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1.
NPJ Genom Med ; 7(1): 39, 2022 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35768464

RESUMO

A growing number of children born are conceived through in vitro fertilisation (IVF), which has been linked to an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, as well as altered growth profiles and cardiometabolic differences in the resultant individuals. Some of these outcomes have also been shown to be influenced by the use of different IVF culture media and this effect is hypothesised to be mediated epigenetically, e.g. through the methylome. As such, we profiled the umbilical cord blood methylome of IVF neonates that underwent preimplantation embryo development in two different IVF culture media (G5 or HTF), using the Infinium Human Methylation EPIC BeadChip. We found no significant methylation differences between the two groups in terms of: (i) systematic differences at CpG sites or regions, (ii) imprinted sites/genes or birth weight-associated sites, (iii) stochastic differences presenting as DNA methylation outliers or differentially variable sites, and (iv) epigenetic gestational age acceleration.

2.
Epigenetics ; : 1-12, 2022 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35723001

RESUMO

Green space could influence adult cognition and childhood neurodevelopment , and is hypothesized to be partly driven by epigenetic modifications. However, it remains unknown whether some of these associations are already evident during foetal development. Similar biological signals shape the developmental processes in the foetal brain and placenta.Therefore, we hypothesize that green space can modify epigenetic processes of cognition-related pathways in placental tissue, such as DNA-methylation of the serotonin receptor HTR2A. HTR2A-methylation was determined within 327 placentas from the ENVIRONAGE (ENVIRonmental influence ON early AGEing) birth cohort using bisulphite-PCR-pyrosequencing. Total green space exposure was calculated using high-resolution land cover data derived from the Green Map of Flanders in seven buffers (50 m-3 km) and stratified into low (<3 m) and high (≥3 m) vegetation. Residential nature was calculated using the Land use Map of Flanders. We performed multivariate regression models adjusted for several a priori chosen covariables. For an IQR increment in total green space within a 1,000 m, 2,000 m and 3,000 m buffer the methylation of HTR2A increased with 1.47% (95%CI:0.17;2.78), 1.52% (95%CI:0.21;2.83) and 1.42% (95%CI:0.15;2.69), respectively. Additionally,, we found 3.00% (95%CI:1.09;4.91) and 1.98% (95%CI:0.28;3.68) higher HTR2A-methylation when comparing residences with and without the presence of nature in a 50 m and 100 m buffer, respectively. The methylation status of HTR2A in placental tissue is positively associated with maternal green space exposure. Future research is needed to understand better how these epigenetic changes are related to functional modifications in the placenta and the consequent implications for foetal development.

