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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35041012

RESUMO

The BIOPATH cohort was established to explore the interplay of psychosocial and biological factors in the development of resilience and mental health problems in Syrian refugee children. Based in Lebanon, a middle-income country significantly impacted by the refugee crisis, it is the first such cohort of refugees in the Middle East. Families were recruited from informal tented settlements in the Beqaa region using purposive cluster sampling. At baseline (October 2017-January 2018), N = 3188 individuals participated [n = 1594 child-caregiver dyads; child gender, 52.6% female; mean (SD) age = 11.44 (2.44) years, range = 6-19]. Re-participation rate at 1-year follow-up was 62.8%. Individual interviews were conducted with children and primary caregivers and biological samples collected from children. Measures include: (1) children's well-being and mental health problems (using tools validated against clinical interviews in a subsample of the cohort); (2) psychosocial risk and protective factors at the level of the individual (e.g. coping strategies), family (e.g. parent-child relationship), community (e.g. collective efficacy), and wider context (e.g. services); (3) saliva samples for genetic and epigenetic (methylation) analyses; (4) hair samples to measure cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone. This cohort profile provides details about sampling and recruitment, data collection and measures, demographic data, attrition and potential bias, key findings on resilience and mental health problems in children and strengths and limitations of the cohort. Researchers interested in accessing data should contact Professor Michael Pluess at Queen Mary University of London, UK (e-mail: m.pluess@qmul.ac.uk).

2.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e047015, 2021 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34711591

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Globally, around 10% of children are born preterm and are more at risk of negative developmental outcomes. However, empirical evidences and theoretical reasoning also suggest that premature birth can be a susceptibility factor, increasing sensitivity to the environment for better and for worse. Because available findings are controversial, with the current scoping review we will explore if, based on the available literature, preterm birth can be seen as an environmental sensitivity (ES) factor. In doing so, we will consider a series of moderating variables, including the level of prematurity, the type of environment and the outcome investigated. Methodological aspects, as the type of measures used and study design, will be considered. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The scoping review will be conducted following the Joanna Briggs Institute Methodology guidelines. The report will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews checklist. We will perform the search between 15 January 2022 and 1 February 2022. Data will be chartered by independent reviewers. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required, as primary data will not be collected. This scoping review will be the first to explore whether prematurity is associated with an increased ES. This review can have important implications for tailoring prevention and intervention programmes. Results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Revisão por Pares , Gravidez , Projetos de Pesquisa , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34170421

RESUMO

Some children are more affected than others by their upbringing due to their increased sensitivity to the environment. More sensitive children are at heightened risk for the development of internalizing problems, particularly when experiencing unsupportive parenting. However, little is known about how the interplay between children's sensitivity and parenting leads to higher levels of depressive symptoms. In the current study, we investigated the interaction between early parenting and children's sensitivity on levels of depressive symptomatology in middle childhood, exploring the role of rumination as a possible mediator in a community sample. Participants included 196 USA resident families, from a middle class and mostly European-American background, and their healthy children, followed up from age 3 until 9 and 12 years. Environmental sensitivity was assessed observationally when children were 3 years old. Parenting style was based on parent-report at the age of 3 years. When children were nine, they completed questionnaires on rumination and depressive symptoms (repeated at 12 years). Analyses were run applying a Bayesian approach. Children's sensitivity interacted with permissive parenting in predicting rumination at age 9. Rumination, in turn, was associated with depressive symptoms at age 9 and, to a lesser extent, at age 12. No relevant interactions emerged for authoritative and authoritarian parenting. Sensitive children may be at heightened risk for internalizing problems when exposed to a permissive parenting style. Permissive parenting was associated with increased ruminative coping strategies in sensitive children which, in turn, predicted higher levels of depression. Hence, rumination emerged as an important cognitive risk factor for the development of depressive symptoms in sensitive children.

4.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(7): 620-629, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915083

RESUMO

There is substantial variation in people's responses to adversity, with a considerable proportion of individuals displaying psychological resilience. Epigenetic mechanisms are hypothesised to be one molecular pathway of how adverse and traumatic events can become biologically embedded and contribute to individual differences in resilience. However, not much is known regarding the role of epigenetics in the development of psychological resilience. In this Review, we propose a new conceptual model for the different functions of epigenetic mechanisms in psychological resilience. The model considers the initial establishment of the epigenome, epigenetic modification due to adverse and protective environments, the role of protective factors in counteracting adverse influences, and genetic moderation of environmentally induced epigenetic modifications. After reviewing empirical evidence for the various components of the model, we identify research that should be prioritised and discuss practical implications of the proposed model for epigenetic research on resilience.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Fatores de Proteção , Resiliência Psicológica , Adaptação Psicológica , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
5.
Assessment ; : 1073191120983894, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33426925

