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1.
Nutrients ; 12(2)2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041107

RESUMO

The vaginal microbiota has importance in preserving vaginal health and defending the host against disease. The advent of new molecular techniques and computer science has allowed researchers to discover microbial composition in depth and associate the structure of vaginal microbial communities. There is a consensus that vaginal flora is grouped into a restricted number of communities, although the structure of the community is constantly changing. Certain Community-Sate Types (CSTs) are more associated with poor reproductive outcomes and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) meanwhile, CSTs dominated by Lactobacillus species-particularly Lactobacillus crispatus-are more related to vaginal health. In this work, we have reviewed how modifiable and non-modifiable factors may affect normal vaginal microbiota homeostasis-including sexual behavior, race or ethnicity, and hygiene. Special interest has been given to how the use of probiotics, diet intake, and use of hormone replacement therapies (HRTs) can potentially impact vaginal microbiota composition.

2.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731683

RESUMO

Essential oils (EOs) are a mixture of natural, volatile, and aromatic compounds obtained from plants. In recent years, several studies have shown that some of their benefits can be attributed to their antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and also immunomodulatory properties. Therefore, EOs have been proposed as a natural alternative to antibiotics or for use in combination with antibiotics against multidrug-resistant bacteria in animal feed and food preservation. Most of the results come from in vitro and in vivo studies; however, very little is known about their use in clinical studies. A systematic and comprehensive literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase®, and Scopus from December 2014 to April 2019 using different combinations of the following keywords: essential oils, volatile oils, antimicrobial, antioxidant, immunomodulation, and microbiota. Some EOs have demonstrated their efficacy against several foodborne pathogens in vitro and model food systems; namely, the inhibition of S. aureus, V. cholerae, and C. albicans has been observed. EOs have shown remarkable antioxidant activities when used at a dose range of 0.01 to 10 mg/mL in cell models, which can be attributed to their richness in phenolic compounds. Moreover, selected EOs exhibit immunomodulatory activities that have been mainly attributed to their ability to modify the secretion of cytokines.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(19)2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581657

RESUMO

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a network of different proteins and proteoglycans that controls differentiation, migration, repair, survival, and development, and it seems that its remodeling is required for healthy adipose tissue expansion. Obesity drives an excessive lipid accumulation in adipocytes, which provokes immune cells infiltration, fibrosis (an excess of deposition of ECM components such as collagens, elastin, and fibronectin) and inflammation, considered a consequence of local hypoxia, and ultimately insulin resistance. To understand the mechanism of this process is a challenge to treat the metabolic diseases. This review is focused at identifying the putative role of ECM in adipose tissue, describing its structure and components, its main tissue receptors, and how it is affected in obesity, and subsequently the importance of an appropriate ECM remodeling in adipose tissue expansion to prevent metabolic diseases.

4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(42): e17528, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has shown beneficial effects on the lipid profile and inflammatory parameters in general population. Our goal is to analyze these changes together with those of intestinal microbiota in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients over 50 years of age. METHODS: Experimental single arm open study. HIV patients over the age of 50 with undetectable viral load were selected. EVOO was distributed among the patients so that each one consumed 50 g daily for 12 weeks. Lipid profile, C-reactive protein (CRP), and intestinal microbiota composition were analyzed at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. RESULTS: Total cholesterol decreased significantly (5 mg/dL), and a nonsignificant decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (12 mg/dL), triglycerides (21 mg/dL), and CRP (1.25 mg/dL) was observed. There was a significant increase in alpha diversity after the intervention in men and a decrease in proinflammatory genera such as Dethiosulfovibrionaceae was observed. Differences were also observed in the microbiota of men and women and according to the type of antiretroviral treatment. CONCLUSION: Sustained consumption of 50 g of EVOO in elderly HIV-infected patients might be associated with an improvement in lipid profile and alfa diversity of intestinal microbiota.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Azeite de Oliva/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dieta/métodos , Feminino , HIV , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Triglicerídeos/sangue
5.
FASEB J ; 33(11): 12087-12098, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398297