3.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 46(7): 1384-1393, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35508813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underlying childhood overweight and obesity are poorly known. Here, we investigated the direct and indirect effects of different prenatal exposures on offspring rapid postnatal growth and overweight in childhood, mediated through cord blood metabolites. Additionally, rapid postnatal growth was considered a potential mediator on childhood overweight, alone and sequentially to each metabolite. METHODS: Within four European birth-cohorts (N = 375 mother-child dyads), information on seven prenatal exposures (maternal education, pre-pregnancy BMI, weight gain and tobacco smoke during pregnancy, age at delivery, parity, and child gestational age), selected as obesogenic according to a-priori knowledge, was collected. Cord blood levels of 31 metabolites, associated with rapid postnatal growth and/or childhood overweight in a previous study, were measured via liquid-chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry. Rapid growth at 12 months and childhood overweight (including obesity) between four and eight years were defined with reference to WHO growth charts. Single mediation analysis was performed using the imputation approach and multiple mediation analysis using the extended-imputation approach. RESULTS: Single mediation suggested that the effect of maternal education, pregnancy weight gain, parity, and gestational age on rapid postnatal growth but not on childhood overweight was partly mediated by seven metabolites, including cholestenone, decenoylcarnitine(C10:1), phosphatidylcholine(C34:3), progesterone and three unidentified metabolites; and the effect of gestational age on childhood overweight was mainly mediated by rapid postnatal growth. Multiple mediation suggested that the effect of gestational age on childhood overweight was mainly mediated by rapid postnatal growth and that the mediating role of the metabolites was marginal. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide evidence of the involvement of in utero metabolism in the propensity to rapid postnatal growth and of rapid postnatal growth in the propensity to childhood overweight. We did not find evidence supporting a mediating role of the studied metabolites alone between the studied prenatal exposures and the propensity to childhood overweight.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Peso ao Nascer , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Humanos , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Ganho de Peso
4.
Environ Health Perspect ; 130(5): 57003, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35543508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The available evidence for positive associations between urban trees and human health is mixed, partly because the assessment of exposure to trees is often imprecise because of, for instance, exclusion of trees in private areas and the lack of three-dimensional (3D) exposure indicators (e.g., crown volume). OBJECTIVES: We aimed to quantify all trees and relevant 3D structural traits in Brussels (Belgium) and to investigate associations between the number of trees, tree traits, and sales of medication commonly prescribed for mood disorders and cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We developed a workflow to automatically isolate all individual trees from airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data collected in 2012. Trait data were subsequently extracted for 309,757 trees in 604 census tracts. We used the average annual age-standardized rate of medication sales in Brussels for the period 2006 to 2014, calculated from reimbursement information on medication prescribed to adults (19-64 years of age). The medication sales data were provided by sex at the census tract level. Generalized log-linear models were used to investigate associations between the number of trees, the crown volume, tree structural variation, and medication sales. Models were run separately for mood disorder and cardiovascular medication and for men and women. All models were adjusted for indicators of area-level socioeconomic status. RESULTS: Single-factor models showed that higher stem densities and higher crown volumes are both associated with lower medication sales, but opposing associations emerged in multifactor models. Higher crown volume [an increase by one interquartile range (IQR) of 1.4×104 m³/ha] was associated with 34% lower mood disorder medication sales [women, ß=-0.341 (95% CI: -0.379, -0.303); men, ß=-0.340 (95% CI: -0.378, -0.303)] and with 21-25% lower cardiovascular medication sales [women, ß=-0.214 (95% CI: -0.246, -0.182); men, ß=-0.252 (95% CI: -0.285, -0.219)]. Conversely, a higher stem density (an increase by one IQR of 21.8 trees/ha) was associated with 28-32% higher mood disorder medication sales [women, ß=0.322 (95% CI: 0.284, 0.361); men, ß=0.281 (95% CI: 0.243, 0.319)] and with 20-24% higher cardiovascular medication sales [women, ß=0.202 (95% CI: 0.169, 0.236); men, ß=0.240 (95% CI: 0.206, 0.273)]. DISCUSSION: We found a trade-off between the number of trees and the crown volumes of those trees for human health benefits in an urban environment. Our results demonstrate that conserving large trees in urban environments may not only support conservation of biodiversity but also human health. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP9924.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Árvores , Adulto , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Comércio , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Humor/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Environ Res ; 211: 113056, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35248565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Residential green space has been associated with mental health benefits, but how such associations vary with green space types is insufficiently known. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate associations between types and quantities of green space and sales of mood disorder medication in Belgium. METHODS: We used aggregated sales data of psycholeptics and psychoanaleptics prescribed to adults from 2006 to 2014. Generalized mixed effects models were used to investigate associations between relative covers of woodland, low-green, grassland, and garden, and average annual medication sales. Models were adjusted for socio-economic background variables, urban-rural differences, and administrative region, and included random effects of latitude and longitude. RESULTS: Urban census tracts were associated with 9-10% higher medication sales. In nationwide models, a 10% increase in relative cover of woodland, garden, and grass was associated with a 1-2% decrease in medication sales. The same association was found for low green but only for men. In stratified models, a 10% increase in relative cover of any green space type in urban census tracts was associated with a decrease of medication sales by 1-3%. In rural census tracts, no protective associations between green space and mood disorder medication sales were observed, with the exception of relative woodland cover for women (-1%), and low green was associated with higher medication sales (+6-7%). CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results suggest that living in green environments may be beneficial for adult mental health. Woodland exposure seemed the most beneficial, but the amount of green space was more important than the type. Results underline the importance of conserving green space in our living environment, for the conservation of biodiversity and for human health.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Parques Recreativos , Adulto , Bélgica , Comércio , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prescrições
6.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 14(4): 1627-1650, 2022 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35169104

RESUMO

Aging starts at the beginning of life as evidenced by high variability in telomere length (TL) and mitochondrial DNA content (mtDNAc) at birth. Whether p53 and PGC-1α are connected to these age-related markers in early life is unclear. In this study, we hypothesized that these hallmarks of aging are associated at birth. In 613 newborns from the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort, p53 and PGC-1α protein levels were measured in cord plasma, while TL and mtDNAc were measured in both cord blood and placental tissue. Cord blood methylation data of genes corresponding to the measured protein levels were available from the Human MethylationEPIC 850K BeadChip array. Pearson correlations and linear regression models were applied while accounting for selected covariates. In cord, a 10% increase in TL was associated with 5.22% (95% CI: 3.26 to 7.22; p < 0.0001) higher mtDNAc and -2.66% (95% CI: -5.04 to -0.23%; p = 0.032) lower p53 plasma level. In placenta, a 10% increase in TL was associated with 5.46% (95% CI: 3.82 to 7.13%; p < 0.0001) higher mtDNAc and -2.42% (95% CI: -4.29 to -0.52; p = 0.0098) lower p53 plasma level. Methylation level of TP53 was correlated with TL and mtDNAc in cord blood and with cord plasma p53 level. Our study suggests that p53 may be an important factor both at the protein and methylation level for the telomere-mitochondrial axis of aging at birth.


Assuntos
Placenta , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53 , Envelhecimento/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Humanos , Gravidez , Telômero/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
7.
Diabetes Care ; 45(3): 614-623, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35104326

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Maternal glycemic dysregulation during pregnancy increases the risk of adverse health outcomes in her offspring, a risk thought to be linearly related to maternal hyperglycemia. It is hypothesized that changes in offspring DNA methylation (DNAm) underline these associations. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: To address this hypothesis, we conducted fixed-effects meta-analyses of epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) results from eight birth cohorts investigating relationships between cord blood DNAm and fetal exposure to maternal glucose (Nmaximum = 3,503), insulin (Nmaximum = 2,062), and area under the curve of glucose (AUCgluc) following oral glucose tolerance tests (Nmaximum = 1,505). We performed lookup analyses for identified cytosine-guanine dinucleotides (CpGs) in independent observational cohorts to examine associations between DNAm and cardiometabolic traits as well as tissue-specific gene expression. RESULTS: Greater maternal AUCgluc was associated with lower cord blood DNAm at neighboring CpGs cg26974062 (ß [SE] -0.013 [2.1 × 10-3], P value corrected for false discovery rate [PFDR] = 5.1 × 10-3) and cg02988288 (ß [SE]-0.013 [2.3 × 10-3], PFDR = 0.031) in TXNIP. These associations were attenuated in women with GDM. Lower blood DNAm at these two CpGs near TXNIP was associated with multiple metabolic traits later in life, including type 2 diabetes. TXNIP DNAm in liver biopsies was associated with hepatic expression of TXNIP. We observed little evidence of associations between either maternal glucose or insulin and cord blood DNAm. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal hyperglycemia, as reflected by AUCgluc, was associated with lower cord blood DNAm at TXNIP. Associations between DNAm at these CpGs and metabolic traits in subsequent lookup analyses suggest that these may be candidate loci to investigate in future causal and mediation analyses.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Diabetes Gestacional , Metilação de DNA/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Gestacional/genética , Diabetes Gestacional/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Epigenoma , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
8.
Environ Health ; 21(1): 24, 2022 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35135544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient fine particulate matter (PM < 2.5 µm, PM2.5) is gaining increasing attention as an environmental risk factor for health. The kidneys are considered a particularly vulnerable target to the toxic effects that PM2.5 exerts. Alteration of kidney function may lead to a disrupted homeostasis, affecting disparate tissues in the body. This review intends to summarize all relevant knowledge published between January 2000 and December 2021 on the effects of ambient PM2.5 and the adverse effects on kidney function in adults (≥ 18 years). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Studies published in peer-reviewed journals, written in English, regarding the effects of PM2.5 on kidney function and the development and/or exacerbation of kidney disease(s) were included. Of the 587 nonduplicate studies evaluated, 40 were included, comprising of studies on healthy or diagnosed with pre-existing disease (sub)populations. Most of the studies were cohort studies (n = 27), followed by 10 cross-sectional, 1 ecological and 2 time-series studies. One longitudinal study was considered intermediate risk of bias, the other included studies were considered low risk of bias. A large portion of the studies (n = 36) showed that PM2.5 exposure worsened kidney outcome(s) investigated; however, some studies show contradictory results. Measurement of the estimated glomerular filtration rate, for instance, was found to be positively associated (n = 8) as well as negatively associated (n = 4) with PM2.5. LIMITATIONS AND CONCLUSION: The main limitations of the included studies include residual confounding (e.g., smoking) and lack of individual exposure levels. The majority of included studies focused on specific subpopulations, which may limit generalizability. Evidence of the detrimental effects that ambient PM2.5 may exert on kidney function is emerging. However, further investigations are required to determine how and to what extent air pollution, specifically PM2.5, exerts adverse effects on the kidney and alters its function. REGISTRATION: The systematic review protocol was submitted and published by the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO; CRD42020175615 ).


