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Redox Biol ; 8: 79-90, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26765101


Dietary phenolics may play a protective role in UV-mediated skin pigmentation through their antioxidant and UV-absorbing actions. In this study, we investigated whether genetic silencing of Nrf2, regulating the transcription of antioxidant genes, affected melanogenesis in primary human epidermal melanocytes (HEMn) and B16F10 melanoma cells subjected to UVA (8J/cm(2)) exposure. Then, we explored the antimelanogenic actions of phenolics; caffeic acid (CA) and ferulic acid (FA) providing partial UVA protection; quercetin (QU) and rutin (RU) providing strong UVA protection and; avobenzone (AV), an efficient UVA filter, in association with modulation of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant defenses in response to UVA insults in B16F10 cells. Upon oxidative insults, Nrf2 silencing promoted melanogenesis in both HEMn and B16F10 cells irradiated with UVA. Stimulation of melanogenesis by UVA correlated with increased ROS and oxidative DNA damage (8-OHdG), GSH depletion as well as a transient downregulation of Nrf2 nuclear translocation and of Nrf2-ARE signaling in B16F10 cells. All test compounds exerted antimelanogenic effects with respect to their abilities to reverse UVA-mediated oxidative damage as well as downregulation of Nrf2 activity and its target antioxidants (GCLC, GST and NQO1) in B16F10 cells. In conclusion, defective Nrf2 may promote melanogenesis under UVA irradiation through oxidative stress mechanisms. Compounds with antioxidant and/or UVA absorption properties could protect against UVA-induced melanogenesis through indirect regulatory effect on Nrf2-ARE pathway.

Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Melaninas/biossíntese , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Fenóis/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Raios Ultravioleta , Animais , Elementos de Resposta Antioxidante , Vias Biossintéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Vias Biossintéticas/efeitos da radiação , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Desoxiguanosina/análogos & derivados , Desoxiguanosina/farmacologia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Glutationa/metabolismo , Humanos , Melanócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanócitos/metabolismo , Melanócitos/efeitos da radiação , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma Experimental , Camundongos , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Interferência de RNA , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24171043


Ayurved Siriraj HaRak (AVS022) formula has been used for topical remedy of dermatologic disorders. Oxidative stress induced by ultraviolet (UV) A irradiation could be implicated in photoaged skin through triggering matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1). We, therefore, explored the antioxidant mechanisms by which AVS022 formulation and its individual components protected against UVA-dependent MMP-1 upregulation in keratinocyte HaCaT cells. TLC analysis revealed the presence of multiple phenolics including gallic acid (GA) in the AVS022 extracts. We demonstrated that pretreatment with the whole formula and individual herbal components except T. triandra protected against increased MMP-1 activity in irradiated HaCaT cells. Moreover, all herbal extracts and GA, used as the reference compound, were able to reverse cytotoxicity, oxidant production, glutathione (GSH) loss, and inactivation of catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). F. racemosa was observed to yield the strongest abilities to abolish UVA-mediated induction of MMP-1 and impairment of antioxidant defenses including GSH and catalase. Our observations suggest that upregulation of endogenous antioxidants could be the mechanisms by which AVS022 and its herbal components suppressed UVA-stimulated MMP-1 in HaCaT cells. In addition, pharmacological actions of AVS022 formula may be attributed to the antioxidant potential of its components, in particular F. racemosa, and several phenolics including GA.

BMC Complement Altern Med ; 13: 159, 2013 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23826868


BACKGROUND: Ayurved Siriraj Brand Wattana formula (AVS073), a Thai herbal formula, has traditionally been used for health promotion and prevention of age-related problems. Ultraviolet A (UVA) is recognized to play a vital role in stimulation of melanin synthesis responsible for abnormal skin pigmentation possibly mediated by photooxidative stress. We thus aimed to study the inhibitory effect of AVS073 extracts on UVA-induced melanogenesis via a redox mechanism involving glutathione (GSH) synthesis and glutathione S-transferase (GST) using human melanoma (G361) cell culture. METHODS: The standardization of AVS073 extracts was carried out by TLC and UHPLC to obtain fingerprinting profiles of the formula, which identified several phenolic compounds including gallic acid (GA) in the formula. Antimelanogenic actions of AVS073 (up to 60 µg/ml) and GA (up to 10 µg/ml) were investigated by measuring tyrosinase activity and mRNA as well as melanin level in G361 cells irradiated with UVA. Moreover, antioxidant actions of the herbal formula and GA were determined by evaluating oxidant formation and modulation of GSH-related antioxidant defenses including GSH content, GST activity and mRNA level of γ-glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic (γ-GCLC) and modifier (γ-GCLM) subunit and GST. RESULTS: AVS073 extracts and GA, used as a reference compound, suppressed UVA-augmented tyrosinase activity and mRNA and melanin formation. In addition, pretreatment with AVS073 and GA was able to inhibit cellular oxidative stress, GSH depletion, GST inactivation and downregulation of γ-GCLC, γ-GCLM and GST mRNA in G361 cells exposed to UVA radiation. CONCLUSIONS: AVS073 formula exerted antimelanogenic effects possibly through improving the redox state by upregulation of GSH and GST. Moreover, pharmacological activity of the polyherbal formula would be attributed to combined action of different phenolic compounds present in the formula.

Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Glutationa/metabolismo , Melaninas/metabolismo , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Química Farmacêutica , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Humanos , Melaninas/antagonistas & inibidores , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredução/efeitos da radiação , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos da radiação , Fenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Pigmentação da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pigmentação da Pele/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta
Photochem Photobiol ; 88(4): 961-8, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22360712


Ultraviolet A (UVA) plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of premature skin aging through keratinocyte cytotoxicity and degradation of collagen, a main component of the extracellular matrix providing structural support. Oxidative stress caused by UVA irradiation can mediate induction of matrix metalloprotease-1 (MMP-1), a major enzyme responsible for collagen damage. Protection against UV-mediated disturbance of antioxidant defense system has been proposed as a possible mechanism by which botanical compounds slow down skin aging process. This study therefore aimed to assess inhibitory effects of caffeic acid (CA) and ferulic acid (FA), powerful plant-based phenolic antioxidants, on UVA-induced cytotoxicity and MMP-1 activity and mRNA level through modulation of antioxidant defense mechanism in immortalized human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells. Pretreatment of the cells with CA or FA prior to UVA irradiation inhibited cytotoxicity, induction of MMP-1 activity and mRNA and oxidant formation. Moreover, CA and FA were able to up-regulate glutathione (GSH) content, γ-glutamate cysteine ligase (γ-GCL) mRNA as well as activities and mRNA expression of catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in irradiated cells. In conclusion, CA and FA provided protective effects on UVA-mediated MMP-1 induction in HaCaT cells possibly through restoration of antioxidant defense system at the cellular and molecular level.

Ácidos Cafeicos/farmacologia , Ácidos Cumáricos/farmacologia , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metaloproteinase 1 da Matriz/metabolismo , Inibidores de Metaloproteinases de Matriz/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalase/genética , Catalase/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glutamato-Cisteína Ligase/genética , Glutamato-Cisteína Ligase/metabolismo , Glutationa/biossíntese , Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Humanos , Queratinócitos/citologia , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/efeitos da radiação , Metaloproteinase 1 da Matriz/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos da radiação , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento da Pele/patologia , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta