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1.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420498

RESUMO

AIMS: In this secondary analysis of the EMPEROR-Reduced trial, we sought to evaluate whether the benefits of empagliflozin varied by baseline health status and how empagliflozin impacted patient-reported outcomes in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. METHODS AND RESULTS: Health status was assessed by the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaires-clinical summary score (KCCQ-CSS). The influence of baseline KCCQ-CSS (analyzed by tertiles) on the effect of empagliflozin on major outcomes was examined using Cox proportional hazards models. Responder analyses were performed to assess the odds of improvement and deterioration in KCCQ scores related to treatment with empagliflozin. Empagliflozin reduced the primary outcome of cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalization regardless of baseline KCCQ-CSS tertiles [hazard ratio (HR) 0.83 (0.68-1.02), HR 0.74 (0.58-0.94), and HR 0.61 (0.46-0.82) for <62.5, 62.6-85.4, and ≥85.4 score tertiles, respectively; P-trend = 0.10]. Empagliflozin improved KCCQ-CSS, total symptom score, and overall summary score at 3, 8, and 12 months. More patients on empagliflozin had ≥5-point [odds ratio (OR) 1.20 (1.05-1.37)], 10-point [OR 1.26 (1.10-1.44)], and 15-point [OR 1.29 (1.12-1.48)] improvement and fewer had ≥5-point [OR 0.75 (0.64-0.87)] deterioration in KCCQ-CSS at 3 months. These benefits were sustained at 8 and 12 months and were similar for other KCCQ domains. CONCLUSION: Empagliflozin improved cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalization risk across the range of baseline health status. Empagliflozin improved health status across various domains, and this benefit was sustained during long-term follow-up. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03057977.

2.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459776

RESUMO

AIMS: We evaluated the influence of sacubitril/valsartan on the effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibition with empagliflozin in patients with heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction. METHODS AND RESULTS: The EMPEROR-Reduced trial randomized 3730 patients with heart failure and an ejection fraction ≤40% to placebo or empagliflozin (10 mg/day), in addition to recommended treatment for heart failure, for a median of 16 months. A total of 727 patients (19.5%) received sacubitril/valsartan at baseline. Analysis of the effect of neprilysin inhibition was 1 of 12 pre-specified subgroups. Patients receiving a neprilysin inhibitor were particularly well-treated, as evidenced by lower systolic pressures, heart rates, N-terminal prohormone B-type natriuretic peptide, and greater use of cardiac devices (all P < 0.001) when compared with those not receiving sacubitril/valsartan. Nevertheless, when compared with placebo, empagliflozin reduced the risk of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure in patients receiving or not receiving sacubitril/valsartan [hazard ratio 0.64 (95% CI 0.45-0.89), P = 0.009 and hazard ratio 0.77 (95% CI 0.66-0.90), P = 0.0008, respectively, interaction P = 0.31]. Empagliflozin slowed the rate of decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate by 1.92 ± 0.80 mL/min/1.73 m2/year in patients taking a neprilysin inhibitor (P = 0.016) and by 1.71 ± 0.35 mL/min/1.73 m2/year in patients not taking a neprilysin inhibitor (P < 0.0001), interaction P = 0.81. Combined inhibition of SGLT2 and neprilysin was well-tolerated. CONCLUSION: The effects on empagliflozin to reduce the risk of heart failure and renal events are not diminished in intensively treated patients who are receiving sacubitril/valsartan. Combined treatment with both SGLT2 and neprilysin inhibitors can be expected to yield substantial additional benefits.

