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1.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(4): 525-534, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30622331

RESUMO

Split-hand-split-foot malformation (SHFM) is a rare condition that occurs in 1 in 8500-25,000 newborns and accounts for 15% of all limb reduction defects. SHFM is heterogeneous and can be isolated, associated with other malformations, or syndromic. The mode of inheritance is mostly autosomal dominant with incomplete penetrance, but can be X-linked or autosomal recessive. Seven loci are currently known: SHFM1 at 7q21.2q22.1 (DLX5 gene), SHFM2 at Xq26, SHFM3 at 10q24q25, SHFM4 at 3q27 (TP63 gene), SHFM5 at 2q31 and SHFM6 as a result of variants in WNT10B (chromosome 12q13). Duplications at 17p13.3 are seen in SHFM when isolated or associated with long bone deficiency. Tandem genomic duplications at chromosome 10q24 involving at least the DACTYLIN gene are associated with SHFM3. No point variant in any of the genes residing within the region has been identified so far, but duplication of exon 1 of the BTRC gene may explain the phenotype, with likely complex alterations of gene regulation mechanisms that would impair limb morphogenesis. We report on 32 new index cases identified by array-CGH and/or by qPCR, including some prenatal ones, leading to termination for the most severe. Twenty-two cases were presenting with SHFM and 7 with monodactyly only. Three had an overlapping phenotype. Additional findings were identified in 5 (renal dysplasia, cutis aplasia, hypogonadism and agenesis of corpus callosum with hydrocephalus). We present their clinical and radiological findings and review the literature on this rearrangement that seems to be one of the most frequent cause of SHFM.

2.
J Med Genet ; 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30287593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of 16p13.11 duplications remains controversial while frequently detected in patients with developmental delay (DD), intellectual deficiency (ID) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previously reported patients were not or poorly characterised. The absence of consensual recommendations leads to interpretation discrepancy and makes genetic counselling challenging. This study aims to decipher the genotype-phenotype correlations to improve genetic counselling and patients' medical care. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed data from 16 013 patients referred to 12 genetic centers for DD, ID or ASD, and who had a chromosomal microarray analysis. The referring geneticists of patients for whom a 16p13.11 duplication was detected were asked to complete a questionnaire for detailed clinical and genetic data for the patients and their parents. RESULTS: Clinical features are mainly speech delay and learning disabilities followed by ASD. A significant risk of cardiovascular disease was noted. About 90% of the patients inherited the duplication from a parent. At least one out of four parents carrying the duplication displayed a similar phenotype to the propositus. Genotype-phenotype correlations show no impact of the size of the duplicated segment on the severity of the phenotype. However, NDE1 and miR-484 seem to have an essential role in the neurocognitive phenotype. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that 16p13.11 microduplications are likely pathogenic when detected in the context of DD/ID/ASD and supports an essential role of NDE1 and miR-484 in the neurocognitive phenotype. Moreover, it suggests the need for cardiac evaluation and follow-up and a large study to evaluate the aortic disease risk.

3.
J Med Genet ; 55(6): 359-371, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29618507

RESUMO

The Xq28 duplication involving the MECP2 gene (MECP2 duplication) has been mainly described in male patients with severe developmental delay (DD) associated with spasticity, stereotypic movements and recurrent infections. Nevertheless, only a few series have been published. We aimed to better describe the phenotype of this condition, with a focus on morphological and neurological features. Through a national collaborative study, we report a large French series of 59 affected males with interstitial MECP2 duplication. Most of the patients (93%) shared similar facial features, which evolved with age (midface hypoplasia, narrow and prominent nasal bridge, thick lower lip, large prominent ears), thick hair, livedo of the limbs, tapered fingers, small feet and vasomotor troubles. Early hypotonia and global DD were constant, with 21% of patients unable to walk. In patients able to stand, lower limbs weakness and spasticity led to a singular standing habitus: flexion of the knees, broad-based stance with pseudo-ataxic gait. Scoliosis was frequent (53%), such as divergent strabismus (76%) and hypermetropia (54%), stereotypic movements (89%), without obvious social withdrawal and decreased pain sensitivity (78%). Most of the patients did not develop expressive language, 35% saying few words. Epilepsy was frequent (59%), with a mean onset around 7.4 years of age, and often (62%) drug-resistant. Other medical issues were frequent: constipation (78%), and recurrent infections (89%), mainly lung. We delineate the clinical phenotype of MECP2 duplication syndrome in a large series of 59 males. Pulmonary hypertension appeared as a cause of early death in these patients, advocating its screening early in life.

