1), three (T2), and 6 months (T3) after stroke using the NeuroFlexor method and clinical tests. Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to calculate weighted corticospinal tract lesion load (wCST-LL) and to perform voxel-based lesion symptom mapping. Results: NeuroFlexor assessment demonstrated spasticity (neural component [NC] >3.4N normative cut-off) in 33% of patients at T1 and in 51% at T3. Four subgroups were identified: early Severe spasticity (n = 10), early Moderate spasticity (n = 10), Late developing spasticity (n = 17) and No spasticity (n = 24). All except the Severe spasticity group improved significantly in Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA-HAND) to T3. The Severe and Late spasticity groups did not improve in Box and Blocks Test. The Severe spasticity group showed a 25° reduction in passive range of movement and more frequent arm pain at T3. wCST-LL correlated positively with NC at T1 and T3, even after controlling for FMA-HAND and lesion volume. Voxel-based lesion symptom mapping showed that lesioned white matter below cortical hand knob correlated positively with NC. Conclusion: Severe hand spasticity early after stroke is negatively associated with hand motor recovery and positively associated with the development of secondary complications. Corticospinal tract damage predicts development of spasticity. Early quantitative hand spasticity measurement may have potential to predict motor recovery and could guide targeted rehabilitation interventions after stroke.

6.
Disabil Rehabil ; 41(4): 472-480, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29084457

RESUMO

AIMS: To describe the development of a new test of bimanual performance for adults following Stroke, the Adult-Assisting Hand Assessment Stroke, and to report the evidence of internal and external validity. METHODS: Scale development included: (i) establishing the test situation; (ii) constructing test items; (iii) evaluating internal construct validity by use of Rasch measurement analysis on 144 assessments of adults with hemiparesis, mean age 53 years (SD11.45); and (iv) investigating external validity by correlation to the Jebsen and Taylor Test of Hand Function and the ABILHAND Stroke. RESULTS: The Adult-Assisting Hand Assessment Stroke scale, scored on 19 items using a four-point rating scale, provided a valid measure of bimanual performance. The rating scale structure, goodness of fit, and principal component analysis demonstrated evidence of a unidimensional construct. The strong reliability and high person separation ratio indicated high probability for the scale to be responsive to change. Correlation to outcomes of the Jebsen and Taylor Test of Hand Function and the ABILHAND Stroke indicated strong external validity. CONCLUSION: Using two hands together is a critical aspect for performance of most daily life tasks. However, assessments of hand function commonly focus on measuring aspects of unimanual function. The Adult-Assisting Hand Assessment Stroke has the potential to contribute new and clinically important knowledge to stroke rehabilitation by providing an observation-based valid functional measure of bimanual performance. Implications for rehabilitation Hand function assessments commonly focus on unimanual aspects, although the use of two hands together is critical to perform most daily life tasks. The Adult-Assisting Hand Assessment Stroke measures how effectively a patient with a hemiparesis uses his/her affected hand together with the unaffected hand to perform bimanual tasks. The Adult-Assisting Hand Assessment Stroke contributes a new and clinically important aspect to stroke rehabilitation by providing a valid bimanual observation-based measure to guide intervention and measure change over time.


Assuntos
Avaliação da Deficiência , Mãos/fisiopatologia , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Atividades Cotidianas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paresia/fisiopatologia , Paresia/reabilitação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia
7.
Inform Health Soc Care ; 42(3): 303-320, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27918220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this study an interactive distance solution (called the DISKO tool) was developed to enable home-based motor training after stroke. OBJECTIVES: The overall aim was to explore the feasibility and safety of using the DISKO-tool, customized for interactive stroke rehabilitation in the home setting, in different rehabilitation phases after stroke. METHODS: Fifteen patients in three different stages in the continuum of rehabilitation after stroke participated in a home-based training program using the DISKO-tool. The program included 15 training sessions with recurrent follow-ups by the integrated application for video communication with a physiotherapist. Safety and feasibility were assessed from patients, physiotherapists, and a technician using logbooks, interviews, and a questionnaire. Qualitative content analysis and descriptive statistics were used in the analysis. RESULTS: Fourteen out of 15 patients finalized the training period with a mean of 19.5 minutes spent on training at each session. The DISKO-tool was found to be useful and safe by patients and physiotherapists. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the feasibility and safety of the DISKO-tool and provides guidance in further development and testing of interactive distance technology for home rehabilitation, to be used by health care professionals and patients in different phases of rehabilitation after stroke.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/organização & administração , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Interface Usuário-Computador
8.
J Neuroeng Rehabil ; 13: 30, 2016 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26987557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The NeuroFlexor is a novel instrument for quantification of neural, viscous and elastic components of passive movement resistance. The aim of this study was to provide normative data and cut-off values from healthy subjects and to use these to explore signs of spasticity at the wrist and fingers in patients recovering from stroke. METHODS: 107 healthy subjects (age range 28-68 years; 51 % females) and 39 stroke patients (age range 33-69 years; 33 % females), 2-4 weeks after stroke, were assessed with the NeuroFlexor. Cut-off values based on mean + 3SD of the reference data were calculated. In patients, the modified Ashworth scale (MAS) was also applied. RESULTS: In healthy subjects, neural component was 0.8 ± 0.9 N (mean ± SD), elastic component was 2.7 ± 1.1 N, viscous component was 0.3 ± 0.3 N and resting tension was 5.9 ± 1 N. Age only correlated with elastic component (r = -0.3, p = 0.01). Elasticity and resting tension were higher in males compared to females (p = 0.001) and both correlated positively with height (p = 0.01). Values above healthy population cut-off were observed in 16 patients (41 %) for neural component, in 2 (5 %) for elastic component and in 23 (59 %) for viscous component. Neural component above cut-off did not correspond well to MAS ratings. Ten patients with MAS = 0 had neural component values above cut-off and five patients with MAS ≥ 1 had neural component within normal range. CONCLUSION: This study provides NeuroFlexor cut-off values that are useful for detection of spasticity in the early phase after stroke.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/instrumentação , Espasticidade Muscular/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Movimento/fisiologia , Espasticidade Muscular/etiologia
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