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Rim , Estudos Longitudinais , Material Particulado/análise , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
9.
Environ Epidemiol ; 6(1): e193, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35169671

RESUMO

Immune-mediated, noncommunicable diseases-such as autoimmune and inflammatory diseases-are chronic disorders, in which the interaction between environmental exposures and the immune system plays an important role. The prevalence and societal costs of these diseases are rising in the European Union. The EXIMIOUS consortium-gathering experts in immunology, toxicology, occupational health, clinical medicine, exposure science, epidemiology, bioinformatics, and sensor development-will study eleven European study populations, covering the entire lifespan, including prenatal life. Innovative ways of characterizing and quantifying the exposome will be combined with high-dimensional immunophenotyping and -profiling platforms to map the immune effects (immunome) induced by the exposome. We will use two main approaches that "meet in the middle"-one starting from the exposome, the other starting from health effects. Novel bioinformatics tools, based on systems immunology and machine learning, will be used to integrate and analyze these large datasets to identify immune fingerprints that reflect a person's lifetime exposome or that are early predictors of disease. This will allow researchers, policymakers, and clinicians to grasp the impact of the exposome on the immune system at the level of individuals and populations.

10.
Environ Res ; 208: 112603, 2022 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34995548

RESUMO

Green spaces are associated with increased well-being and reduced risk of developing psychiatric disorders. In this study, we aimed to investigate how residential proximity to green spaces was associated with stress response buffering during the COVID-19 pandemic in a prospective cohort of young mothers. We collected information on stress in 766 mothers (mean age: 36.6 years) from the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort at baseline of the study (from 2010 onwards), and during the COVID-19 pandemic (from December 2020 until May 2021). Self-reported stress responses due to the COVID-19 pandemic were the outcome measure. Green space was quantified in several radiuses around the residence based on high-resolution (1 m2) data. Using ordinal logistic regression, we estimated the odds of better resistance to reported stress, while controlling for age, socio-economic status, stress related to care for children, urbanicity, and household change in income during the pandemic. In sensitivity analyses we corrected for pre-pandemic stress levels, BMI, physical activity, and changes in health-related habits during the pandemic. We found that for an inter-quartile range contrast in residential green space 300 m and 500 m around the residence, participants were respectively 24% (OR = 1.24, 95%CI: 1.03 to 1.51) and 29% (OR = 1.29, 95%CI: 1.04 to 1.60) more likely to be in a more resistant category, independent of the aforementioned factors. These results remained robust after additionally controlling for pre-pandemic stress levels, BMI, physical activity, smoking status, urbanicity, psychological disorders, and changes in health-related habits during the pandemic. This prospective study in young mothers highlights the importance of proximity to green spaces, especially during challenging times.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Mães , Parques Recreativos , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Mães/psicologia , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Environ Int ; 161: 107094, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35074632

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: During early childhood, neuronal networks are highly susceptible to environmental factors. Previous research suggests that green space exposure is beneficial for cognitive functioning. Here, we investigate the associations between residential green space exposure and behavioral problems and cognitive development in children aged four to six years. METHOD: We included children participating in the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort. Residential green spaces were calculated based on high-resolution land cover data within several buffers (50-1,000 m) around the residence. The children's behavior was assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) among 411 children. In addition, to evaluate cognitive function, 456 children completed four tasks of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). We used multivariate logistic and linear regression models while accounting for potential confounders and covariables. RESULTS: An interquartile (IQR) increase of residential green space within 50 m was associated with a 38% (95% CI: 56;14) lower odds of a child having hyperactivity problems. Additionally, we found a beneficial influence of residential green space in close proximity (50-100 m) on the attention and psychomotor speed, represented by the Motor Screening Task. For example, we found a decrease of 0.45 (95% CI: -0.82;-0.09) pixel units from target center with an IQR increase of residential green space in a 50 m buffer. In addition, we observed an improved visual recognition/working memory, represented by the Delayed Matching to Sample Task within all included buffers (50-1000 m). For example, we observed a decrease of 4.91% (95 %CI: -7.46;-2.36) probability of an error occurring if the previous trial was correct and a 2.02% (95 %CI: 0.08; 3.97) increase of correct trials with an IQR increase of green space within a 100 m buffer. CONCLUSION: This study provides additional indications for a beneficial influence of green space exposure on the development of behavioral problems and cognitive function as young as four years of age.


Assuntos
Parques Recreativos , Comportamento Problema , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Humanos
12.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 240: 113884, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34847453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although a growing body of research has shown that exposure to nature has restorative effects on human health, the potential beneficial effects of nature-based interventions in the working environment are still underexplored. METHODS: We performed a randomized controlled study with a nature-based program during working hours. We enrolled employees, randomized the participants into two groups being an intervention and a control group. Twice a week for three consecutive weeks, the intervention group participated in nature-based activities for 2 h. The primary outcomes were cognitive performance, burnout assessment, salivary cortisol levels, and continuous stress levels. We performed intervention-response analyses using mixed-effects models that included random effects for each participant across the different examinations. RESULTS: Compared to the control group (n = 20), the intervention group (n = 25) participating in the nature-based program had a lower Burnout Assessment Tool score (-14.9% CI-16.2 to -14.3, difference; p < 0.001), lower salivary cortisol levels (-29.3% CI-34.7 to -25.3; p < 0.001) and higher visual information processing speed (7.4% CI6.9-8.0; p < 0.001). Selective attention of the participants that participated in the nature-based program improved during the interventions (-10.6 CI-19.6 to -6.9, p = 0.045), compared to the controls. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides novel evidence that exposure to nature during work hours reduces stress and improves cognitive performance. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number: NCT04111796.


Assuntos
Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Local de Trabalho , Cognição , Humanos
13.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 240: 113895, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34883335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Glyphosate, a broad-spectrum herbicide, and its main metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) are persistent in the environment. Studies showed associations between glyphosate or AMPA exposure and several adverse cellular processes, including metabolic alterations and oxidative stress. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between glyphosate and AMPA exposure and biomarkers of biological aging. METHODS: We examined glyphosate and AMPA exposure, mtDNA content and leukocyte telomere length in 181 adults, included in the third cycle of the Flemish Environment and Health Study (FLEHSIII). DNA was isolated from leukocytes and the relative mtDNA content and telomere length were determined using qPCR. Urinary glyphosate and AMPA concentrations were measured by Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS-MS). We used multiple linear regression models to associate mtDNA content and leukocyte telomere length with glyphosate or AMPA exposure while adjusting for confounding variables. RESULTS: A doubling in urinary AMPA concentration was associated with 5.19% (95% CI: 0.49 to 10.11; p = 0.03) longer leukocyte telomere length, while no association was observed with urinary glyphosate concentration. No association between mtDNA content and urinary glyphosate nor AMPA levels was observed. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that AMPA exposure may be associated with telomere biology in adults.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Biomarcadores , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/urina , Organofosfonatos , Ácido alfa-Amino-3-hidroxi-5-metil-4-isoxazol Propiônico
14.
Obes Rev ; 23 Suppl 1: e13389, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816569

RESUMO

The tremendous increase in childhood obesity prevalence over the last few decades cannot merely be explained by genetics and evolutionary changes in the genome, implying that gene-environment interactions, such as epigenetic modifications, likely play a major role. This systematic review aims to summarize the evidence of the association between epigenetics and childhood obesity. A literature search was performed via PubMed and Scopus engines using a combination of terms related to epigenetics and pediatric obesity. Articles studying the association between epigenetic mechanisms (including DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation, non-coding RNAs, and chromatin and histones modification) and obesity and/or overweight (or any related anthropometric parameters) in children (0-18 years) were included. The risk of bias was assessed with a modified Newcastle-Ottawa scale for non-randomized studies. One hundred twenty-one studies explored epigenetic changes related to childhood obesity. DNA methylation was the most widely investigated mechanism (N = 101 studies), followed by non-coding RNAs (N = 19 studies) with evidence suggestive of an association with childhood obesity for DNA methylation of specific genes and microRNAs (miRNAs). One study, focusing on histones modification, was identified. Heterogeneity of findings may have hindered more insights into the epigenetic changes related to childhood obesity. Gaps and challenges that future research should face are herein described.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Obesidade Pediátrica , Criança , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Obesidade Pediátrica/genética
15.
Obes Rev ; 23 Suppl 1: e13384, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797026

RESUMO

Childhood obesity has become a global epidemic and carries significant long-term consequences to physical and mental health. Metabolomics, the global profiling of small molecules or metabolites, may reveal the mechanisms of development of childhood obesity and clarify links between obesity and metabolic disease. A systematic review of metabolomic studies of childhood obesity was conducted, following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA) guidelines, searching across Scopus, Ovid, Web of Science and PubMed databases for articles published from January 1, 2005 to July 8, 2020, retrieving 1271 different records and retaining 41 articles for qualitative synthesis. Study quality was assessed using a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Thirty-three studies were conducted on blood, six on urine, three on umbilical cord blood, and one on saliva. Thirty studies were primarily cross-sectional, five studies were primarily longitudinal, and seven studies examined effects of weight-loss following a life-style intervention. A consistent metabolic profile of childhood obesity was observed including amino acids (particularly branched chain and aromatic), carnitines, lipids, and steroids. Although the use of metabolomics in childhood obesity research is still developing, the identified metabolites have provided additional insight into the pathogenesis of many obesity-related diseases. Further longitudinal research is needed into the role of metabolic profiles and child obesity risk.