RESUMO

The main objective of this work was to investigate whether mitochondrial fusion occurs in the skeletal muscle of well-trained athletes in response to high-intensity exercise. Well-trained swimmers (n = 9) performed a duration-matched sprint interval training (SIT) and high-intensity high-volume training (HIHVT) session on separate days. Muscle samples from triceps brachii were taken before, immediately after, and 3 h after the training sessions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was applied to assess mitochondrial morphology. Moreover, expression of genes coding for regulators of mitochondrial fusion and fission were assessed by real-time quantitative PCR. In addition, mitofusin (MFN)2 and optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) were quantified by Western blot analysis. TEM analyses showed that mitochondrial morphology remained altered for 3 h after HIHVT, whereas SIT-induced changes were only evident immediately after exercise. Only SIT increased MFN1 and MFN2 mRNA expression, whereas SIT and HIHVT both increased MFN2 protein content 3 h after exercise. Notably, only HIHVT increased OPA1 protein content. Mitochondrial morphologic changes that suggest fusion occurs in well-adapted athletes during exercise. However, HIHVT appears as a more robust inducer of mitochondrial fusion events than SIT. Indeed, SIT induces a rapid and transient change in mitochondrial morphology.-Huertas, J. R., Ruiz-Ojeda, F. J., Plaza-Díaz, J., Nordsborg, N. B., Martín-Albo, J., Rueda-Robles, A., Casuso, R. A. Human muscular mitochondrial fusion in athletes during exercise.

6.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370223

RESUMO

Previous studies have reported that probiotics may improve clinical and inflammatory parameters in patients with obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Lactobacillus (L.) reuteri V3401 has shown promising results on the components of MetS in animal studies. We aimed to evaluate the effects of L. reuteri V3401 together with healthy lifestyle recommendations on adult patients with MetS. METHODS: We carried out a randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled, single-center trial in which we included 53 adult patients newly diagnosed with MetS. Patients were block randomly allocated by body mass index (BMI) and sex to receive a capsule containing either the probiotic L. reuteri V3401 (5 × 109 colony-forming units) or a placebo once daily for 12 weeks. Anthropometric variables, biochemical and inflammatory biomarkers, as well as the gastrointestinal microbiome composition were determined. RESULTS: There were no differences between groups in the clinical characteristics of MetS. However, we found that interleukin-6 (IL-6) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1) diminished by effect of the treatment with L. reuteri V3401. Analysis of the gastrointestinal microbiome revealed a rise in the proportion of Verrucomicrobia. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of L. reuteri V3401 improved selected inflammatory parameters and modified the gastrointestinal microbiome. Further studies are needed to ascertain additional beneficial effects of other probiotic strains in MetS as well as the mechanisms by which such effects are exerted.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Inflamação/metabolismo , Lactobacillus reuteri , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Probióticos
7.
Sci Data ; 6(1): 130, 2019 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332195

RESUMO

X chromosome genetic variation has been proposed as a potential source of missing heritability for many complex diseases, including obesity. Currently, there is a lack of public available genetic datasets incorporating X chromosome genotype data. Although several X chromosome-specific statistics have been developed, there is also a lack of readily available implementations for routine analysis. Here, we aimed: (1) to make public and describe a dataset incorporating phenotype and X chromosome genotype data from a cohort of 915 normal-weight, overweight and obese children, and (2) to deeply describe a whole implementation of the special X chromosome analytic process in genetics. Datasets and pipelines like this are crucial to get familiar with the steps in which X chromosome requires special attention and may raise awareness of the importance of this genomic region.

