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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(43): 21715-21726, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591222

RESUMO

Meningiomas account for one-third of all primary brain tumors. Although typically benign, about 20% of meningiomas are aggressive, and despite the rigor of the current histopathological classification system there remains considerable uncertainty in predicting tumor behavior. Here, we analyzed 160 tumors from all 3 World Health Organization (WHO) grades (I through III) using clinical, gene expression, and sequencing data. Unsupervised clustering analysis identified 3 molecular types (A, B, and C) that reliably predicted recurrence. These groups did not directly correlate with the WHO grading system, which classifies more than half of the tumors in the most aggressive molecular type as benign. Transcriptional and biochemical analyses revealed that aggressive meningiomas involve loss of the repressor function of the DREAM complex, which results in cell-cycle activation; only tumors in this category tend to recur after full resection. These findings should improve our ability to predict recurrence and develop targeted treatments for these clinically challenging tumors.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624068

RESUMO

Ultra-hypermutation (>100 mutations/Mb) is rare in childhood cancer genomes and has been primarily reported in patients with constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) caused by biallelic germline mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutations. We report a 5-yr-old child with classic clinical features of CMMRD and an ultra-hypermutated medulloblastoma with retained MMR protein expression and absence of germline MMR mutations. Mutational signature analysis of tumor panel sequencing data revealed a canonical DNA polymerase-deficiency-associated signature, prompting further genetic testing that uncovered a germline POLE p.A456P missense variant, which has previously been reported as a recurrent somatic driver mutation in cancers. This represents the earliest known onset of malignancy in a patient with a germline mutation in the POLE proofreading polymerase. The clinical features in this child, virtually indistinguishable from those of CMMRD, suggest that polymerase-proofreading deficiency should be considered in the differential diagnosis of CMMRD patients with retained MMR function.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645350

RESUMO

We describe the Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen) cancer-related curation activities and the importance of curation to the evolving state of variant interpretation in a clinical context for both pediatric and adult cancer patients. We highlight specific examples from the CDH1 and PTEN Variant Curation Expert Panels (VCEPs) of the FDA-recognized process by which ClinGen VCEPs specify the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics/Association of Molecular Pathology evidence code to develop variant classifications. We also review gene curations performed within the Hereditary Cancer Clinical Domain. We describe the parallel efforts for curation of somatic cancer variants from the Somatic Cancer Working Group. The ClinGen Germline/Somatic Committee is working to improve incorporation of both hereditary and somatic variant data to aid clinical interpretation. These ClinGen efforts rely on broad data sharing and detailed phenotypic and molecular information from published case studies to provide expert-curated variant interpretation to the cancer community.

4.
Blood Adv ; 3(20): 2962-2979, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648317

RESUMO

Standardized variant curation is essential for clinical care recommendations for patients with inherited disorders. Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen) variant curation expert panels are developing disease-associated gene specifications using the 2015 American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) and Association for Molecular Pathology (AMP) guidelines to reduce curation discrepancies. The ClinGen Myeloid Malignancy Variant Curation Expert Panel (MM-VCEP) was created collaboratively between the American Society of Hematology and ClinGen to perform gene- and disease-specific modifications for inherited myeloid malignancies. The MM-VCEP began optimizing ACMG/AMP rules for RUNX1 because many germline variants have been described in patients with familial platelet disorder with a predisposition to acute myeloid leukemia, characterized by thrombocytopenia, platelet functional/ultrastructural defects, and a predisposition to hematologic malignancies. The 28 ACMG/AMP codes were tailored for RUNX1 variants by modifying gene/disease specifications, incorporating strength adjustments of existing rules, or both. Key specifications included calculation of minor allele frequency thresholds, formulating a semi-quantitative approach to counting multiple independent variant occurrences, identifying functional domains and mutational hotspots, establishing functional assay thresholds, and characterizing phenotype-specific guidelines. Preliminary rules were tested by using a pilot set of 52 variants; among these, 50 were previously classified as benign/likely benign, pathogenic/likely pathogenic, variant of unknown significance (VUS), or conflicting interpretations (CONF) in ClinVar. The application of RUNX1-specific criteria resulted in a reduction in CONF and VUS variants by 33%, emphasizing the benefit of gene-specific criteria and sharing internal laboratory data.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 625-630, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303264

RESUMO

Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS) is an autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by poikiloderma, sparse hair, short stature, and skeletal anomalies. Type 2 RTS, which is defined by the presence of bi-allelic mutations in RECQL4, is characterized by increased cancer susceptibility and skeletal anomalies, whereas the genetic basis of RTS type 1, which is associated with juvenile cataracts, is unknown. We studied ten individuals, from seven families, who had RTS type 1 and identified a deep intronic splicing mutation of the ANAPC1 gene, a component of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), in all affected individuals, either in the homozygous state or in trans with another mutation. Fibroblast studies showed that the intronic mutation causes the activation of a 95 bp pseudoexon, leading to mRNAs with premature termination codons and nonsense-mediated decay, decreased ANAPC1 protein levels, and prolongation of interphase. Interestingly, mice that were heterozygous for a knockout mutation have an increased incidence of cataracts. Our results demonstrate that deficiency in the APC/C is a cause of RTS type 1 and suggest a possible link between the APC/C and RECQL4 helicase because both proteins are involved in DNA repair and replication.

6.
JAMA Oncol ; 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219523

RESUMO

Importance: Birth defects affect approximately 1 in 33 children. Some birth defects are known to be strongly associated with childhood cancer (eg, trisomy 21 and acute leukemia). However, comprehensive evaluations of childhood cancer risk in those with birth defects have been limited in previous studies by insufficient sample sizes. Objectives: To identify specific birth defect-childhood cancer (BD-CC) associations and characterize cancer risk in children by increasing number of nonchromosomal birth defects. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multistate, population-based registry linkage study pooled statewide data on births, birth defects, and cancer from Texas, Arkansas, Michigan, and North Carolina on 10 181 074 children born from January 1, 1992, to December 31, 2013. Children were followed up to 18 years of age for a diagnosis of cancer. Data were retrieved between September 26, 2016, and September 21, 2017, and data analysis was performed from September 2, 2017, to March 21, 2019. Exposures: Birth defects diagnoses (chromosomal anomalies and nonchromosomal birth defects) recorded by statewide, population-based birth defects registries. Main Outcomes and Measures: Cancer diagnosis before age 18 years, as recorded in state cancer registries. Cox regression models were used to generate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs to evaluate BD-CC associations and the association between number of nonchromosomal defects and cancer risk. Results: Compared with children without any birth defects (n = 10 181 074), children with chromosomal anomalies (n = 539 567) were 11.6 (95% CI, 10.4-12.9) times more likely to be diagnosed with cancer, whereas children with nonchromosomal birth defects (n = 2123) were 2.5 (95% CI, 2.4-2.6) times more likely to be diagnosed with cancer before 18 years of age. An increasing number of nonchromosomal birth defects was associated with a corresponding increase in the risk of cancer. Children with 4 or more major birth defects were 5.9 (95% CI, 5.4-6.5) times more likely to be diagnosed with cancer compared with those without a birth defect. In the analysis of 72 specific BD-CC patterns, 40 HRs were statistically significant (adjusted P < .05) after accounting for multiple comparisons. Cancers most frequently associated with nonchromosomal defects were hepatoblastoma and neuroblastoma. Conclusions and Relevance: Several significant and novel associations were observed between specific birth defects and cancers. Among children with nonchromosomal birth defects, the number of major birth defects diagnosed was significantly and directly associated with cancer risk. These findings could inform clinical treatment for children with birth defects and may elucidate mechanisms that lead to these complex outcomes.

7.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186522

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We describe parental perceptions of and experiences with genomic sequencing (GS) in the care of seriously ill children. Understanding parents' perspectives is vital for clinicians caring for children, given the uptake of genomic technologies into clinical practice. METHODS: Longitudinal, semistructured interviews were conducted with parents of pediatric cancer patients who underwent exome sequencing (ES) as a part of the BASIC3 study. Interviews were conducted at baseline, one to eight months after results disclosure, and approximately one year after disclosure. Using thematic qualitative analysis, parent interviews were coded with both inductive and deductive approaches. RESULTS: Before receiving genomic information, parents indicated that they saw ES as something responsible parents would agree to if their child had cancer. Some parents talked about the possibility of sequencing affecting feelings of culpability for their child's cancer, worrying that they passed on a cancer-causing gene or made parenting decisions that caused the disease. However, after receiving their child's ES results many reported feeling relieved of guilt and worry, and felt they had fulfilled parental duties by agreeing to ES for their child. CONCLUSION: These results reveal a layer of meaning that parents associate with GS that may inform clinicians' approach to care.

8.
Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet ; 20: 241-263, 2019 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082280

RESUMO

Developments over the past five years have significantly advanced our ability to use genome-scale analyses-including high-density genotyping, transcriptome sequencing, exome sequencing, and genome sequencing-to identify the genetic basis of childhood cancer. This article reviews several key results from an expanding number of genomic studies of pediatric cancer: (a) Histopathologic subtypes of cancers can be associated with a high incidence of germline predisposition, (b) neurodevelopmental disorders or highly penetrant cancer predisposition syndromes can result from specific patterns of variation in genes encoding the SMARC family of chromatin remodelers, (c) genome-wide association studies with relatively small pediatric cancer cohorts have successfully identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms with large effect sizes and provided insight into population differences in cancer risk, and (d) multiple exome or genome analyses of unselected childhood cancer cohorts have yielded a 7-10% incidence of pathogenic variants in cancer predisposition genes. This work supports the increasing use of genomic sequencing in the care of pediatric cancer patients and at-risk family members.

9.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(8): e27779, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050187

RESUMO

Telomere biology disorders predispose affected individuals to specific malignancies and organ fibrosis in tissues sensitive to telomere length (TL) shortening, especially after exposure to chemotherapy and radiation. We report a case of a 17-year-old female with Hodgkin lymphoma who developed severe chemotherapy-related toxicities. She was subsequently found to have peripheral blood lymphocyte TL < 1st percentile and a pathogenic variant in TERT inherited from her father. This case demonstrates that early genetic evaluation of patients who experience greater than expected therapy-related toxicities may be warranted to help guide further decisions regarding therapy, imaging modalities, and lifelong cancer prevention surveillance.

10.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(7): e27745, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatric hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a rare liver tumor in children with a poor prognosis. Comprehensive molecular profiling to understand the underlying genomic drivers of this tumor has not been completed, and it is unclear whether nonfibrolamellar pediatric HCC is more genomically similar to hepatoblastoma or adult HCC. PROCEDURE: To characterize the molecular landscape of these tumors, we analyzed a cohort of 15 pediatric non-FL-HCCs by sequencing a panel of cancer-associated genes and conducting copy-number and gene-expression analyses. RESULTS: We detected multiple types of molecular alterations in Wnt signaling genes, including APC inversion, AMER1 somatic mutation, and most commonly CTNNB1 intragenic deletions. There were multiple alterations to the telomerase pathway via TERT activation or ATRX mutation. Therapeutically targetable activating mutations in MAPK/ERK signaling pathway genes, including MAPK1 and BRAF, were detected in 20% of tumors. TP53 mutations occurred far less frequently in our pediatric HCC cohort than reported in adult cohorts. Tumors arising in children with underlying liver disease were found to be molecularly distinct from the remainder and lacking detectable oncogenic drivers, as compared with those arising in patients without a history of underlying liver disease; the majority of both types were positive for glypican-3, another potential therapeutic target. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed pediatric HCC to be a molecularly heterogeneous group of tumors. Those non-FL-HCC tumors arising in the absence of underlying liver disease harbor genetic alterations affecting multiple cancer pathways, most notably Wnt signaling, and share some characteristics with adult HCC.

12.
Patient Educ Couns ; 102(5): 895-901, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30581014

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe how linguistic tools used by interpreters during return of genomic sequencing results may have impacted communication with Spanish-speaking families, and to discuss the implications for the role of medical interpreters. METHODS: Using discourse analysis, we identified and categorized the various ways hospital-based interpreters adapted clinicians' language in 37 audio-recorded sessions in which Spanish-speaking parents participating in a clinical trial received their child's genomic sequencing results from English-speaking clinicians. RESULTS: We found that interpreters adapted clinicians' statements using five empathic linguistic tools: contextualization, encouragement, checking comprehension, endearment, and softening. Interpreters used an average of four linguistic tools per session, with contextualization and encouragement being the most frequently used. CONCLUSIONS: Interpreters used empathic linguistic tools to alter clinicians' statements when communicating genomic information to Spanish-speaking families. Our findings demonstrate the critical role of interpreters as cultural mediators and facilitators of understanding for Spanish-speaking families. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: This study expands upon the definition of clinical empathy in interpreter-mediated sessions. Our findings suggest that revisions of standards of medical interpretation practice may be warranted regarding interpreters' ability to adapt clinicians' language in a culturally sensitive manner during interpretation.