3.
EuroIntervention ; 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33226002

RESUMO

AIMS: Multiple endpoints with varying clinical relevance are available to establish the efficacy of device-based treatments. We propose a novel prioritized endpoint framework for determining the treatment benefit of renal denervation (RDN) compared with sham control. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed the SPYRAL HTN-ON MED pilot study data using a prioritized hierarchical endpoint comprised of 24-hour mean ambulatory systolic blood pressure (SBP), office SBP, and medication burden. A generalized pairwise comparisons methodology (win ratio) is extended to examine this endpoint. Clinically relevant thresholds of 5 and 10 mmHg were used for comparisons of ambulatory and office SBP, respectively, and therefore define treatment 'winners' and 'losers'. For a total 1596 unmatched pairs, the RDN subject was the winner in 1050 pairs; RDN subject was the loser in 378 pairs; and 168 pairs were tied. The win ratio in favour of RDN was 2.78 (95% confidence interval, 1.58 to 5.48; P <0.001) and corresponding net benefit statistic was 0.42 (95% CI, 0.20 to 0.63). Sensitivity analyses performed with differing blood pressure thresholds and according to drug adherence testing demonstrated consistent results. CONCLUSIONS: The win ratio method addresses prior limitations by enabling inclusion of more patient-oriented results while prioritizing those endpoints considered most clinically important. Applying these methods to the SPYRAL HTN-ON MED pilot study, RDN was determined superior regarding a hierarchical endpoint and a 'winner' compared with sham control patients. Classifications Renal sympathetic denervation, uncontrolled hypertension, clinical trials.

5.
Clin Cardiol ; 43(12): 1352-1361, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146924

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) risk. We compared health-related quality of life (HRQoL), healthcare resource utilization (HRU), and clinical outcomes of stable post-myocardial infarction (MI) patients with and without DM. HYPOTHESIS: In post-MI patients, DM is associated with worse HRQoL, increased HRU, and worse clinical outcomes. METHODS: The prospective, observational long-term risk, clinical management, and healthcare Resource utilization of stable coronary artery disease study obtained data from 8968 patients aged ≥50 years 1 to 3 years post-MI (369 centers; 25 countries). Patients with ≥1 of the following risk factors were included: age ≥65 years, history of a second MI >1 year before enrollment, multivessel coronary artery disease, creatinine clearance ≥15 and <60 mL/min, and DM treated with medication. Self-reported health status was assessed at baseline, 1 and 2 years and converted to EQ-5D scores. The main outcome measures were baseline HRQoL and HRU during follow-up. RESULTS: DM at enrollment was 33% (2959 patients, 869 insulin treated). Mean baseline EQ-5D score (0.86 vs 0.82; P < .0001) was higher; mean number of hospitalizations (0.38 vs 0.50, P < .0001) and mean length of stay (LoS; 9.3 vs 11.5; P = .001) were lower in patients without vs with DM. All-cause death and the composite of CV death, MI, and stroke were significantly higher in DM patients, with adjusted 2-year rate ratios of 1.43 (P < .01) and 1.55 (P < .001), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Stable post-MI patients with DM (especially insulin treated) had poorer EQ-5D scores, higher hospitalization rates and LoS, and worse clinical outcomes vs those without DM. Strategies focusing specifically on this high-risk population should be developed to improve outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01866904 (https://clinicaltrials.gov).

6.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33251670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: EMPEROR-Preserved is an ongoing trial evaluating the effect of empagliflozin in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). This report describes the baseline characteristics of the EMPEROR-Preserved cohort and compares it with patients enrolled in prior HFpEF trials. METHODS: EMPEROR-Preserved is a phase III randomized, international, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial in which 5988 symptomatic HFpEF patients (left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] >40%) with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been enrolled. Patients were required to have elevated N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentrations (i.e. >300 pg/mL in patients without and >900 pg/mL in patients with atrial fibrillation) along with evidence of structural changes in the heart or documented history of HF hospitalization. RESULTS: Among patients enrolled from various regions (45% Europe, 11% Asia, 25% Latin America, 12% North America), the mean age was 72±9 years, 45% were women. Almost all patients had New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class II or III symptoms (99.6%), and 23% had prior HF hospitalization within 12 months. Thirty-three percent of the patients had baseline LVEF of 41-50%. The mean LVEF (54±9%) was slightly lower while the median NT-proBNP (974 [499-1731] pg/mL) was higher compared with previous HFpEF trials. Presence of comorbidities such as diabetes (49%) and chronic kidney disease (50%) were common. The majority of the patients were on angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers/ARNi's (80%) and beta-blockers (86%), and 37% of patients were on mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. CONCLUSION: When compared with prior trials in HFpEF, the EMPEROR-Preserved cohort has a somewhat higher burden of co-morbidities, lower LVEF, higher median NT-proBNP and greater use of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists at baseline. Results of the EMPEROR-Preserved trial will be available in 2021. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