4.
J Neuromuscul Dis ; 3(4): 487-495, 2016 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27911332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by homozygous inactivation of the SMN1 gene. The SMN2 copy number modulates the severity of SMA. The 0SMN1/1SMN2 genotype, the most severe genotype compatible with life, is expected to be associated with the most severe form of the disease, called type 0 SMA, defined by prenatal onset. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to review clinical features and prenatal manifestations in this rare SMA subtype. METHODS: SMA patients with the 0SMN1/1SMN2 genotype were retrospectively collected using the UMD-SMN1 France database. RESULTS: Data from 16 patients were reviewed. These 16 patients displayed type 0 SMA. At birth, a vast majority had profound hypotonia, severe muscle weakness, severe respiratory distress, and cranial nerves involvement (inability to suck/swallow, facial muscles weakness). They showed characteristics of fetal akinesia deformation sequence and congenital heart defects. Recurrent episodes of bradycardia were observed. Death occurred within the first month. At prenatal stage, decreased fetal movements were frequently reported, mostly only by mothers, in late stages of pregnancy; increased nuchal translucency was reported in about half of the cases; congenital heart defects, abnormal amniotic fluid volume, or joint contractures were occasionally reported. CONCLUSION: Despite a prenatal onset attested by severity at birth and signs of fetal akinesia deformation sequence, prenatal manifestations of type 0 SMA are not specific and not constant. As illustrated by the frequent association with congenital heart defects, type 0 SMA physiopathology is not restricted to motor neuron, highlighting that SMN function is critical for organogenesis.


Assuntos
Artrogripose/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Doenças dos Nervos Cranianos/fisiopatologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/fisiopatologia , Hipotonia Muscular/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/fisiopatologia , Atrofias Musculares Espinais da Infância/fisiopatologia , Artrogripose/etiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/etiologia , Doenças dos Nervos Cranianos/etiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias Congênitas/etiologia , Homozigoto , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Expectativa de Vida , Masculino , Hipotonia Muscular/etiologia , Reflexo Anormal , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/etiologia , Atrofias Musculares Espinais da Infância/complicações , Atrofias Musculares Espinais da Infância/diagnóstico por imagem , Atrofias Musculares Espinais da Infância/genética , Proteína 1 de Sobrevivência do Neurônio Motor/genética , Proteína 2 de Sobrevivência do Neurônio Motor/genética , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal
5.
Eur J Med Genet ; 59(4): 249-56, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26732629

RESUMO

Tubulinopathies are increasingly emerging major causes underlying complex cerebral malformations, particularly in case of microlissencephaly often associated with hypoplastic or absent corticospinal tracts. Fetal akinesia deformation sequence (FADS) refers to a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders with congenital malformations related to impaired fetal movement. We report on an early foetal case with FADS and microlissencephaly due to TUBB2B mutation. Neuropathological examination disclosed virtually absent cortical lamination, foci of neuronal overmigration into the leptomeningeal spaces, corpus callosum agenesis, cerebellar and brainstem hypoplasia and extremely severe hypoplasia of the spinal cord with no anterior and posterior horns and almost no motoneurons. At the cellular level, the p.Cys239Phe TUBB2B mutant leads to tubulin heterodimerization impairment, decreased ability to incorporate into the cytoskeleton, microtubule dynamics alteration, with an accelerated rate of depolymerization. To our knowledge, this is the first case of microlissencephaly to be reported presenting with a so severe and early form of FADS, highlighting the importance of tubulin mutation screening in the context of FADS with microlissencephaly.