8.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 495, 2019 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer ranks first in women, and is the second cause of death in this gender. In addition to genetics, the environment contributes to the development of the disease, although the factors involved are not well known. Among the latter is the influence of microorganisms and, therefore, attention is recently being paid to the mammary microbiota. We hypothesize that the risk of breast cancer could be associated with the composition and functionality of the mammary/gut microbiota, and that exposure to environmental contaminants (endocrine disruptors, EDCs) might contribute to alter these microbiota. METHODS: We describe a case-control clinical study that will be performed in women between 25 and 70 years of age. Cases will be women diagnosed and surgically intervened of breast cancer (stages I and II). Women with antecedents of cancer or advanced tumor stage (metastasis), or who have received antibiotic treatment within a period of 3 months prior to recruitment, or any neoadjuvant therapy, will be excluded. Controls will be women surgically intervened of breast augmentation or reduction. Women with oncological, gynecological or endocrine history, and those who have received antibiotic treatment within a period of 3 months prior to recruitment will also be excluded. Blood, urine, breast tissue and stool samples will be collected. Data regarding anthropometric, sociodemographic, reproductive history, tumor features and dietary habits will be gathered. Metabolomic studies will be carried out in stool and breast tissue samples. Metagenomic studies will also be performed in stool and breast tissue samples to ascertain the viral, fungal, bacterial and archaea populations of the microbiota. Quantitation of estrogens, estrogen metabolites and EDCs in samples of serum, urine and breast tissue will also be performed. DISCUSSION: This is the first time that the contribution of bacteria, archaea, viruses and fungi together with their alteration by environmental contaminants to the risk of breast cancer will be evaluated in the same study. Results obtained could contribute to elucidate risk factors, improve the prognosis, as well as to propose novel intervention studies in this disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03885648 , 03/25/2019. Retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/microbiologia , Mama/microbiologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Adulto , Idoso , Biópsia , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/urina , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dano ao DNA , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Estrogênios/análise , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Metaboloma , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Microorganisms ; 7(3)2019 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832423

RESUMO

Specific microbial profiles and changes in intestinal microbiota have been widely demonstrated to be associated with the pathogenesis of a number of extra-intestinal (obesity and metabolic syndrome) and intestinal (inflammatory bowel disease) diseases as well as other metabolic disorders, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes. Thus, maintaining a healthy gut ecosystem could aid in avoiding the early onset and development of these diseases. Furthermore, it is mandatory to evaluate the alterations in the microbiota associated with pathophysiological conditions and how to counteract them to restore intestinal homeostasis. This review highlights and critically discusses recent literature focused on identifying changes in and developing gut microbiota-targeted interventions (probiotics, prebiotics, diet, and fecal microbiota transplantation, among others) for the above-mentioned pathologies. We also discuss future directions and promising approaches to counteract unhealthy alterations in the gut microbiota. Altogether, we conclude that research in this field is currently in its infancy, which may be due to the large number of factors that can elicit such alterations, the variety of related pathologies, and the heterogeneity of the population involved. Further research on the effects of probiotics, prebiotics, or fecal transplantations on the composition of the human gut microbiome is necessary.

10.
Nutrients ; 11(2)2019 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30764497

RESUMO

New microbiome sequencing technologies provide novel information about the potential interactions among intestinal microorganisms and the host in some neuropathologies as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The microbiota⁻gut⁻brain axis is an emerging aspect in the generation of autistic behaviors; evidence from animal models suggests that intestinal microbial shifts may produce changes fitting the clinical picture of autism. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the fecal metagenomic profiles in children with ASD and compare them with healthy participants. This comparison allows us to ascertain how mental regression (an important variable in ASD) could influence the intestinal microbiota profile. For this reason, a subclassification in children with ASD by mental regression (AMR) and no mental regression (ANMR) phenotype was performed. The present report was a descriptive observational study. Forty-eight children aged 2⁻6 years with ASD were included: 30 with ANMR and 18 with AMR. In addition, a control group of 57 normally developing children was selected and matched to the ASD group by sex and age. Fecal samples were analyzed with a metagenomic approach using a next-generation sequencing platform. Several differences between children with ASD, compared with the healthy group, were detected. Namely, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria at phylum level, as well as, Actinobacteria, Bacilli, Erysipelotrichi, and Gammaproteobacteria at class level were found at higher proportions in children with ASD. Additionally, Proteobacteria levels showed to be augmented exclusively in AMR children. Preliminary results, using a principal component analysis, showed differential patterns in children with ASD, ANMR and AMR, compared to healthy group, both for intestinal microbiota and food patterns. In this study, we report, higher levels of Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacilli, aside from Erysipelotrichi, and Gammaproteobacteria in children with ASD compared to healthy group. Furthermore, AMR children exhibited higher levels of Proteobacteria. Further analysis using these preliminary results and mixing metagenomic and other "omic" technologies are needed in larger cohorts of children with ASD to confirm these intestinal microbiota changes.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Bactérias/genética , Pré-Escolar , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Dieta , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Metagenômica
11.
Nutrients ; 11(2)2019 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30708961