RESUMO

Children differ in their sensitivity to positive and negative environmental influences, which can be measured with the Highly Sensitive Child (HSC) scale. The present study introduces the HSC-21, an adaptation of the original 12 item scale with new items and factor structure that are meant to be more informative than the original ones. The psychometric properties of the HSC-21 were investigated in 1,088 children across Belgium and the Netherlands, including child and mother reports. Results showed evidence for (a) bifactor model with a general sensitivity factor and two specific factors (i.e., Ease of Excitation-Low Sensory Threshold and Aesthetic Sensitivity); (b) (partial) measurement invariance across gender, developmental stage, country, and informants; (c) moderate child-mother agreement; (d) good reliability; (e) normally distributed item scores; and (f) meaningful associations with personality and temperament across both samples. No evidence was found for HSC-21 as a moderator in the relationship between parenting and problem behaviors.

6.
Mol Psychiatry ; 26(9): 4896-4904, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488124

RESUMO

Humans differ substantially in how strongly they respond to similar experiences. Theory suggests that such individual differences in susceptibility to environmental influences have a genetic basis. The present study investigated the genetic architecture of Environmental Sensitivity (ES) by estimating its heritability, exploring the presence of multiple heritable components and its genetic overlap with common personality traits. ES was measured with the Highly Sensitive Child (HSC) questionnaire and heritability estimates were obtained using classic twin design methodology in a sample of 2868 adolescent twins. Results indicate that the heritability of sensitivity was 0.47, and that the genetic influences underlying sensitivity to negative experiences are relatively distinct from sensitivity to more positive aspects of the environment, supporting a multi-dimensional genetic model of ES. The correlation between sensitivity, neuroticism and extraversion was largely explained by shared genetic influences, with differences between these traits mainly attributed to unique environmental influences operating on each trait.

7.
Dev Psychopathol ; 33(1): 87-95, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948512

RESUMO

Rigorously evaluated interventions that target protective factors and positive resources rather than ameliorating negative outcomes in child refugees are rare. To address this, we developed and evaluated a short, group-based resilience-building intervention called Strengths for the Journey (SFJ), which was designed for war-affected children. We conducted a quasi-randomized pilot study of the SFJ intervention with 72 7- to 14-year-old forcibly displaced children (Mage = 10.76, 64.8% female) in three refugee camps in Lesvos, Greece. Intervention effectiveness was assessed by measuring pre-post changes in well-being, self-esteem, optimism, and depressive symptoms from before (T1) to immediately after the intervention/wait-list task (T2). Four focus group interviews were conducted with 31 of the participants to discuss their views on the effects of the intervention and the continued use of the skills that were learned. Using repeated-measures ANOVAs, we found improvements in well-being, F (1, 46) = 42.99, ηp2 = .48, self-esteem, F (1, 56) = 29.11, ηp2 = .40, optimism, F (1, 53) = 27.16, ηp2 = .34, and depressive symptoms, F (1, 31) = 62.14, ηp2 = .67, in the intervention group compared with the wait-listed group (p < .05). Focus group participants highlighted the importance of SFJ in developing a sense of togetherness and building their strengths. Child refugees in low-resource settings may benefit from brief, first-line interventions that target protective factors such as well-being, hope, self-esteem, and belonging.


Assuntos
Campos de Refugiados , Refugiados , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Grécia , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Psicologia Positiva
8.
Dev Psychopathol ; : 1-10, 2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342453

RESUMO

Children differ in their response to environmental exposures, with some being more sensitive to contextual factors than others. According to theory, such variability is the result of individual differences in neurobiological sensitivity to environmental features, with some individuals generally more affected by both negative and/or positive experiences. In this exploratory study we tested whether left and right amygdala and hippocampus volumes (corrected for total brain size) account for individual differences in response to environmental influences in a sample of 62 boys. Cumulative general environmental quality, ranging from low to high, was measured across the first 9 years and child behavior was reported by teachers when boys were 12-13 years old. According to analyses, only the left amygdala volume - not any of the other brain volumes - emerged as an important brain region for sensitivity to positive environmental aspects. Boys with a larger left amygdala benefited significantly more from higher environmental quality than boys with a smaller left amygdala whilst not being more vulnerable to lower quality. Besides providing preliminary evidence for differences in environmental sensitivity due to brain structure, the results also point to the left amygdala as having a specific role regarding the response to environmental influences.