Assuntos
Artrogripose/genética , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Adulto , Artrogripose/fisiopatologia , Cerebelo/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Feto , Humanos , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/fisiopatologia , Microcefalia/fisiopatologia , Neurônios Motores/patologia , Mutação , Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia , Tubulina (Proteína)/deficiência
6.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 24(6): 830-7, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26395556

RESUMO

The increasing use of array-CGH in malformation syndromes with intellectual disability could lead to the description of new contiguous gene syndrome by the analysis of the gene content of the microdeletion and reverse phenotyping. Thanks to a national and international call for collaboration by Achropuce and Decipher, we recruited four patients carrying de novo overlapping deletions of chromosome 9q33.3q34.11, including the STXBP1, the LMX1B and the ENG genes. We restrained the selection to these three genes because the effects of their haploinsufficency are well described in the literature and easily recognizable clinically. All deletions were detected by array-CGH and confirmed by FISH. The patients display common clinical features, including intellectual disability with epilepsy, owing to the presence of STXBP1 within the deletion, nail dysplasia and bone malformations, in particular patellar abnormalities attributed to LMX1B deletion, epistaxis and cutaneous-mucous telangiectasias explained by ENG haploinsufficiency and common facial dysmorphism. This systematic analysis of the genes comprised in the deletion allowed us to identify genes whose haploinsufficiency is expected to lead to disease manifestations and complications that require personalized follow-up, in particular for renal, eye, ear, vascular and neurological manifestations.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Endoglina/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteínas com Homeodomínio LIM/genética , Proteínas Munc18/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Feminino , Haploinsuficiência , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Masculino , Fenótipo , Síndrome
7.
Am J Med Genet A ; 170A(1): 116-29, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26420639

RESUMO

Xq28 duplications encompassing MECP2 have been described in male patients with a severe neurodevelopmental disorder associated with hypotonia and spasticity, severe learning disability, stereotyped movements, and recurrent pulmonary infections. We report on standardized brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of 30 affected patients carrying an Xq28 duplication involving MECP2 of various sizes (228 kb to 11.7 Mb). The aim of this study was to seek recurrent malformations and attempt to determine whether variations in imaging features could be explained by differences in the size of the duplications. We showed that 93% of patients had brain MRI abnormalities such as corpus callosum abnormalities (n = 20), reduced volume of the white matter (WM) (n = 12), ventricular dilatation (n = 9), abnormal increased hyperintensities on T2-weighted images involving posterior periventricular WM (n = 6), and vermis hypoplasia (n = 5). The occipitofrontal circumference varied considerably between >+2SD in five patients and <-2SD in four patients. Among the nine patients with dilatation of the lateral ventricles, six had a duplication involving L1CAM. The only patient harboring bilateral posterior subependymal nodular heterotopia also carried an FLNA gene duplication. We could not demonstrate a correlation between periventricular WM hyperintensities/delayed myelination and duplication of the IKBKG gene. We thus conclude that patients with an Xq28 duplication involving MECP2 share some similar but non-specific brain abnormalities. These imaging features, therefore, could not constitute a diagnostic clue. The genotype-phenotype correlation failed to demonstrate a relationship between the presence of nodular heterotopia, ventricular dilatation, WM abnormalities, and the presence of FLNA, L1CAM, or IKBKG, respectively, in the duplicated segment.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Retardo Mental Ligado ao Cromossomo X/genética , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Encefalopatias/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Retardo Mental Ligado ao Cromossomo X/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Med Genet ; 53(3): 152-62, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26543203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SOX11 is a transcription factor proposed to play a role in brain development. The relevance of SOX11 to human developmental disorders was suggested by a recent report of SOX11 mutations in two patients with Coffin-Siris syndrome. Here we further investigate the role of SOX11 variants in neurodevelopmental disorders. METHODS: We used array based comparative genomic hybridisation and trio exome sequencing to identify children with intellectual disability who have deletions or de novo point mutations disrupting SOX11. The pathogenicity of the SOX11 mutations was assessed using an in vitro gene expression reporter system. Loss-of-function experiments were performed in xenopus by knockdown of Sox11 expression. RESULTS: We identified seven individuals with chromosome 2p25 deletions involving SOX11. Trio exome sequencing identified three de novo SOX11 variants, two missense (p.K50N; p.P120H) and one nonsense (p.C29*). The biological consequences of the missense mutations were assessed using an in vitro gene expression system. These individuals had microcephaly, developmental delay and shared dysmorphic features compatible with mild Coffin-Siris syndrome. To further investigate the function of SOX11, we knocked down the orthologous gene in xenopus. Morphants had significant reduction in head size compared with controls. This suggests that SOX11 loss of function can be associated with microcephaly. CONCLUSIONS: We thus propose that SOX11 deletion or mutation can present with a Coffin-Siris phenotype.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Face/anormalidades , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Micrognatismo/genética , Pescoço/anormalidades , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Fatores de Transcrição SOXC/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Anormalidades Múltiplas/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Face/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Microcefalia , Micrognatismo/fisiopatologia , Pescoço/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Xenopus
9.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 24(7): 992-1000, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26626311