Assuntos
Metabolômica , Obesidade Pediátrica , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Obesidade Pediátrica/metabolismo , Perda de Peso
16.
Environ Int ; 159: 107016, 2022 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34896669

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Previous studies suggested that green space is beneficial for the cognitive development in children. However, evidence in adolescents is limited. Therefore, we aim to investigate green space exposure in association with attention and behaviour in adolescents. METHODS: This study includes 596 Flemish adolescents between 13 and 17 years old. Attention was assessed with Stroop Test (selective attention) and Continuous Performance Test (sustained and selective attention). Behaviour was determined based on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Green space was estimated in several radius distances around their current residence and school based on high-resolution land cover data. Multilevel regression analyses were used adjusting for participant's age, sex, education level of the mother, and area deprivation index. RESULTS: Surrounding green space in a 2000 m radius is associated with a faster reaction time in adolescents. An IQR (13%) increment in total green space within 2000 m of the residence and school combined, is associated with a 32.7 ms (95% CI: -58.9 to -6.5; p = 0.02) and a 7.28 ms (95% CI: -11.7 to -2.8; p = 0.001) shorter mean reaction time between the presentation of a stimulus and the response based on the Stroop Test and the Continuous Performance Test. Subdividing green space based on vegetation height, shows that green space higher than 3 m is associated with a faster reaction time of the Continuous Performance Test (-6.50 ms; 95% CI: -10.9 to -2.2; p = 0.004), while low green is not. We did not find an association between green space and behavioural development in adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that green space, especially trees, surrounding the residence and school combined is associated with better sustained and selected attention in adolescents. These findings indicate that the availability of green is important for adolescents that are growing up in a rapidly urbanizing world.


Assuntos
Atenção , Parques Recreativos , Adolescente , Humanos , Características de Residência
18.
Environ Int ; 157: 106845, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parabens are used as antimicrobial preservatives in personal care products. Few studies have dealt with adverse health outcomes, transplacental transfer, and obesogenic effects of prenatal exposure to parabens. We examined the association between placental paraben levels and cord blood metabolic biomarkers, considering modulating effects of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and underlying epigenetic mechanisms, and investigated longitudinal effects of in utero paraben exposure on early childhood trajectories of BMI z-scores. METHODS: Placental concentrations of four parabens [methyl (MeP), ethyl (EtP), propyl (PrP), and butyl (BuP)] were measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry in 229 placentas of the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort. The association with cord blood metabolic biomarkers [glucose, insulin, γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), high-density and low-density lipoprotein (HDL and LDL)] was analyzed in multiple regression models with two different sets of, a priori selected potential confounders, additionally stratified for different maternal BMI groups and assessed by causal mediation analysis. The association between placental paraben concentration and differential DNA methylation of CpGs annotated to GGT and longitudinal measurements of BMI z-scores were investigated with adjusted linear mixed models. RESULTS: The geometric means of placental MeP, EtP, PrP, and BuP levels above the limit of detection (LOD) were 4.42, 1.32, 1.51, and 0.35 ng/g respectively, with only EtP showing sufficient (88%) measurements above LOD for further analyses. An interquartile ratio (IQR) increase in placental EtP was associated with an increase of 12.61 % (95% CI: 1.80 24.57) in the geometric mean of cord GGT activity, and with a decrease of -3.64 % (95% CI: -6.80 to -0.39) in the geometric mean of cord glucose. Placental EtP levels were significantly associated with hypermethylation of cg08612779 annotated to GGT7 after correcting for multiple testing (ß = 0.0017, p = 0.049). An interquartile ratio (IQR) increment in placental EtP was associated with a decrease in longitudinal BMI z-score of 0.27 points (95% CI: -0.46 to -0.088). CONCLUSION: Prenatal EtP exposure may affect early childhood BMI. The association of placental EtP with cord blood GGT and glucose levels provides a starting point for further research on mechanisms of paraben-related metabolic processes in utero.