RESUMO

The aim was to investigate the associations between different physical activity (PA) patterns and sedentary time (ST) with vitamin D deficiency (<12 ng/mL) in a large sample of Chilean women. In this cross-sectional study, the final sample included 1245 adult and 686 older women. The PA levels, mode of commuting, ST, and leisure-time PA were self-reported. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as <12 ng/mL and insufficiency as <20 ng/mL. A higher ST was associated with vitamin D deficiency (odds ratio (OR): 2.4, 95%: 1.6⁻4.3) in adults, and passive commuting was associated with vitamin D deficiency in older (OR: 1.7, 95%: 1.1⁻2.7). Additionally, we found a joint association in the high ST/passive commuting group in adults (OR: 2.8, 95%: 1.6⁻4.9) and older (OR: 2.8, 95%: 1.5⁻5.2) with vitamin D deficiency, in respect to low ST/active commuting. The PA levels and leisure-time PA were not associated with vitamin D deficiency. In conclusion, mode of commuting and ST seems important variables related to vitamin D deficiency. Promoting a healthy lifestyle appears important also for vitamin D levels in adult and older women. Further studies are needed to establish causality of this association and the effect of vitamin D deficiency in different diseases in this population.


Assuntos
Calcifediol/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Chile/epidemiologia , Exercício , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia
12.
Adv Nutr ; 10(suppl_1): S31-S48, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721958

RESUMO

The consumption of sugar-free foods is growing because of their low-calorie content and the health concerns about products with high sugar content. Sweeteners that are frequently several hundred thousand times sweeter than sucrose are being consumed as sugar substitutes. Although nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) are considered safe and well tolerated, their effects on glucose intolerance, the activation of sweet taste receptors, and alterations to the composition of the intestinal microbiota are controversial. This review critically discusses the evidence supporting the effects of NNSs, both synthetic sweeteners (acesulfame K, aspartame, cyclamate, saccharin, neotame, advantame, and sucralose) and natural sweeteners (NSs; thaumatin, steviol glucosides, monellin, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, and glycyrrhizin) and nutritive sweeteners (polyols or sugar alcohols) on the composition of microbiota in the human gut. So far, only saccharin and sucralose (NNSs) and stevia (NS) change the composition of the gut microbiota. By definition, a prebiotic is a nondigestible food ingredient, but some polyols can be absorbed, at least partially, in the small intestine by passive diffusion: however, a number of them, such as isomaltose, maltitol, lactitol, and xylitol, can reach the large bowel and increase the numbers of bifidobacteria in humans. Further research on the effects of sweeteners on the composition of the human gut microbiome is necessary.

13.
Adv Nutr ; 10(suppl_1): S49-S66, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721959

RESUMO

Probiotics are living microorganisms that confer health benefits to the host when administered in adequate amounts; however, dead bacteria and their components can also exhibit probiotic properties. Bifidobacterium and strains of lactic acid bacteria are the most widely used bacteria that exhibit probiotic properties and are included in many functional foods and dietary supplements. Probiotics have been shown to prevent and ameliorate the course of digestive disorders such as acute, nosocomial, and antibiotic-associated diarrhea; allergic disorders such as atopic dermatitis (eczema) and allergic rhinitis in infants; and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and some inflammatory bowel disorders in adults. In addition, probiotics may be of interest as coadjuvants in the treatment of metabolic disorders, including obesity, metabolic syndrome, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and type 2 diabetes. However, the mechanisms of action of probiotics, which are diverse, heterogeneous, and strain specific, have received little attention. Thus, the aim of the present work was to review the main mechanisms of action of probiotics, including colonization and normalization of perturbed intestinal microbial communities in children and adults; competitive exclusion of pathogens and bacteriocin production; modulation of fecal enzymatic activities associated with the metabolization of biliary salts and inactivation of carcinogens and other xenobiotics; production of short-chain and branched-chain fatty acids, which, in turn, have wide effects not only in the intestine but also in peripheral tissues via interactions with short-chain fatty acid receptors, modulating mainly tissue insulin sensitivity; cell adhesion and mucin production; modulation of the immune system, which results mainly in the differentiation of T-regulatory cells and upregulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors, i.e., interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor; and interaction with the brain-gut axis by regulation of endocrine and neurologic functions. Further research to elucidate the precise molecular mechanisms of action of probiotics is warranted.