RESUMO

Heterozygous COL2A1 variants cause a wide spectrum of skeletal dysplasia termed type II collagenopathies. We assessed the impact of this gene in our French series. A decision tree was applied to select 136 probands (71 Stickler cases, 21 Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita cases, 11 Kniest dysplasia cases, and 34 other dysplasia cases) before molecular diagnosis by Sanger sequencing. We identified 66 different variants among the 71 positive patients. Among those patients, 18 belonged to multiplex families and 53 were sporadic. Most variants (38/44, 86%) were located in the triple helical domain of the collagen chain and glycine substitutions were mainly observed in severe phenotypes, whereas arginine to cysteine changes were more often encountered in moderate phenotypes. This series of skeletal dysplasia is one of the largest reported so far, adding 44 novel variants (15%) to published data. We have confirmed that about half of our Stickler patients (46%) carried a COL2A1 variant, and that the molecular spectrum was different across the phenotypes. To further address the question of genotype-phenotype correlation, we plan to screen our patients for other candidate genes using a targeted next-generation sequencing approach.


Assuntos
Substituição de Aminoácidos , Artrite/genética , Doenças do Colágeno/genética , Colágeno Tipo II/genética , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/genética , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/genética , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Fenótipo , Descolamento Retiniano/genética , Artrite/patologia , Doenças do Colágeno/patologia , Colágeno Tipo II/química , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/patologia , Feminino , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Osteocondrodisplasias/patologia , Linhagem , Domínios Proteicos , Descolamento Retiniano/patologia
10.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 24(6): 844-51, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26508576

RESUMO

Although 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most recurrent human microdeletion syndrome associated with a highly variable phenotype, little is known about the condition's true incidence and the phenotype at diagnosis. We performed a multicenter, retrospective analysis of postnatally diagnosed patients recruited by members of the Association des Cytogénéticiens de Langue Française (the French-Speaking Cytogeneticists Association). Clinical and cytogenetic data on 749 cases diagnosed between 1995 and 2013 were collected by 31 French cytogenetics laboratories. The most frequent reasons for referral of postnatally diagnosed cases were a congenital heart defect (CHD, 48.6%), facial dysmorphism (49.7%) and developmental delay (40.7%). Since 2007 (the year in which array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) was introduced for the routine screening of patients with intellectual disability), almost all cases have been diagnosed using FISH (96.1%). Only 15 cases (all with an atypical phenotype) were diagnosed with aCGH; the deletion size ranged from 745 to 2904 kb. The deletion was inherited in 15.0% of cases and was of maternal origin in 85.5% of the latter. This is the largest yet documented cohort of patients with 22q11.2DS (the most commonly diagnosed microdeletion) from the same population. French cytogenetics laboratories diagnosed at least 108 affected patients (including fetuses) per year from among a national population of ∼66 million. As observed for prenatal diagnoses, CHDs were the most frequently detected malformation in postnatal diagnoses. The most common CHD in postnatal diagnoses was an isolated septal defect.


Assuntos
Síndrome da Deleção 22q11/diagnóstico , Testes Genéticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome da Deleção 22q11/epidemiologia , Síndrome da Deleção 22q11/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Feminino , França , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Herança Paterna
11.
Mol Cytogenet ; 8: 72, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26421060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most microdeletions involving chromosome sub-bands 9q33.3-9q34.11 to this point have been detected by analyses focused on STXBP1, a gene known to cause early infantile epileptic encephalopathy 4 and other seizure phenotypes. Loss-of-function mutations of STXBP1 have also been identified in some patients with intellectual disability without epilepsy. Consequently, STXBP1 is widely assumed to be the gene causing both seizures and intellectual disability in patients with 9q33.3-q34.11 microdeletions. RESULTS: We report five patients with overlapping microdeletions of chromosome 9q33.3-q34.11, four of them previously unreported. Their common clinical features include intellectual disability, psychomotor developmental delay with delayed or absent speech, muscular hypotonia, and strabismus. Microcephaly and short stature are each present in four of the patients. Two of the patients had seizures. De novo deletions range from 1.23 to 4.13 Mb, whereas the smallest deletion of 432 kb in patient 3 was inherited from her mother who is reported to have mild intellectual disability. The smallest region of overlap (SRO) of these deletions in 9q33.3 does not encompass STXBP1, but includes two genes that have not been previously associated with disease, RALGPS1 and GARNL3. Sequencing of the two SRO genes RALGPS1 and GARNL3 in at least 156 unrelated patients with mild to severe idiopathic intellectual disability detected no causative mutations. Gene expression analyses in our patients demonstrated significantly reduced expression levels of GARNL3, RALGPS1 and STXBP1 only in patients with deletions of the corresponding genes. Thus, reduced expression of STXBP1 was ruled out as a cause for seizures in our patient whose deletion did not encompass STXBP1. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that microdeletions of this region on chromosome 9q cause a clinical spectrum including intellectual disability, developmental delay especially concerning speech, microcephaly, short stature, mild dysmorphisms, strabismus, and seizures of incomplete penetrance, and may constitute a new contiguous gene deletion syndrome which cannot completely be explained by deletion of STXBP1.