9.
Confl Health ; 14(1): 71, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292413

RESUMO

Major knowledge gaps remain concerning the most effective ways to address mental health and psychosocial needs of populations affected by humanitarian crises. The Research for Health in Humanitarian Crisis (R2HC) program aims to strengthen humanitarian health practice and policy through research. As a significant portion of R2HC's research has focused on mental health and psychosocial support interventions, the program has been interested in strengthening a community of practice in this field. Following a meeting between grantees, we set out to provide an overview of the R2HC portfolio, and draw lessons learned. In this paper, we discuss the mental health and psychosocial support-focused research projects funded by R2HC; review the implications of initial findings from this research portfolio; and highlight four remaining knowledge gaps in this field. Between 2014 and 2019, R2HC funded 18 academic-practitioner partnerships focused on mental health and psychosocial support, comprising 38% of the overall portfolio (18 of 48 projects) at a value of approximately 7.2 million GBP. All projects have focused on evaluating the impact of interventions. In line with consensus-based recommendations to consider a wide range of mental health and psychosocial needs in humanitarian settings, research projects have evaluated diverse interventions. Findings so far have both challenged and confirmed widely-held assumptions about the effectiveness of mental health and psychosocial interventions in humanitarian settings. They point to the importance of building effective, sustained, and diverse partnerships between scholars, humanitarian practitioners, and funders, to ensure long-term program improvements and appropriate evidence-informed decision making. Further research needs to fill knowledge gaps regarding how to: scale-up interventions that have been found to be effective (e.g., questions related to integration across sectors, adaptation of interventions across different contexts, and optimal care systems); address neglected mental health conditions and populations (e.g., elderly, people with disabilities, sexual minorities, people with severe, pre-existing mental disorders); build on available local resources and supports (e.g., how to build on traditional, religious healing and community-wide social support practices); and ensure equity, quality, fidelity, and sustainability for interventions in real-world contexts (e.g., answering questions about how interventions from controlled studies can be transferred to more representative humanitarian contexts).

10.
Dev Psychopathol ; 32(1): 73-83, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626458

RESUMO

Currently, two main approaches exist to distinguish differential susceptibility from diathesis-stress and vantage sensitivity in Genotype × Environment interaction (G × E) research: regions of significance (RoS) and competitive-confirmatory approaches. Each is limited by its single-gene/single-environment foci given that most phenotypes are the product of multiple interacting genetic and environmental factors. We thus addressed these two concerns in a recently developed R package (LEGIT) for constructing G × E interaction models with latent genetic and environmental scores using alternating optimization. Herein we test, by means of computer simulation, diverse G × E models in the context of both single and multiple genes and environments. Results indicate that the RoS and competitive-confirmatory approaches were highly accurate when the sample size was large, whereas the latter performed better in small samples and for small effect sizes. The competitive-confirmatory approach generally had good accuracy (a) when effect size was moderate and N ≥ 500 and (b) when effect size was large and N ≥ 250, whereas RoS performed poorly. Computational tools to determine the type of G × E of multiple genes and environments are provided as extensions in our LEGIT R package.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Modelos Teóricos , Simulação por Computador , Genótipo , Humanos , Fenótipo
11.
Dev Psychol ; 55(11): 2389-2402, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414847

RESUMO

According to several developmental theories some children are more sensitive to the quality of their environment than others, but most supporting empirical evidence is based on relatively distal markers of hypothesized sensitivity. This study provides evidence for the validity of behaviorally observed Environmental Sensitivity as a moderator of parenting effects on children's early development in a sample of 292 children (Mage = 3.74; SD = 0.26) and their mothers. Sensitivity was coded using a newly developed observational measure for the specific and objective assessment of Environmental Sensitivity, the Highly Sensitive Child-Rating System (HSC-RS). HSC-RS factorial structure, associations with temperament traits, and interactions with parenting quality in the prediction of socioemotional child outcomes are reported. Findings supported a 1-factor solution. Observed sensitivity was relatively distinct from observed temperament and interacted with both low and high parenting quality in the development of behavior problems and social competence at ages 3 and 6. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento/normas , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Habilidades Sociais , Temperamento/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Mães , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
12.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 98: 287-305, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639671