14.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 134: 304-310, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30685403

RESUMO

Hydroxytyrosol (HT) has been demonstrated to improve mitochondrial function, both in sedentary and in exercised animals. Herein, we assessed the effects of two different doses of HT on exercise-induced mitochondrial respiratory complex (C) assembly into supercomplexes (SCs) and the relation of the potential results to OPA1 levels and oxidative stress. Wistar rats were allocated into six groups: sedentary (SED), sedentary consuming 20 mg/kg/d of HT (SED-20), sedentary consuming 300 mg/kg/d of HT (SED-300); exercised (EXE), exercised consuming 20 mg/kg/d of HT (EXE-20) and exercised consuming 300 mg/kg/d of HT (EXE-300). Animals were exercised and/or supplemented for 10 weeks, and assembly of SCs, mitochondrial oxidative status and expression of OPA1 were quantified in the gastrocnemius muscle. Both EXE and EXE-20 animals exhibited increased assembly of CI into SCs, but this effect was absent in EXE-300 animals. Levels of CIII2 assembled into SCs were only increased in EXE-20 animals. Notably EXE-300 animals showed a decreased relative expression of s-OPA1 isoforms. Therefore, HT exerted dose-dependent effects on SC assembly in exercised animals. Although the mechanisms leading to SCs assembly in response to exercise and HT are unclear, it seems that a high HT dose can prevent SCs assembly during exercise by decreasing the expression of the s-OPA1 isoforms.

15.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 18(1): 306, 2018 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30453950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is characterized by increased fat mass and is associated with the development of insulin resistance syndrome (IRS), usually known as metabolic syndrome. The alteration of the intestinal microbiota composition has a role in the development of IRS associated with obesity, and probiotics, which are live microorganisms that confer a health benefit to the host, contribute to restore intestinal microbiota homeostasis and lower peripheral tissue insulin resistance. We aim to evaluate the effects of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri) V3401 on the composition of intestinal microbiota, markers of insulin resistance and biomarkers of inflammation, cardiovascular risk, and hepatic steatosis in patients with overweight and obesity exhibiting IRS. METHODS/DESIGN: We describe a randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled, and single-centre trial. Sixty participants (aged 18 to 65 years) diagnosed with IRS will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive either a daily dose of placebo or 5 × 109 colony-forming units of L. reuteri V3401. The study will consist of two intervention periods of 12 weeks separated by a washout period of 6 weeks and preceded by another washout period of 2 weeks. The primary outcome will be the change in plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes will include anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, glucose metabolism, microbiota composition, hepatic steatosis, and inflammatory and cardiovascular biomarkers. Blood and stool samples will be collected at baseline, at the midpoint (only stool samples) and immediately after each intervention period. Luminex technology will be used to measure interleukins. For statistical analysis, a mixed ANOVA model will be employed to calculate changes in the outcome variables. DISCUSSION: This is the first time that L. reuteri V3401 will be evaluated in patients with IRS. Therefore, this study will provide valuable scientific information about the effects of this strain in metabolic syndrome patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial has been retrospectively registered in ClinicalTrials.gov on the 23rd November 2016 (ID: NCT02972567 ), during the recruitment phase.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus reuteri/fisiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/imunologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Fígado Gorduroso/sangue , Fígado Gorduroso/etiologia , Fígado Gorduroso/genética , Fígado Gorduroso/imunologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/imunologia , Síndrome Metabólica/microbiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/imunologia , Obesidade/microbiologia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30110974