12.
Nat Genet ; 47(6): 647-53, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25961942

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death worldwide, and hypertension is the major risk factor. Mendelian hypertension elucidates mechanisms of blood pressure regulation. Here we report six missense mutations in PDE3A (encoding phosphodiesterase 3A) in six unrelated families with mendelian hypertension and brachydactyly type E (HTNB). The syndrome features brachydactyly type E (BDE), severe salt-independent but age-dependent hypertension, an increased fibroblast growth rate, neurovascular contact at the rostral-ventrolateral medulla, altered baroreflex blood pressure regulation and death from stroke before age 50 years when untreated. In vitro analyses of mesenchymal stem cell-derived vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and chondrocytes provided insights into molecular pathogenesis. The mutations increased protein kinase A-mediated PDE3A phosphorylation and resulted in gain of function, with increased cAMP-hydrolytic activity and enhanced cell proliferation. Levels of phosphorylated VASP were diminished, and PTHrP levels were dysregulated. We suggest that the identified PDE3A mutations cause the syndrome. VSMC-expressed PDE3A deserves scrutiny as a therapeutic target for the treatment of hypertension.


Assuntos
Braquidactilia/genética , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 3/genética , Hipertensão/congênito , Adolescente , Adulto , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diferenciação Celular , Criança , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Células HeLa , Humanos , Hipertensão/genética , Cinética , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/fisiologia , Linhagem
13.
Eur J Med Genet ; 58(3): 140-7, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25596525

RESUMO

Proximal region of chromosome 15 long arm is rich in duplicons that, define five breakpoints (BP) for 15q rearrangements. 15q11.2 microdeletion between BP1 and BP2 has been previously associated with developmental delay and atypical psychological patterns. This region contains four highly-conserved and non-imprinted genes: NIPA1, NIPA2, CYFIP1, TUBGCP5. Our goal was to investigate the phenotypes associated with this microdeletion in a cohort of 52 patients. This copy number variation (CNV) was prevalent in 0.8% patients presenting with developmental delay, psychological pattern issues and/or multiple congenital malformations. This was studied by array-CGH at six different French Genetic laboratories. We collected data from 52 unrelated patients (including 3 foetuses) after excluding patients with an associated genetic alteration (known CNV, aneuploidy or known monogenic disease). Out of 52 patients, mild or moderate developmental delay was observed in 68.3%, 85.4% had speech impairment and 63.4% had psychological issues such as Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder, Autistic Spectrum Disorder or Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Seizures were noted in 18.7% patients and associated congenital heart disease in 17.3%. Parents were analysed for abnormalities in the region in 65.4% families. Amongst these families, 'de novo' microdeletions were observed in 18.8% and 81.2% were inherited from one of the parents. Incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity were observed amongst the patients. Our results support the hypothesis that 15q11.2 (BP1-BP2) microdeletion is associated with developmental delay, abnormal behaviour, generalized epilepsy and congenital heart disease. The later feature has been rarely described. Incomplete penetrance and variability of expression demands further assessment and studies.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Cardiopatias/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Criança , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/genética , Pré-Escolar , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 15/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Feminino , Cardiopatias/congênito , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Distúrbios da Fala/genética , Adulto Jovem
14.
Eur J Med Genet ; 58(1): 44-6, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25464110

RESUMO

Here we report three patients affected with neurodevelopmental disorders and harbouring 21q21 deletions involving NCAM2 gene. NCAM (Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule) proteins are involved in axonal migration, synaptic formation and plasticity. Poor axonal growth and fasciculation is observed in animal models deficient for NCAM2. Moreover, this gene has been proposed as a candidate for autism, based on genome-wide association studies. In this report, we provide a comprehensive molecular and phenotypical characterisation of three deletion cases giving additional clues for the involvement of NCAM2 in neurodevelopment.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 21/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Molécula L1 de Adesão de Célula Nervosa/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Am J Med Genet A ; 167A(1): 185-9, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25402011

RESUMO

Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO)-like syndrome is also known as brachydactyly-mental retardation syndrome (BDMR; OMIM 60040). This disorder includes intellectual disability in all patients, skeletal abnormalities, including brachydactyly E (BDE) in approximately half, obesity, and facial dysmorphism. Patients with 2q37 microdeletion or HDAC4 mutation are defined as having an AHO-like phenotype with normal stimulatory G (Gs) function. HDAC4 is involved in neurological, cardiac, and skeletal function. This paper reports the first familial case of 2q37.3 interstitial deletion affecting two genes, HDAC4 and TWIST2. Patients presented with BDE and short stature without intellectual disability, showing that haploinsufficiency of the HDAC4 critical region may lead to a spectrum of phenotypes, ranging from isolated brachydactyly type E to BDMR.


Assuntos
Estatura , Osso e Ossos/anormalidades , Braquidactilia/genética , Padrões de Herança/genética , Braquidactilia/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 2/genética , Família , Feminino , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Linhagem , Radiografia
16.
Neurology ; 82(22): 1999-2002, 2014 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24808016

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We screened a large series of individuals with congenital mirror movements (CMM) for mutations in the 2 identified causative genes, DCC and RAD51. METHODS: We studied 6 familial and 20 simplex CMM cases. Each patient had a standardized neurologic assessment. Analysis of DCC and RAD51 coding regions included Sanger sequencing and a quantitative method allowing detection of micro rearrangements. We then compared the frequency of rare variants predicted to be pathogenic by either the PolyPhen-2 or the SIFT algorithm in our population and in the 4,300 controls of European origin on the Exome Variant Server. RESULTS: We found 3 novel truncating mutations of DCC that segregate with CMM in 4 of the 6 families. Among the 20 simplex cases, we found one exonic deletion of DCC, one DCC mutation leading to a frameshift, 5 missense variants in DCC, and 2 missense variants in RAD51. All 7 missense variants were predicted to be pathogenic by one or both algorithms. Statistical analysis showed that the frequency of variants predicted to be deleterious was significantly different between patients and controls (p < 0.001 for both RAD51 and DCC). CONCLUSION: Mutations and variants in DCC and RAD51 are strongly associated with CMM, but additional genes causing CMM remain to be discovered.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Transtornos dos Movimentos/genética , Mutação/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Códon sem Sentido , Receptor DCC , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Humanos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Linhagem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
17.
Am J Med Genet A ; 161A(10): 2582-7, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23929658

RESUMO

West syndrome is a well-recognized form of epilepsy, defined by a triad of infantile spasms, hypsarrhythmia and developmental arrest. West syndrome is heterogenous, caused by mutations of genes ARX, STXBP1, KCNT1 among others; 16p13.11 and 17q21.31 microdeletions are less frequent, usually associated with intellectual disability and facial dysmorphism. So-called "idiopathic" West syndrome is of better prognostic, without prior intellectual deficiency and usually responsive to anti-epileptic treatment. We report on a boy falling within the scope of idiopathic West syndrome, with no dysmorphic features and normal development before the beginning of West syndrome, with a good resolution after treatment, bearing a de novo 15q13.3 microdeletion. Six genes are located in the deleted region, including CHRNA7, which encodes a subunit of a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, and is frequently associated with epilepsy. Exploration of the 15q13.3 region should be proposed in idiopathic West syndrome.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cromossômicos/complicações , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Convulsões/complicações , Espasmos Infantis/complicações , Adulto , Deleção Cromossômica , Transtornos Cromossômicos/diagnóstico , Cromossomos Humanos Par 15 , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Eletroencefalografia , Facies , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Masculino , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Espasmos Infantis/diagnóstico , Receptor Nicotínico de Acetilcolina alfa7/genética
18.
Am J Med Genet A ; 161A(5): 1110-6, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23610052

