Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 16 de 16
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Tipo de estudo
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393945

RESUMO

X-ray absorption spectroscopy is a common method for probing the local structure of nanocatalysts. One portion of the X-ray absorption spectrum, the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) is a useful alternative to the commonly used extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) for probing three-dimensional geometry around each type of atomic species, especially in those cases when the EXAFS data quality is limited by harsh reaction conditions and low metal loading. A methodology for quantitative determination of bimetallic architectures from their XANES spectra is currently lacking. We have developed a method, based on the artificial neural network, trained on ab initio site-specific XANES calculations, that enables accurate and rapid reconstruction of the structural descriptors (partial coordination numbers) from the experimental XANES data. We demonstrate the utility of this method on the example of a series of PdAu bimetallic nanoalloys. By validating the neural network-yielded metal-metal coordination numbers based on the XANES analysis by previous EXAFS characterization, we obtained new results for in situ restructuring of dilute (2.6 at% Pd in Au) PdAu nanoparticles, driven by their gas and temperature treatments.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994872

RESUMO

The threat of chemical warfare agents (CWAs), assured by their ease of synthesis and effectiveness as a terrorizing weapon, will persist long after the once-tremendous stockpiles in the U.S. and elsewhere are finally destroyed. As such, soldier and civilian protection, battlefield decontamination, and environmental remediation from CWAs remain top national security priorities. New chemical approaches for the fast and complete destruction of CWAs have been an active field of research for many decades, and new technologies have generated immense interest. In particular, our research team and others have shown metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and polyoxometalates (POMs) to be active for sequestering CWAs and even catalyzing the rapid hydrolysis of agents. In this Forum Article, we highlight recent advancements made in the understanding and evaluation of POMs and Zr-based MOFs as CWA decontamination materials. Specifically, our aim is to bridge the gap between controlled, solution-phase laboratory studies and real-world or battlefield-like conditions by examining agent-material interactions at the gas-solid interface utilizing a multimodal experimental and computational approach. Herein, we report our progress in addressing the following research goals: (1) elucidating molecular-level mechanisms of the adsorption, diffusion, and reaction of CWA and CWA simulants within a series of Zr-based MOFs, such as UiO-66, MOF-808, and NU-1000, and POMs, including Cs8Nb6O19 and (Et2NH2)8[(α-PW11O39Zr(µ-OH)(H2O))2]·7H2O, (2) probing the effects that common ambient gases, such as CO2, SO2, and NO2, have on the efficacy of the MOF and POM materials for CWA destruction, and (3) using CWA simulant results to develop hypotheses for live agent chemistry. Key hypotheses are then tested with targeted live agent studies. Overall, our collaborative effort has provided insight into the fundamental aspects of agent-material interactions and revealed strategies for new catalyst development.

3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(13): 14721-14738, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815428

RESUMO

This Review summarizes the recent progress made in the field of chemical threat reduction by utilizing new in situ analytical techniques and combinations thereof to study multifunctional materials designed for capture and decomposition of nerve gases and their simulants. The emphasis is on the use of in situ experiments that simulate realistic operating conditions (solid-gas interface, ambient pressures and temperatures, time-resolved measurements) and advanced synchrotron methods, such as in situ X-ray absorption and scattering methods, a combination thereof with other complementary measurements (e.g., XPS, Raman, DRIFTS, NMR), and theoretical modeling. The examples presented in this Review range from studies of the adsorption and decomposition of nerve agents and their simulants on Zr-based metal organic frameworks to Nb and Zr-based polyoxometalates and metal (hydro)oxide materials. The approaches employed in these studies ultimately demonstrate how advanced synchrotron-based in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy and diffraction can be exploited to develop an atomic- level understanding of interfacial binding and reaction of chemical warfare agents, which impacts the development of novel filtration media and other protective materials.

4.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(9): 2295-2299, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002759

RESUMO

Development of technologies for protection against chemical warfare agents (CWAs) is critically important. Recently, polyoxometalates have attracted attention as potential catalysts for nerve-agent decomposition. Improvement of their effectiveness in real operating conditions requires an atomic-level understanding of CWA decomposition at the gas-solid interface. We investigated decomposition of the nerve agent Sarin and its simulant, dimethyl chlorophosphate (DMCP), by zirconium polytungstate. Using a multimodal approach, we showed that upon DMCP and Sarin exposure the dimeric tungstate undergoes monomerization, making coordinatively unsaturated Zr(IV) centers available, which activate nucleophilic hydrolysis. Further, DMCP is shown to be a good model system of reduced toxicity for studies of CWA deactivation at the gas-solid interface.