RESUMO

The microorganisms that live symbiotically in human beings are increasingly recognized as important players in health and disease. The largest collection of these microorganisms is found in the gastrointestinal tract. Microbial composition reflects both genetic and lifestyle variables of the host. This microbiota is in a dynamic balance with the host, exerting local and distant effects. Microbial perturbation (dysbiosis) could contribute to the risk of developing health problems. Various bacterial genes capable of producing estrogen-metabolizing enzymes have been identified. Accordingly, gut microbiota is capable of modulating estrogen serum levels. Conversely, estrogen-like compounds may promote the proliferation of certain species of bacteria. Therefore, a crosstalk between microbiota and both endogenous hormones and estrogen-like compounds might synergize to provide protection from disease but also to increase the risk of developing hormone-related diseases. Recent research suggests that the microbiota of women with breast cancer differs from that of healthy women, indicating that certain bacteria may be associated with cancer development and with different responses to therapy. In this review, we discuss recent knowledge about the microbiome and breast cancer, identifying specific characteristics of the human microbiome that may serve to develop novel approaches for risk assessment, prevention and treatment for this disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/microbiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Disbiose , Estrogênios/biossíntese , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos
17.
Nutr Hosp ; 35(4): 936-941, 2018 Aug 02.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30070885

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The effect of exercise on fat-acid oxidation depends on its intensity and duration. Pre-training ingest of carbohydrates (CH) decreases the rate of fat oxidation. In contrast, the effect of pre-consumption of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) is less known. OBJECTIVE: the aim of this study was to compare the effect of pre-consumption of two isocaloric snacks in a standardized exercise session during a period of nine weeks and to quantify their impact in the fat oxidation and decrease of fat mass in healthy and physically active adults. METHODS: randomized, placebo-control clinical trial study. A total of 19 subjects between 20 and 39 years old were randomly distributed in three groups: CH group, with snack of high content of complex CH; FAT group, with snack of high content of MUFA; and control group, with a minimum fast for three hours before the training session. The measurements were rate of fat oxidation, body composition, and endurance training with continuing and intervallic modalities. RESULTS: the control group showed a tendency to fat mass decrease at the end of the intervention. The fat oxidation of group had a higher tendency than the CH and control group, before and after the intervention. Nevertheless, statistical differences of fat oxidation were not found between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: the fat oxidation and the decrease of fat mass may not be influenced by the type of food previously consumed before exercise.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Exercício , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/farmacologia , Adulto , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Resistência Física , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nutrients ; 10(8)2018 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096792

RESUMO

Maternal milk contains compounds that may affect newborn immunity. Among these are a group of oligosaccharides that are synthesized in the mammary gland from lactose; these oligosaccharides have been termed human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). The amount of HMOs present in human milk is greater than the amount of protein. In fact, HMOs are the third-most abundant solid component in maternal milk after lactose and lipids, and are thus considered to be key components. The importance of HMOs may be explained by their inhibitory effects on the adhesion of microorganisms to the intestinal mucosa, the growth of pathogens through the production of bacteriocins and organic acids, and the expression of genes that are involved in inflammation. This review begins with short descriptions of the basic structures of HMOs and the gut immune system, continues with the beneficial effects of HMOs shown in cell and animal studies, and it ends with the observational and randomized controlled trials carried out in humans to date, with particular emphasis on their effect on immune system development. HMOs seem to protect breastfed infants against microbial infections. The protective effect has been found to be exerted through cell signaling and cell-to-cell recognition events, enrichment of the protective gut microbiota, the modulation of microbial adhesion, and the invasion of the infant intestinal mucosa. In addition, infants fed formula supplemented with selected HMOs exhibit a pattern of inflammatory cytokines closer to that of exclusively breastfed infants. Unfortunately, the positive effects found in preclinical studies have not been substantiated in the few randomized, double-blinded, multicenter, controlled trials that are available, perhaps partly because these studies focus on aspects other than the immune response (e.g., growth, tolerance, and stool microbiota).