7.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33251659

RESUMO

AIM: The EMPEROR-Reduced trial demonstrated that empagliflozin reduced the combined risk of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure in patients with a reduced ejection fraction, and the EMPEROR-Preserved trial is currently evaluating the effect of the drug on the same endpoint in patients with an ejection fraction >40%. However, neither the trial was designed to have adequate statistical power to evaluate the effects of empagliflozin and dapagliflozin on major adverse renal outcomes or on mortality. Herein we describe the design of a prospective individual patient-level pooled analysis of two large-scale trials with empagliflozin (EMPEROR-Reduced and EMPEROR-Preserved) in patients with heart failure across the spectrum of ejection fraction. METHODS: The trials were carried out in parallel using the same administrative structure and committees, randomization procedure, schedule of study visits and adjudication criteria and similar groups of investigators and case report forms. The two component trials specified the same primary and key secondary endpoints and used an identical hierarchical testing procedure, which included a pooled analysis of the two trials as a key component of the hierarchy. Consequently, the pooled analysis has been prospectively assigned a false positive error rate, which is conditional on one or both trials first achieving success on their primary and one or both key secondary endpoints. The pooled analysis has its own statistical plan with its own endpoints, and this plan was finalized before either trial had begun recruitment of patients into either study. The primary endpoint of the pooled analysis is a composite of serious adverse renal outcomes, defined by chronic dialysis, renal transplantation and a profound or sustained decrease in glomerular filtration rate. All-cause and cardiovascular mortality are specified as secondary endpoints. CONCLUSION: The planned pooled analysis has an unusually high degree of statistical rigour that will allow it to address important questions that cannot be fully addressed by the individual trials.

8.
Circulation ; 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175585

RESUMO

Background: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors improve outcomes in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, but additional information is needed about whether glycemic status influences the magnitude of their benefits on heart failure and renal events. Methods: Patients with class II-IV heart failure and a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40% were randomized to receive empagliflozin (10 mg daily) or placebo in addition to recommended therapy. We prespecified a comparison of the effect of empagliflozin in patients with and without diabetes. Results: Of the 3730 patients enrolled, 1856 (50%) had diabetes, 1268 (34%) had prediabetes (HbA1c 5.7-6.4%), and 606 (16%) had normoglycemia (HbA1c <5.7%). The risks of the primary outcome (cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure), total hospitalizations for heart failure, and adverse renal outcomes were higher in patients with diabetes, but were similar between patients with prediabetes and normoglycemia. Empagliflozin reduced the risk of the primary outcome in patients with and without diabetes (hazard ratio 0.72 [95% CI 0.60-0.87] and 0.78 [95% CI 0.64-0.97], respectively, interaction P =0.57). Patients with and without diabetes also did not differ with respect to the effect of empagliflozin on total hospitalizations for heart failure, on the decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate over time, and on the risk of serious adverse renal outcomes. Among these endpoints, the effects of the drug did not differ in patients with prediabetes or normoglycemia. When analyzed as a continuous variable, baseline HbA1c did not significantly modify the benefits of empagliflozin on the primary outcome (P-interaction=0.40). Empagliflozin did not lower HbA1c in patients with prediabetes or normoglycemia and was not associated with increased risk of hypoglycemia. Conclusions: In the EMPEROR-Reduced trial, empagliflozin significantly improved cardiovascular and renal outcomes in patients with heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction, independent of baseline diabetes status and across the continuum of HbA1c.