RESUMO

Sensory Processing Sensitivity (SPS) is a common, heritable and evolutionarily conserved trait describing inter-individual differences in sensitivity to both negative and positive environments. Despite societal interest in SPS, scientific knowledge is lagging behind. Here, we critically discuss how SPS relates to other theories, how to measure SPS, whether SPS is a continuous vs categorical trait, its relation to other temperament and personality traits, the underlying aetiology and neurobiological mechanisms, and relations to both typical and atypical development, including mental and sensory disorders. Drawing on the diverse expertise of the authors, we set an agenda for future research to stimulate the field. We conclude that SPS increases risk for stress-related problems in response to negative environments, but also provides greater benefit from positive and supportive experiences. The field requires more reliable and objective assessment of SPS, and deeper understanding of its mechanisms to differentiate it from other traits. Future research needs to target prevention of adverse effects associated with SPS, and exploitation of its positive potential to improve well-being and mental health.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Autoimagem , Sensação/fisiologia , Temperamento/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento/fisiologia , Humanos , Individualidade
13.
Br J Psychiatry ; 214(6): 354-360, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30630553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) rates have been documented in children exposed to war. However, the contribution of childhood adversities and environmental sensitivity to children's responses to adversities and trauma are still far from settled.AimsTo evaluate the relative roles of war, childhood adversities and sensitivity in the genesis of PTSD. METHOD: Data on childhood adversities and sensitivity was collected from 549 Syrian refugee children in Lebanon. PTSD symptoms were assessed using the PTSD Reaction Index. RESULTS: Although childhood adversities, war events and sensitivity were all significantly related to PTSD in bivariate analyses, multivariate analyses showed that childhood adversities were the most important variable in predicting PTSD. The effect of war on PTSD was found to be dependent on the interplay between childhood adversities and sensitivity, and was most prominent in highly sensitive children with lower levels of adversities; in sensitive children experiencing high levels of adversities, the effects of war exposure on PTSD were less pronounced. CONCLUSIONS: When considering the effects of war on PTSD in refugee children, it is important to take account of the presence of other adversities as well as of children's sensitivity. Sensitive children may be more vulnerable to the negative effects of war exposure, but only in contexts that are characterised by low childhood adversities.Declaration of interestNone.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Refugiados/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Exposição à Guerra , Adolescente , Criança , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Humanos , Líbano , Masculino , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Síria
14.
Dev Psychopathol ; 31(2): 439-441, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30081968

RESUMO

A recent article in this journal reported a number of gene × environment interactions involving a serotonin transporter-gene network polygenic score and a composite index of prenatal adversity predicting several problem behavior outcomes at 48 months (e.g., anxious/depressed, pervasive developmental problems) and at 60 months (e.g., withdrawal, internalizing problems), yet did not illuminate the nature or form these genetic × environment interactions took. Here we report results of six additional analyses to evaluate whether these interactions reflected diathesis-stress or differential-susceptibility related processes. Analyses of the regions of significance and proportion of interaction index are consistent with the diathesis-stress model, seemingly because of the truncated nature of the adversity score (which did not extend to supportive/positive prenatal experiences/exposures); in contrast, the proportion (of cases) affected index favors the differential-susceptibility model. These results suggest the need for future studies to extend measurement of the prenatal environment to highly supportive experiences and exposures.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/genética , Depressão/genética , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Comportamento Problema , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Gravidez
16.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 53(6): 545-554, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29302707

RESUMO

PURPOSE: People differ significantly in their response to psychological intervention, with some benefitting more from treatment than others. According to the recently proposed theoretical framework of vantage sensitivity, some of this variability may be due to individual differences in environmental sensitivity, the inherent ability to register, and process external stimuli. In this paper, we apply the vantage sensitivity framework to the field of psychiatry and clinical psychology, proposing that some people are more responsive to the positive effects of psychological intervention due to heightened sensitivity. METHODS: After presenting theoretical frameworks related to environmental sensitivity, we review a selection of recent studies reporting individual differences in the positive response to psychological intervention. RESULTS: A growing number of studies report that some people benefit more from psychological intervention than others as a function of genetic, physiological, and psychological characteristics. These studies support the vantage sensitivity proposition that treatment response is influenced by factors associated with heightened sensitivity to environmental influences. More recently, studies have also shown that sensitivity can be measured with a short questionnaire which appears to predict the response to psychological intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Vantage sensitivity is a framework with significant relevance for our understanding of widely observed heterogeneity in treatment response. It suggests that variability in response to treatment is partly influenced by people's differing capacity for environmental sensitivity, which can be measured with a short questionnaire. Application of the vantage sensitivity framework to psychiatry and clinical psychology may improve our knowledge regarding when, how, and for whom interventions work.


Assuntos
Individualidade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Psicoterapia , Humanos
17.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 24, 2018 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29353876

RESUMO

According to empirical studies and recent theories, people differ substantially in their reactivity or sensitivity to environmental influences with some being generally more affected than others. More sensitive individuals have been described as orchids and less-sensitive ones as dandelions. Applying a data-driven approach, we explored the existence of sensitivity groups in a sample of 906 adults who completed the highly sensitive person (HSP) scale. According to factor analyses, the HSP scale reflects a bifactor model with a general sensitivity factor. In contrast to prevailing theories, latent class analyses consistently suggested the existence of three rather than two groups. While we were able to identify a highly sensitive (orchids, 31%) and a low-sensitive group (dandelions, 29%), we also detected a third group (40%) characterised by medium sensitivity, which we refer to as tulips in keeping with the flower metaphor. Preliminary cut-off scores for all three groups are provided. In order to characterise the different sensitivity groups, we investigated group differences regarding the Big Five personality traits, as well as experimentally assessed emotional reactivity in an additional independent sample. According to these follow-up analyses, the three groups differed in neuroticism, extraversion and emotional reactivity to positive mood induction with orchids scoring significantly higher in neuroticism and emotional reactivity and lower in extraversion than the other two groups (dandelions also differed significantly from tulips). Findings suggest that environmental sensitivity is a continuous and normally distributed trait but that people fall into three distinct sensitive groups along a sensitivity continuum.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade , Extroversão Psicológica , Testes de Personalidade , Limiar Sensorial , Adolescente , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Meio Ambiente , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metáfora , Neuroticismo , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Semin Cell Dev Biol ; 77: 133-143, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29051054

RESUMO

Empirical studies suggest that psychiatric disorders result from a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Most evidence for such gene-environment interaction (GxE) is based on single candidate gene studies conducted from a Diathesis-Stress perspective. Recognizing the short-comings of candidate gene studies, GxE research has begun to focus on genome-wide and polygenic approaches as well as drawing on different theoretical concepts underlying GxE, such as Differential Susceptibility. After reviewing evidence from candidate GxE studies and presenting alternative theoretical frameworks underpinning GxE research, more recent approaches and findings from whole genome approaches are presented. Finally, we suggest how future GxE studies may unpick the complex interplay between genes and environments in psychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/genética , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Catecol O-Metiltransferase/genética , Depressão/genética , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Monoaminoxidase/genética , Receptores de Dopamina D4/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/genética
19.
Dev Psychol ; 54(1): 51-70, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28933890

RESUMO

A large number of studies document that children differ in the degree they are shaped by their developmental context with some being more sensitive to environmental influences than others. Multiple theories suggest that Environmental Sensitivity is a common trait predicting the response to negative as well as positive exposures. However, most research to date has relied on more or less proximal markers of Environmental Sensitivity. In this paper we introduce a new questionnaire-the Highly Sensitive Child (HSC) scale-as a promising self-report measure of Environmental Sensitivity. After describing the development of the short 12-item HSC scale for children and adolescents, we report on the psychometric properties of the scale, including confirmatory factor analysis and test-retest reliability. After considering bivariate and multivariate associations with well-established temperament and personality traits, we apply Latent Class Analysis to test for the existence of hypothesized sensitivity groups. Analyses are conducted across 5 studies featuring 4 different U.K.-based samples ranging in age from 8-19 years and with a total sample size of N = 3,581. Results suggest the 12-item HSC scale is a psychometrically robust measure that performs well in both children and adolescents. Besides being relatively independent from other common traits, the Latent Class Analysis suggests that there are 3 distinct groups with different levels of Environmental Sensitivity-low (approx. 25-35%), medium (approx. 41-47%), and high (20-35%). Finally, we provide exploratory cut-off scores for the categorization of children into these different groups which may be useful for both researchers and practitioners. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Testes de Personalidade , Autorrelato , Temperamento , Adolescente , Criança , Meio Ambiente , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Inibição Psicológica , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Componente Principal , Psicologia do Adolescente , Psicologia da Criança , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Seio Sagital Superior , Adulto Jovem
20.
Dev Psychopathol ; 29(5): 1573-1587, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29162171

RESUMO

The quality of prenatal maternal mental health, from psychological stress and depressive symptoms to anxiety and other nonpsychotic mental disorders, profoundly affects fetal neurodevelopment. Despite the evidence for the influence of positive mental well-being on health, there is, to our knowledge, no research examining the possible effects of positive antenatal mental health on the development of the offspring. Using exploratory bifactor analysis, this prospective study (n = 1,066) demonstrated the feasibility of using common psychiatric screening tools to examine the effect of positive maternal mental health. Antenatal mental health was assessed during 26th week of pregnancy. The effects on offspring were assessed when the child was 12, 18, and 24 months old. Results showed that positive antenatal mental health was uniquely associated with the offspring's cognitive, language and parentally rated competences. This study shows that the effects of positive maternal mental health are likely to be specific and distinct from the sheer absence of symptoms of depression or anxiety.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Mães/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos
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