Assuntos
Sangue Fetal , Parabenos , Biomarcadores , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Parabenos/efeitos adversos , Placenta , Gravidez
19.
Environ Int ; 157: 106799, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence indicates that cardiovascular health in adulthood, particularly that of the microcirculation, could find its roots during prenatal development. In this study, we investigated the association between pre- and postnatal air pollution exposure on heat-induced skin hyperemia as a dynamic marker of the microvasculature. METHODS: In 139 children between the ages of 4 and 6 who are followed longitudinally within the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort, we measured skin perfusion by Laser Doppler probes using the Periflux6000. Residential black carbon (BC), particulate (PM10 and PM2.5) air pollution, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels were modelled for each participant's home address using a high-resolution spatiotemporal model for multiple time windows. We assessed the association between skin hyperemia and pre- and postnatal air pollution using multiple regression models while adjusting for relevant covariates. RESULTS: Residential BC exposure during the whole pregnancy averaged (IQR) 1.42 (1.22-1.58) µg/m3, PM10 18.88 (16.64 - 21.13) µg/m3, PM2.5 13.67 (11.5 - 15.56) µg/m3 and NO2 18.39 (15.52 - 20.31) µg/m3. An IQR increment in BC exposure during the third trimester of pregnancy was associated with an 11.5 % (95% CI: -20.1 to -1.9; p = 0.020) lower skin hyperemia. Similar effect estimates were retrieved for PM10, PM2.5 and NO2 (respectively 13.9 % [95% CI: -21.9 to -3.0; p = 0.003], 17.0 % [95% CI: -26.7 to -6.1; p = 0.004] and 12.7% [95 % CI: -22.2 to -1.9; p = 0.023] lower skin hyperemia). In multipollutant models, PM2.5 showed the strongest inverse association with skin hyperemia. Postnatal exposure to BC, PM10, PM2.5 or NO2, was not associated with skin hyperemia at the age of 4 to 6, and did not alter the previous reported prenatal associations when taken into account. CONCLUSION: Our findings support that BC, particulate air pollution, and NO2 exposure, even at low concentrations, during prenatal life, can have long-lasting consequences for the microvasculature. This proposes a role of prenatal air pollution exposures over and beyond postnatal exposure in the microvascular alterations which were persistent into childhood.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Carbono , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Microcirculação , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Gravidez
20.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 45(10): 2252-2260, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253844

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Metabolomics may identify biological pathways predisposing children to the risk of overweight and obesity. In this study, we have investigated the cord blood metabolic signatures of rapid growth in infancy and overweight in early childhood in four European birth cohorts. METHODS: Untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolomic profiles were measured in cord blood from 399 newborns from four European cohorts (ENVIRONAGE, Rhea, INMA and Piccolipiu). Rapid growth in the first year of life and overweight in childhood was defined with reference to WHO growth charts. Metabolome-wide association scans for rapid growth and overweight on over 4500 metabolic features were performed using multiple adjusted logistic mixed-effect models and controlling the false discovery rate (FDR) at 5%. In addition, we performed a look-up analysis of 43 pre-annotated metabolites, previously associated with birthweight or rapid growth. RESULTS: In the Metabolome-Wide Association Study analysis, we identified three and eight metabolites associated with rapid growth and overweight, respectively, after FDR correction. Higher levels of cholestenone, a cholesterol derivative produced by microbial catabolism, were predictive of rapid growth (p = 1.6 × 10-3). Lower levels of the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) valine (p = 8.6 × 10-6) were predictive of overweight in childhood. The area under the receiver operator curve for multivariate prediction models including these metabolites and traditional risk factors was 0.77 for rapid growth and 0.82 for overweight, compared with 0.69 and 0.69, respectively, for models using traditional risk factors alone. Among the 43 pre-annotated metabolites, seven and five metabolites were nominally associated (P < 0.05) with rapid growth and overweight, respectively. The BCAA leucine, remained associated (1.6 × 10-3) with overweight after FDR correction. CONCLUSION: The metabolites identified here may assist in the identification of children at risk of developing obesity and improve understanding of mechanisms involved in postnatal growth. Cholestenone and BCAAs are suggestive of a role of the gut microbiome and nutrient signalling respectively in child growth trajectories.


Assuntos
Sangue Fetal , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Metaboloma/fisiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/sangue , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco
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