9.
Int J Cardiol ; 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186669

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe long-term antithrombotic management patterns (AMPs) in medically managed Asian patients with non-ST-segment myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) or unstable angina (UA). BACKGROUND: Current guidelines support an early invasive strategy in NSTEMI and UA patients, but many are medically managed, and data are limited on long-term AMPs in Asia. METHODS: Data were analyzed from medically managed NSTEMI and UA patients included in the prospective, observational EPICOR Asia study (NCT01361386). Survivors to hospital discharge were enrolled (June 2011 to May 2012) from 8 countries/regions across Asia. Baseline characteristics and AMP use up to 2 years post-discharge were collected. Outcomes were major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE: myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and death) and bleeding. RESULTS: Among 2289 medically managed patients, dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) use at discharge was greater in NSTEMI than in UA patients (81.8% vs 65.3%), and was significantly associated with male sex, positive cardiac markers, and prior cardiovascular medications (p < 0.0001). By 2 years, 57.9% and 42.6% of NSTEMI and UA patients, respectively, were on DAPT. On multivariable Cox regression analysis, risk of MACE at 2 years was most significantly associated with older age (HR [95% CI] 1.85 [1.36, 2.50]), diagnosis of NSTEMI vs UA (1.96 [1.47, 2.61]), and chronic renal failure (2.14 [1.34, 3.41]), all p ≤ 0.001. Risk of bleeding was most significantly associated with region (East Asia vs Southeast/South Asia) and diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately half of all patients were on DAPT at 2 years. MACE were more frequent in NSTEMI than UA patients during follow-up.

10.
JACC Heart Fail ; 8(12): 984-995, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039448

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study compared ways of describing treatment effects. The objective was to better explain to clinicians and patients what they might expect from a given treatment, not only in terms of relative and absolute risk reduction, but also in projections of long-term survival. BACKGROUND: The restricted mean survival time (RMST) can be used to estimate of long-term survival, providing a complementary approach to more conventional metrics (e.g., absolute and relative risk), which may suggest greater benefits of therapy in high-risk patients compared with low-risk patients. METHODS: Relative and absolute risk, as well as the RMST, were calculated in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) trials. RESULTS: As examples, in the RALES trial (more severe HFrEF), the treatment effect metrics for spironolactone versus placebo on heart failure hospitalization and/or cardiovascular death were a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.67 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.5 to 0.77), number needed to treat = 9 (7 to 14), and age extension of event-free survival +1.1 years (-0.1 to + 2.3 years). The corresponding metrics for EMPHASIS-HF (eplerenone vs. placebo in less severe HFrEF) were 0.64 (0.54 to 0.75), 14 (1 to 22), and +2.9 (1.2 to 4.5). In patients in PARADIGM-HF aged younger than 65 years, the metrics for sacubitril/valsartan versus enalapril were 0.77 (95% CI: 0.68 to 0.88), 23 (15 to 44), and +1.7 (0.6 to 2.8) years; for those aged 65 years or older, the metrics were 0.83 (95% CI: 0.73 to 0.94), 29 (17 to 83), and +0.9 (0.2 to 1.6) years, which provided evidence of a greater potential life extension in younger patients. Similar observations were found for lower risk patients. CONCLUSIONS: RMST event-free (and overall) survival estimates provided a complementary means of evaluating the effect of therapy in relation to age and risk. They also provided a clinically useful metric that should be routinely reported and used to explain the potential long-term benefits of a given treatment, especially to younger and less symptomatic patients.

11.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(14): 1609-1621, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Varying definitions of procedural myocardial infarction (PMI) are in widespread use. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the rates and clinical relevance of PMI using different definitions in patients with left main coronary artery disease randomized to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery in the EXCEL (Evaluation of XIENCE versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for Effectiveness of Left Main Revascularization) trial. METHODS: The pre-specified protocol definition of PMI (PMIProt) required a large elevation of creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), with identical threshold for both procedures. The Third Universal Definition of MI (types 4a and 5) (PMIUD) required lesser biomarker elevations but with supporting evidence of myocardial ischemia, different after PCI and CABG. For the PMIUD, troponins were used preferentially (available in 49.5% of patients), CK-MB otherwise. The multivariable relationship between each PMI type and 5-year mortality was determined. RESULTS: PMIProt occurred in 34 of 935 (3.6%) patients after PCI and 56 of 923 (6.1%) patients after CABG (difference -2.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -4.4% to -0.5%; p = 0.015). The corresponding rates of PMIUD were 37 (4.0%) and 20 (2.2%), respectively (difference 1.8%; 95% CI: 0.2% to 3.4%; p = 0.025). Both PMIProt and PMIUD were associated with 5-year cardiovascular mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 2.18 [95% CI: 1.13 to 4.23] and 2.87 [95% CI: 1.44 to 5.73], respectively). PMIProt was associated with a consistent hazard of cardiovascular mortality after both PCI and CABG (pinteraction = 0.86). Conversely, PMIUD was strongly associated with cardiovascular mortality after CABG (adjusted HR: 11.94; 95% CI: 4.84 to 29.47) but not after PCI (adjusted HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 0.35 to 3.67) (pinteraction = 0.004). Results were similar for all-cause mortality and with varying PMIUD biomarker definitions. Only large biomarker elevations (CK-MB ≥10× upper reference limit and troponin ≥70× upper reference limit) were associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The rates of PMI after PCI and CABG vary greatly with different definitions. In the EXCEL trial, the pre-specified PMIProt was associated with similar hazard after PCI and CABG, whereas PMIUD was strongly associated with mortality after CABG but not after PCI. (EXCEL Clinical Trial [EXCEL]; NCT01205776).

12.
Circulation ; 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095032

RESUMO

Background: In EMPEROR-Reduced, empagliflozin reduced cardiovascular death or HF hospitalization, total HF hospitalizations, and slowed the progressive decline in kidney function in patients with HF and a reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), with and without diabetes. We aim to study the effect of empagliflozin on cardiovascular and kidney outcomes across the spectrum of kidney function. Methods: In this pre-specified analysis, patients were categorized by the presence or absence of CKD at baseline (eGFR<60ml/min/1.73m2 or UACR>300mg/g). The primary and key secondary outcomes were (1) a composite of cardiovascular death or HF hospitalization (primary outcome); (2) total HF hospitalizations, and (3) eGFR slope. The direct impact on kidney events was investigated by a prespecified composite kidney outcome (defined as a sustained profound decline in eGFR, chronic dialysis or transplant). The median follow-up was 16 months. Results: 3730 patients were randomized to empagliflozin or placebo, of whom 1978 (53%) had CKD. Empagliflozin reduced the primary outcome and total HF hospitalizations in patients with and without CKD: primary outcome HR=0.78 (95%CI=0.65-0.93) and HR=0.72 (95%CI=0.58-0.90), respectively; interaction P=0.63. Empagliflozin slowed the slope of eGFR decline by 1.11 (0.23-1.98) ml/min/1.73m2/year in patients with CKD and by 2.41 (1.49-3.32) ml/min/1.73m2/year in patients without CKD. The risk of the composite kidney outcome was reduced similarly in patients with and without CKD: HR=0.53 (95%CI=0.31-0.91) and HR=0.46 (95%CI=0.22-0.99), respectively. The effect of empagliflozin on the primary composite outcome and the key secondary outcomes was consistent across a broad range of baseline kidney function, measured by clinically relevant eGFR subgroups or by albuminuria, including patients with eGFR as low as 20 ml/min/1.73m2. Empagliflozin was well tolerated in CKD patients. Conclusions: In EMPEROR-reduced, empagliflozin had a beneficial effect on the key efficacy outcomes and slowed the rate of kidney function decline in patients with and without CKD and regardless of the severity of kidney impairment at baseline. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT03057977.

13.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(12): 1468-1483, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943165

RESUMO

Investigating the balance of risk for thrombotic and bleeding events after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is especially relevant for patients at high bleeding risk (HBR). The Academic Research Consortium for HBR recently proposed a consensus definition in an effort to standardize the patient population included in HBR trials. The aim of this consensus-based document, the second initiative from the Academic Research Consortium for HBR, is to propose recommendations to guide the design of clinical trials of devices and drugs in HBR patients undergoing PCI. The authors discuss the designs of trials in HBR patients undergoing PCI and various aspects of trial design specific to HBR patients, including target populations, intervention and control groups, primary and secondary outcomes, and timing of endpoint reporting.

14.
Eur Heart J ; 41(46): 4391-4399, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901285

RESUMO

The win ratio was introduced in 2012 as a new method for examining composite endpoints and has since been widely adopted in cardiovascular (CV) trials. Improving upon conventional methods for analysing composite endpoints, the win ratio accounts for relative priorities of the components and allows the components to be different types of outcomes. For example, the win ratio can combine the time to death with the number of occurrences of a non-fatal outcome such as CV-related hospitalizations (CVHs) in a single hierarchical composite endpoint. The win ratio can provide greater statistical power to detect and quantify a treatment difference by using all available information contained in the component outcomes. The win ratio can also incorporate quantitative outcomes such as exercise tests or quality-of-life scores. There is a need for more practical guidance on how best to design trials using the win ratio approach. This manuscript provides an overview of the principles behind the win ratio and provides insights into how to implement the win ratio in CV trial design and reporting, including how to determine trial size.