13.
Genet Med ; 2018 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30523343

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Gene-disease associations implicated in hereditary colorectal cancer and polyposis susceptibility were evaluated using the ClinGen Clinical Validity framework. METHODS: Forty-two gene-disease pairs were assessed for strength of evidence supporting an association with hereditary colorectal cancer and/or polyposis. Genetic and experimental evidence supporting each gene-disease relationship was curated independently by two trained biocurators. Evidence was reviewed with experts and assigned a final clinical validity classification. RESULTS: Of all gene-disease pairs evaluated, 14/42 (33.3%) were Definitive, 1/42 (2.4%) were Strong, 6/42 (14.3%) were Moderate, 18/42 (42.9%) were Limited, and 3/42 (7.1%) were either No Reported Evidence, Disputed, or Refuted. Of panels in the National Institutes of Health Genetic Testing Registry, 4/26 (~15.4%) contain genes with Limited clinical evidence. CONCLUSION: Clinicians and laboratory diagnosticians should note that <60% of the genes on clinically available panels have Strong or Definitive evidence of association with hereditary colon cancer or polyposis, and >40% have only Moderate, Limited, Disputed, or Refuted evidence. Continuing to expand the structured assessment of the clinical relevance of genes listed on hereditary cancer testing panels will help clinicians and diagnostic laboratories focus the communication of genetic testing results on clinically significant genes.

14.
Genet Med ; 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30504931

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Several genes on hereditary breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility test panels have not been systematically examined for strength of association with disease. We employed the Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen) clinical validity framework to assess the strength of evidence between selected genes and breast or ovarian cancer. METHODS: Thirty-one genes offered on cancer panel testing were selected for evaluation. The strength of gene-disease relationship was systematically evaluated and a clinical validity classification of either Definitive, Strong, Moderate, Limited, Refuted, Disputed, or No Reported Evidence was assigned. RESULTS: Definitive clinical validity classifications were made for 10/31 and 10/32 gene-disease pairs for breast and ovarian cancer respectively. Two genes had a Moderate classification whereas, 6/31 and 6/32 genes had Limited classifications for breast and ovarian cancer respectively. Contradictory evidence resulted in Disputed or Refuted assertions for 9/31 genes for breast and 4/32 genes for ovarian cancer. No Reported Evidence of disease association was asserted for 5/31 genes for breast and 11/32 for ovarian cancer. CONCLUSION: Evaluation of gene-disease association using the ClinGen clinical validity framework revealed a wide range of classifications. This information should aid laboratories in tailoring appropriate gene panels and assist health-care providers in interpreting results from panel testing.

15.
PLoS Genet ; 14(12): e1007752, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586411

RESUMO

The BRCA Challenge is a long-term data-sharing project initiated within the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health (GA4GH) to aggregate BRCA1 and BRCA2 data to support highly collaborative research activities. Its goal is to generate an informed and current understanding of the impact of genetic variation on cancer risk across the iconic cancer predisposition genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2. Initially, reported variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 available from public databases were integrated into a single, newly created site, www.brcaexchange.org. The purpose of the BRCA Exchange is to provide the community with a reliable and easily accessible record of variants interpreted for a high-penetrance phenotype. More than 20,000 variants have been aggregated, three times the number found in the next-largest public database at the project's outset, of which approximately 7,250 have expert classifications. The data set is based on shared information from existing clinical databases-Breast Cancer Information Core (BIC), ClinVar, and the Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD)-as well as population databases, all linked to a single point of access. The BRCA Challenge has brought together the existing international Evidence-based Network for the Interpretation of Germline Mutant Alleles (ENIGMA) consortium expert panel, along with expert clinicians, diagnosticians, researchers, and database providers, all with a common goal of advancing our understanding of BRCA1 and BRCA2 variation. Ongoing work includes direct contact with national centers with access to BRCA1 and BRCA2 diagnostic data to encourage data sharing, development of methods suitable for extraction of genetic variation at the level of individual laboratory reports, and engagement with participant communities to enable a more comprehensive understanding of the clinical significance of genetic variation in BRCA1 and BRCA2.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Variação Genética , Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas/ética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação/ética , Disseminação de Informação/legislação & jurisprudência , Masculino , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Penetrância , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco
17.
Patient Educ Couns ; 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30482469