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Sistema Imunitário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leite Humano/imunologia , Oligossacarídeos/imunologia , Animais , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Intestinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Intestinos/imunologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Estado Nutricional
19.
Nutr. hosp ; 35(4): 936-941, jul.-ago. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-179889

RESUMO

Introducción: el efecto del ejercicio sobre la oxidación de los ácidos grasos depende de la intensidad y la duración. La ingesta de hidratos de carbono (HC) previo a una rutina de entrenamiento disminuye la tasa de oxidación de los ácidos grasos (FATmax). En contraste, el efecto del consumo de ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (AGMI) es poco concluyente. Objetivos: comparar el efecto de dos colaciones isocalóricas consumidas una hora antes de una sesión de ejercicio físico estandarizado durante nueve semanas sobre FATmax y la disminución de la masa grasa en adultos sanos físicamente activos. Metodología: ensayo clínico aleatorizado controlado. Un total de 19 sujetos entre 20 y 39 años fueron distribuidos al azar en tres grupos: grupo HC, con una colación alta en HC complejos; grupo lípidos, con una colación alta en AGMI; y grupo control, con ayuno mínimo de tres horas previo a la sesión de ejercicio. Se realizaron mediciones de FATmax, análisis de composición corporal y entrenamiento de resistencia aeróbica, con modalidades continuas e interválicas. Resultados: el grupo control mostró una tendencia a la disminución de masa grasa después de nueve semanas de entrenamiento. El FATmax fue mayor en los grupos HC y control en condiciones de pre y postintervención. Sin embargo, no se observaron diferencias significativas para FATmax entre los grupos. Conclusiones: el FATmax y la disminución de masa grasa podrían no estar influenciados por el tipo de alimentos previamente consumidos antes del ejercicio


Introduction: The effect of exercise on fat-acid oxidation depends on its intensity and duration. Pre-training ingest of carbohydrates (CH) decreases the rate of fat oxidation. In contrast, the effect of pre-consumption of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) is less known. Objective: the aim of this study was to compare the effect of pre-consumption of two isocaloric snacks in a standardized exercise session during a period of nine weeks and to quantify their impact in the fat oxidation and decrease of fat mass in healthy and physically active adults. Methods: randomized, placebo-control clinical trial study. A total of 19 subjects between 20 and 39 years old were randomly distributed in three groups: CH group, with snack of high content of complex CH; FAT group, with snack of high content of MUFA; and control group, with a minimum fast for three hours before the training session. The measurements were rate of fat oxidation, body composition, and endurance training with continuing and intervallic modalities. Results: the control group showed a tendency to fat mass decrease at the end of the intervention. The fat oxidation of group had a higher tendency than the CH and control group, before and after the intervention. Nevertheless, statistical differences of fat oxidation were not found between the groups. Conclusions: the fat oxidation and the decrease of fat mass may not be influenced by the type of food previously consumed before exercise


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Adiposidade , Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/farmacologia , Exercício , Composição Corporal , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Resistência Física
20.
PLoS One ; 13(3): e0193643, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29518103

RESUMO

Monocytes and macrophages constitute the first line of defense of the immune system against external pathogens. Macrophages have a highly plastic phenotype depending on environmental conditions; the extremes of this phenotypic spectrum are a pro-inflammatory defensive role (M1 phenotype) and an anti-inflammatory tissue-repair one (M2 phenotype). The Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) proteins have important roles in the regulation of several cellular processes, including innate and adaptive immunity. In this study we have analyzed the differential expression of the IAPs, NAIP, cIAP1 and cIAP2, during macrophage differentiation and polarization into M1 or M2. In polarized THP-1 cells and primary human macrophages, NAIP is abundantly expressed in M2 macrophages, while cIAP1 and cIAP2 show an inverse pattern of expression in polarized macrophages, with elevated expression levels of cIAP1 in M2 and cIAP2 preferentially expressed in M1. Interestingly, treatment with the IAP antagonist SMC-LCL161, induced the upregulation of NAIP in M2, the downregulation of cIAP1 in M1 and M2 and an induction of cIAP2 in M1 macrophages.


Assuntos
Proteína 3 com Repetições IAP de Baculovírus/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Proteína Inibidora de Apoptose Neuronal/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose , Western Blotting , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Citometria de Fluxo , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Monócitos/citologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
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