5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(13): 10622-10626, 2018 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29547256

RESUMO

Used nuclear fuel reprocessing represents a unique challenge when dealing with radionuclides such as isotopes of 85Kr and 129I2 due to their volatility and long half-life. Efficient capture of 129I2 ( t1/2 = 15.7 × 106 years) from the nuclear waste stream can help reduce the risk of releasing I2 radionuclide into the environment and/or potential incorporation into the human thyroid. Metal organic frameworks have the reported potential to be I2 adsorbents but the effect of water vapor, generally present in the reprocessing off-gas stream, is rarely taken into account. Moisture-stable porous metal organic frameworks that can selectively adsorb I2 in the presence of water vapor are thus of great interest. Herein, we report on the I2 adsorption capacity of two microporous metal organic frameworks at both dry and humid conditions. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy reveal distinct sorption sites of molecular I2 within the pores in proximity to the phenyl- and phenol-based linkers stabilized by the I···π and I···O interactions, which allow selective uptake of iodine.

6.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 9(5): 1092-1096, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29446955

RESUMO

Modeling fluid flow dynamics in metal organic frameworks (MOFs) is a required step toward understanding mechanisms of their activity as novel catalysts, sensors, and filtration materials. We adapted a lattice Boltzmann model, previously used for studying flow dynamics in meso- and microporous media, to the nanoscale dimensions of the MOF pores. Using this model, rapid screening of permeability of a large number of MOF structures, in different crystallographic directions, is possible. The method was illustrated here on the example of an anisotropic MOF, for which we calculated permeability values in different flow directions. This method can be generalized to a large class of MOFs and used to design MOFs with the desired gas flow permeabilities.

7.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 56(35): 10335-10340, 2017 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28639731

RESUMO

Doping of nanocrystals (NCs) is a key, yet underexplored, approach for tuning of the electronic properties of semiconductors. An important route for doping of NCs is by vacancy formation. The size and concentration dependence of doping was studied in copper(I) sulfide (Cu2 S) NCs through a redox reaction with iodine molecules (I2 ), which formed vacancies accompanied by a localized surface plasmon response. X-ray spectroscopy and diffraction reveal transformation from Cu2 S to Cu-depleted phases, along with CuI formation. Greater reaction efficiency was observed for larger NCs. This behavior is attributed to interplay of the vacancy formation energy, which decreases for smaller sized NCs, and the growth of CuI on the NC surface, which is favored on well-defined facets of larger NCs. This doping process allows tuning of the plasmonic properties of a semiconductor across a wide range of plasmonic frequencies by varying the size of NCs and the concentration of iodine. Controlled vacancy doping of NCs may be used to tune and tailor semiconductors for use in optoelectronic applications.

8.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 773, 2017 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28396583

RESUMO

Ambient pressure in situ synchrotron-based spectroscopic techniques have been correlated to illuminate atomic-level details of bond breaking and formation during the hydrolysis of a chemical warfare nerve agent simulant over a polyoxometalate catalyst. Specifically, a Cs8[Nb6O19] polyoxoniobate catalyst has been shown to react readily with dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP). The atomic-level transformations of all reactant moieties, the [Nb6O19]8- polyanion, its Cs+ counterions, and the DMMP substrate, were tracked under ambient conditions by a combination of X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Results reveal that the reaction mechanism follows general base (in contrast to specific base) hydrolysis. Together with computational results, the work demonstrates that the ultimate fate of DMMP hydrolysis at the Cs8[Nb6O19] catalyst is strong binding of the (methyl) methylphosphonic acid ((M)MPA) product to the polyanions, which ultimately inhibits catalytic turnover.

9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(2): 599-602, 2017 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28038315

RESUMO

Zr-based metal organic frameworks (MOFs) have been recently shown to be among the fastest catalysts of nerve-agent hydrolysis in solution. We report a detailed study of the adsorption and decomposition of a nerve-agent simulant, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), on UiO-66, UiO-67, MOF-808, and NU-1000 using synchrotron-based X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray absorption, and infrared spectroscopy, which reveals key aspects of the reaction mechanism. The diffraction measurements indicate that all four MOFs adsorb DMMP (introduced at atmospheric pressures through a flow of helium or air) within the pore space. In addition, the combination of X-ray absorption and infrared spectra suggests direct coordination of DMMP to the Zr6 cores of all MOFs, which ultimately leads to decomposition to phosphonate products. These experimental probes into the mechanism of adsorption and decomposition of chemical warfare agent simulants on Zr-based MOFs open new opportunities in rational design of new and superior decontamination materials.

10.
Chemistry ; 22(33): 11816-25, 2016 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27385527

RESUMO

Gate-opening is a unique and interesting phenomenon commonly observed in flexible porous frameworks, where the pore characteristics and/or crystal structures change in response to external stimuli such as adding or removing guest molecules. For gate-opening that is induced by gas adsorption, the pore-opening pressure often varies for different adsorbate molecules and, thus, can be applied to selectively separate a gas mixture. The detailed understanding of this phenomenon is of fundamental importance to the design of industrially applicable gas-selective sorbents, which remains under investigated due to the lack of direct structural evidence for such systems. We report a mechanistic study of gas-induced gate-opening process of a microporous metal-organic framework, [Mn(ina)2 ] (ina=isonicotinate) associated with commensurate adsorption, by a combination of several analytical techniques including single crystal X-ray diffraction, in situ powder X-ray diffraction coupled with differential scanning calorimetry (XRD-DSC), and gas adsorption-desorption methods. Our study reveals that the pronounced and reversible gate opening/closing phenomena observed in [Mn(ina)2 ] are coupled with a structural transition that involves rotation of the organic linker molecules as a result of interaction of the framework with adsorbed gas molecules including carbon dioxide and propane. The onset pressure to open the gate correlates with the extent of such interaction.

11.
Nat Commun ; 7: ncomms11831, 2016 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27291101

RESUMO

Nuclear energy is among the most viable alternatives to our current fossil fuel-based energy economy. The mass deployment of nuclear energy as a low-emissions source requires the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel to recover fissile materials and mitigate radioactive waste. A major concern with reprocessing used nuclear fuel is the release of volatile radionuclides such as xenon and krypton that evolve into reprocessing facility off-gas in parts per million concentrations. The existing technology to remove these radioactive noble gases is a costly cryogenic distillation; alternatively, porous materials such as metal-organic frameworks have demonstrated the ability to selectively adsorb xenon and krypton at ambient conditions. Here we carry out a high-throughput computational screening of large databases of metal-organic frameworks and identify SBMOF-1 as the most selective for xenon. We affirm this prediction and report that SBMOF-1 exhibits by far the highest reported xenon adsorption capacity and a remarkable Xe/Kr selectivity under conditions pertinent to nuclear fuel reprocessing.

12.
Chem Sci ; 7(1): 759-765, 2016 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29896359

RESUMO

The efficiency of physisorption-based separation of gas-mixtures depends on the selectivity of adsorbent which is directly linked to size, shape, polarizability and other physical properties of adsorbed molecules. Commensurate adsorption is an interesting and important adsorption phenomenon, where the adsorbed amount, location, and orientation of an adsorbate are commensurate with the crystal symmetry of the adsorbent. Understanding this phenomenon is important and beneficial as it can provide vital information about adsorbate-adsorbent interaction and adsorption-desorption mechanism. So far, only sporadic examples of commensurate adsorption have been reported in porous materials such as zeolites and metal organic frameworks (MOFs). In this work we show for the first time direct structural evidence of commensurate-to-incommensurate transition of linear hydrocarbon molecules (C2-C7) in a microporous MOF, by employing a number of analytical techniques including single crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD), in situ powder X-ray diffraction coupled with differential scanning calorimetry (PXRD-DSC), gas adsorption and molecular simulations.

13.
J Am Chem Soc ; 137(22): 7007-10, 2015 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26000710

RESUMO

The cryogenic separation of noble gases is energy-intensive and expensive, especially when low concentrations are involved. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) containing polarizing groups within their pore spaces are predicted to be efficient Xe/Kr solid-state adsorbents, but no experimental insights into the nature of the Xe-network interaction are available to date. Here we report a new microporous MOF (designated SBMOF-2) that is selective toward Xe over Kr under ambient conditions, with a Xe/Kr selectivity of about 10 and a Xe capacity of 27.07 wt % at 298 K. Single-crystal diffraction results show that the Xe selectivity may be attributed to the specific geometry of the pores, forming cages built with phenyl rings and enriched with polar -OH groups, both of which serve as strong adsorption sites for polarizable Xe gas. The Xe/Kr separation in SBMOF-2 was investigated with experimental and computational breakthrough methods. These experiments showed that Kr broke through the column first, followed by Xe, which confirmed that SBMOF-2 has a real practical potential for separating Xe from Kr. Calculations showed that the capacity and adsorption selectivity of SBMOF-2 are comparable to those of the best-performing unmodified MOFs such as NiMOF-74 or Co formate.

14.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 49(63): 7055-7, 2013 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23811783

RESUMO

A microporous cadmium metal organic framework is synthesized and structurally characterized. The material possesses a 3-D framework with a 1-D sinusoidal chain and shows high selectivity for CO2 over N2. The selectivity is attributed to CO2 interacting with two phenyl rings of a V-shaped linker as estimated by the in situ XRD-DSC study.

16.
Acta Crystallogr C ; 67(Pt 11): m335-7, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22051947

RESUMO

The title compound, [Mg(2)(C(12)H(14)O(4))(2)](n), is the first example of an s-block metal adamantanedicarboxylate coordination polymer. The asymmetric unit comprises two crystallographically unique Mg(II) centers and two adamantane-1,3-dicarboxylate ligands. The compound is constructed from a combination of chains of corner-sharing magnesium-centered polyhedra, parallel to the a axis, connected by organic linkers to form a layered polymer. The two Mg(II) centers are present in distorted tetrahedral and octahedral coordination environments derived from carboxylate O atoms. Tetrahedrally coordinated Mg(II) centers have been reported in organometallic compounds, but this is the first time that such coordination has been observed in a magnesium-based coordination polymer. The bond valance sums of the two Mg(II) centers are 2.05 and 2.11 valence units, matching well with the expected value of 2.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA