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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574374

RESUMO

The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the effects of combined resistance and aerobic exercise on arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women. Two databases, PubMed and Google Scholar were searched to identify relevant studies. The methodological quality was assessed with the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. Only seven studies met the eligibility criteria, and their outcomes were presented. Four studies demonstrated the effects of combined resistance and aerobic training, while three showed the effectiveness of exercise with both training components, aerobic and resistance. In all studies, arterial stiffness was measured by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Participants were middle-aged or older postmenopausal women of various health statuses (hypertensive, with comorbidities or healthy). The results unequivocally show that combined training reduces arterial stiffness. The most important finding of this review paper is that the applied type of exercise decreased baPWV in the range of 0.6-2.1 m/s. Moreover, combined resistance and aerobic exercise for 12 weeks, performed three times a week for about 60 min per training session, at a moderate intensity (40-60% HRR or HRmax), may be clinically meaningful to the cardiovascular system. In conclusion, we can say that combined resistance and aerobic training, or exercise with resistance and aerobic components, have important health implications for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and the maintenance or improvement of health in middle-aged and older postmenopausal women with different health conditions.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444126

RESUMO

Although absolute jump heights should be considered an important factor in judging the performance requirements of volleyball players, limited data is available on age-appropriate categories. The purpose of this study is to determine the differences in specific anthropometric characteristics and jumping performance variables in under-19 female volleyball players in relation to playing position and performance level. The sample of subjects consisted of 354 players who prepared for the U19 Women's Volleyball European Championship 2020 (17.4 ± 0.8 years, 1.81 ± 0.07 m, 67.5 ± 7.1 kg). Playing positions analyzed were setters (n = 55), opposites (n = 37), middle blockers (n = 82), outside hitters (n = 137), and liberos (n = 43). The results showed player position differences in every performance level group in variables of body height, spike, and block jump. Observed differences are a consequence of highly specific tasks of different positions in the composition of the team. Players of different performance levels are significantly different, with athletes of higher-ranked teams achieving better results. The acquired data could be useful for the selection and profiling of young volleyball players.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Voleibol , Antropometria , Atletas , Estatura , Feminino , Humanos
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932771

RESUMO

(1) Background: Regular physical activity (PA) plays an important role during early childhood physical and psychological development. This study investigates the effects of a 9-month PA intervention on physiological characteristics and motor and cognitive skills in preschool children. (2) Methods: Preschool children (n = 132; age 4 to 7 years) attending regular preschool programs were nonrandomly assigned to PA intervention (n = 66; 60 min sessions twice per week) or a control group (n = 66; no additional organized PA program) for 9 months. Exercise training for the intervention group included various sports games, outdoor activities, martial arts, yoga, and dance. Anthropometry, motor skills (7 tests), and cognitive skills (Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices and Cognitive Assessment System) were assessed before and after an intervention period in both groups. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA. (3) Results: Body weight significantly increased in both groups over time. Compared to the changes observed in the control group, the intervention group significantly increased in chest circumference (p = 0.022). In contrast, the control group demonstrated an increase in waist circumference (p = 0.001), while these measures in the intervention group remained stable. Participants in the intervention group improved running speed (p = 0.016) and standing broad jump (p = 0.000). The flexibility level was maintained in the intervention group, while a significant decrease was observed in the control group (p = 0.010). Children from the intervention group demonstrated progress in the bent-arm hang test (p = 0.001), unlike the control group subjects. Varied improvements in cognitive skills were observed for different variables in both intervention and control groups, with no robust evidence for PA-intervention-related improvements. (4) Conclusions: Preschool children's participation in a preschool PA intervention improves their motor skills.


Assuntos
Cognição , Dança , Exercício Físico , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Destreza Motora
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