RESUMO

We present three patients with overlapping interstitial deletions of 19p13.3 identified by high resolution SNP microarray analysis. All three had a similar phenotype characterized by intellectual disability or developmental delay, structural heart abnormalities, large head relative to height and weight or macrocephaly, and minor facial anomalies. Deletion sizes ranged from 792 Kb to 1.0 Mb and included a common region arr [hg19] 19p13.3 (3,814,392-4,136,989), containing eight genes: ZFR2, ATCAY, NMRK2, DAPK3, EEF2, PIAS4, ZBTB7A, MAP2K2, and two non-coding RNA's MIR637 and SNORDU37. The patient phenotypes were compared with three previous single patient reports with similar interstitial 19p13.3 deletions and six additional patients from the DECIPHER and ISCA databases to determine if a common haploinsufficient phenotype for the region can be established.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 19/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Deleção de Sequência/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Masculino , Análise em Microsséries , Adulto Jovem
19.
Am J Hum Genet ; 92(4): 621-6, 2013 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23541344

RESUMO

Scalp-ear-nipple (SEN) syndrome is a rare, autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by cutis aplasia of the scalp; minor anomalies of the external ears, digits, and nails; and malformations of the breast. We used linkage analysis and exome sequencing of a multiplex family affected by SEN syndrome to identify potassium-channel tetramerization-domain-containing 1 (KCTD1) mutations that cause SEN syndrome. Evaluation of a total of ten families affected by SEN syndrome revealed KCTD1 missense mutations in each family tested. All of the mutations occurred in a KCTD1 region encoding a highly conserved bric-a-brac, tram track, and broad complex (BTB) domain that is required for transcriptional repressor activity. KCTD1 inhibits the transactivation of the transcription factor AP-2α (TFAP2A) via its BTB domain, and mutations in TFAP2A cause cutis aplasia in individuals with branchiooculofacial syndrome (BOFS), suggesting a potential overlap in the pathogenesis of SEN syndrome and BOFS. The identification of KCTD1 mutations in SEN syndrome reveals a role for this BTB-domain-containing transcriptional repressor during ectodermal development.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/etiologia , Síndrome Brânquio-Otorrenal/etiologia , Displasia Ectodérmica/etiologia , Exoma/genética , Hipospadia/etiologia , Hipotonia Muscular/etiologia , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Síndrome Brânquio-Otorrenal/patologia , Orelha Externa/anormalidades , Orelha Externa/patologia , Displasia Ectodérmica/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipospadia/patologia , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Hipotonia Muscular/patologia , Mamilos/anormalidades , Mamilos/patologia , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Couro Cabeludo/anormalidades , Couro Cabeludo/patologia , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos
20.
Am J Hematol ; 88(4): 306-11, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23460398

RESUMO

Germline heterozygous alterations of the tumor-suppressor gene neurofibromatosis-1 (NF1) lead to neurofibromatosis type 1, a genetic disorder characterized by a higher risk to develop juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and/or acute myeloid leukemia (AML). More recently, somatic 17q11 deletions encompassing NF1 have been described in many adult myeloid malignancies. In this context, we aimed to define NF1 involvement in AML. We screened a total of 488 previously untreated de novo AML patients for the NF1 deletion using either array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) or real-time quantitative PCR/fluorescence in situ hybridization approaches. We also applied massively parallel sequencing for in depth mutation analysis of NF1 in 20 patients including five NF1-deleted patients. We defined a small ∼0.3 Mb minimal deleted region involving NF1 by aCGH and an overall frequency of NF1 deletion of 3.5% (17/485). NF1 deletion is significantly associated with unfavorable cytogenetics and with monosomal karyotype notably. We discovered six NF1 variants of unknown significance in 7/20 patients of which only one out of four disappeared in corresponding complete remission sample. In addition, only one out of five NF1-deleted patients has an acquired coding mutation in the remaining allele. In conclusion, direct NF1 inactivation is infrequent in de novo AML and may be a secondary event probably involved in leukemic progression.


Assuntos
Deleção de Genes , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Neurofibromatose 1/genética , Neurofibromina 1/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Mutação , Neurofibromina 1/deficiência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
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