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine communication patterns and behaviors during disclosure of exome sequencing (ES) results to parents of pediatric cancer patients, and describe common themes in parental communication. METHODS: Using mixed methods, we analyzed transcripts of sessions where parents of pediatric cancer patients received ES results from an oncologist and genetic counselor. Seventy-six transcripts were analyzed for frequency of clinician information-giving, partnering-supportive talk, and active parent participation. A subset of 40 transcripts were analyzed using thematic content analysis. RESULTS: Disclosures consisted mostly of clinician talk (84% of total talk), which was focused on providing information (62% of clinicians' utterances) with occasional partnering-supportive talk (7% of clinicians' utterances). Most parents assumed a passive, listening role (16% of total talk). Themes in parental communication included expressing relief and the significance of an answer, concern about sharing results and responsibility for inheritance, and seeking clarification of health implications of results. CONCLUSION: Our finding of low levels of active parent participation during ES disclosures highlights the need to improve patient/parent engagement and understanding in a genetic setting. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Clinician communication strategies that could encourage parent participation and understanding include checking for parent understanding, partnership-building, and tailoring ES discussions to address parent concerns and preferences.

18.
Hum Mutat ; 39(11): 1542-1552, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30311369

RESUMO

In its landmark paper about Standards and Guidelines for the Interpretation of Sequence Variants, the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG), and Association for Molecular Pathology (AMP) did not address how to use tumor data when assessing the pathogenicity of germline variants. The Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen) established a multidisciplinary working group, the Germline/Somatic Variant Subcommittee (GSVS) with this focus. The GSVS implemented a survey to determine current practices of integrating somatic data when classifying germline variants in cancer predisposition genes. The GSVS then reviewed and analyzed available resources of relevant somatic data, and performed integrative germline variant curation exercises. The committee determined that somatic hotspots could be systematically integrated into moderate evidence of pathogenicity (PM1). Tumor RNA sequencing data showing altered splicing may be considered as strong evidence in support of germline pathogenicity (PVS1) and tumor phenotypic features such as mutational signatures be considered supporting evidence of pathogenicity (PP4). However, at present, somatic data such as focal loss of heterozygosity and mutations occurring on the alternative allele are not recommended to be systematically integrated, instead, incorporation of this type of data should take place under the advisement of multidisciplinary cancer center tumor-normal sequencing boards.

19.
Hum Mutat ; 39(11): 1713-1720, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30311373

RESUMO

The Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen) Ancestry and Diversity Working Group highlights the need to develop guidance on race, ethnicity, and ancestry (REA) data collection and use in clinical genomics. We present quantitative and qualitative evidence to characterize: (1) acquisition of REA data via clinical laboratory requisition forms, and (2) information disparity across populations in the Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD) at clinically relevant sites ascertained from annotations in ClinVar. Our requisition form analysis showed substantial heterogeneity in clinical laboratory ascertainment of REA, as well as marked incongruity among terms used to define REA categories. There was also striking disparity across REA populations in the amount of information available about clinically relevant variants in gnomAD. European ancestral populations constituted the majority of observations (55.8%), allele counts (59.7%), and private alleles (56.1%) in gnomAD at 550 loci with "pathogenic" and "likely pathogenic" expert-reviewed variants in ClinVar. Our findings highlight the importance of implementing and supporting programs to increase diversity in genome sequencing and clinical genomics, as well as measuring uncertainty around population-level datasets that are used in variant interpretation. Finally, we suggest the need for a standardized REA data collection framework to be developed through partnerships and collaborations and adopted across clinical genomics.

20.
Hum Mutat ; 39(11): 1690-1701, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30311374

RESUMO

Effective exchange of information about genetic variants is currently hampered by the lack of readily available globally unique variant identifiers that would enable aggregation of information from different sources. The ClinGen Allele Registry addresses this problem by providing (1) globally unique "canonical" variant identifiers (CAids) on demand, either individually or in large batches; (2) access to variant-identifying information in a searchable Registry; (3) links to allele-related records in many commonly used databases; and (4) services for adding links to information about registered variants in external sources. A core element of the Registry is a canonicalization service, implemented using in-memory sequence alignment-based index, which groups variant identifiers denoting the same nucleotide variant and assigns unique and dereferenceable CAids. More than 650 million distinct variants are currently registered, including those from gnomAD, ExAC, dbSNP, and ClinVar, including a small number of variants registered by Registry users. The Registry is accessible both via a web interface and programmatically via well-documented Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) Representational State Transfer Application Programming Interface (REST-APIs). For programmatic interoperability, the Registry content is accessible in the JavaScript Object Notation for Linked Data (JSON-LD) format. We present several use cases and demonstrate how the linked information may provide raw material for reasoning about variant's pathogenicity.

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