15.
Lancet ; 396(10254): 819-829, 2020 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both DAPA-HF (assessing dapagliflozin) and EMPEROR-Reduced (assessing empagliflozin) trials showed that sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibition reduced the combined risk of cardiovascular death or hospitalisation for heart failure in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) with or without diabetes. However, neither trial was powered to assess effects on cardiovascular death or all-cause death or to characterise effects in clinically important subgroups. Using study-level published data from DAPA-HF and patient-level data from EMPEROR-Reduced, we aimed to estimate the effect of SGLT2 inhibition on fatal and non-fatal heart failure events and renal outcomes in all randomly assigned patients with HFrEF and in relevant subgroups from DAPA-HF and EMPEROR-Reduced trials. METHODS: We did a prespecified meta-analysis of the two single large-scale trials assessing the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with HFrEF with or without diabetes: DAPA-HF (assessing dapagliflozin) and EMPEROR-Reduced (assessing empagliflozin). The primary endpoint was time to all-cause death. Additionally, we assessed the effects of treatment in prespecified subgroups on the combined risk of cardiovascular death or hospitalisation for heart failure. These subgroups were based on type 2 diabetes status, age, sex, angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) treatment, New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, race, history of hospitalisation for heart failure, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), body-mass index, and region (post-hoc). We used hazard ratios (HRs) derived from Cox proportional hazard models for time-to-first event endpoints and Cochran's Q test for treatment interactions; the analysis of recurrent events was based on rate ratios derived from the Lin-Wei-Yang-Ying model. FINDINGS: Among 8474 patients combined from both trials, the estimated treatment effect was a 13% reduction in all-cause death (pooled HR 0·87, 95% CI 0·77-0·98; p=0·018) and 14% reduction in cardiovascular death (0·86, 0·76-0·98; p=0·027). SGLT2 inhibition was accompanied by a 26% relative reduction in the combined risk of cardiovascular death or first hospitalisation for heart failure (0·74, 0·68-0·82; p<0·0001), and by a 25% decrease in the composite of recurrent hospitalisations for heart failure or cardiovascular death (0·75, 0·68-0·84; p<0·0001). The risk of the composite renal endpoint was also reduced (0·62, 0·43-0·90; p=0·013). All tests for heterogeneity of effect size between trials were not significant. The pooled treatment effects showed consistent benefits for subgroups based on age, sex, diabetes, treatment with an ARNI and baseline eGFR, but suggested treatment-by-subgroup interactions for subgroups based on NYHA functional class and race. INTERPRETATION: The effects of empagliflozin and dapagliflozin on hospitalisations for heart failure were consistent in the two independent trials and suggest that these agents also improve renal outcomes and reduce all-cause and cardiovascular death in patients with HFrEF. FUNDING: Boehringer Ingelheim.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Glucosídeos/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Causas de Morte/tendências , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Morte , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/classificação , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neprilisina/antagonistas & inibidores , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico
16.
N Engl J Med ; 383(15): 1413-1424, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce the risk of hospitalization for heart failure in patients regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes. More evidence is needed regarding the effects of these drugs in patients across the broad spectrum of heart failure, including those with a markedly reduced ejection fraction. METHODS: In this double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 3730 patients with class II, III, or IV heart failure and an ejection fraction of 40% or less to receive empagliflozin (10 mg once daily) or placebo, in addition to recommended therapy. The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for worsening heart failure. RESULTS: During a median of 16 months, a primary outcome event occurred in 361 of 1863 patients (19.4%) in the empagliflozin group and in 462 of 1867 patients (24.7%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio for cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure, 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65 to 0.86; P<0.001). The effect of empagliflozin on the primary outcome was consistent in patients regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes. The total number of hospitalizations for heart failure was lower in the empagliflozin group than in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.85; P<0.001). The annual rate of decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate was slower in the empagliflozin group than in the placebo group (-0.55 vs. -2.28 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area per year, P<0.001), and empagliflozin-treated patients had a lower risk of serious renal outcomes. Uncomplicated genital tract infection was reported more frequently with empagliflozin. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients receiving recommended therapy for heart failure, those in the empagliflozin group had a lower risk of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure than those in the placebo group, regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes. (Funded by Boehringer Ingelheim and Eli Lilly; EMPEROR-Reduced ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03057977.).


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosídeos/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos , Volume Sistólico
17.
EuroIntervention ; 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830645

RESUMO

AIMS: To model the safety and effectiveness of drug-coated stents (DCS) vs. bare-metal stents (BMS) in high bleeding risk (HBR) patients according to the Academic Research Criteria (ARC) criteria. METHODS AND RESULTS: Participants from the LEADERS FREE (LF) and LEADERS FREE (LFII) studies were pooled into one dataset. Participants were treated with 30 days of DAPT. The primary safety (composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, or stent thrombosis) and effectiveness (target-lesion revascularization) endpoints were compared between DCS and BMS in the subgroup of patients satisfying the ARC-HBR definition using propensity-score modelling. From the 3,635 participants included in the combined LF & LFII dataset, 2,898 (79.7%) satisfied the ARC-HBR criteria (DCS: 1,923; BMS: 975). The primary safety endpoint occurred in 184 (9.8%) and in 132 (13.8%) participants in the DCS and BMS groups, respectively (adjusted HR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.57-0.91; p=0.006). The risk of the primary effectiveness endpoint was also significantly lower with DCS (6.2%) vs. BMS (8.8%) (adjusted HR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.52-0.94; p=0.016). Safety and effectiveness of DCS vs. BMS were consistent according to ARC-HBR status (p interaction = 0.206 and 0.260, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: DCS are safer and more effective than BMS in an ARC-defined HBR population.

18.
Clin Cardiol ; 43(9): 999-1008, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite guideline recommendations, dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is frequently used for longer than 1 year after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) event. In Asia, information on antithrombotic management patterns (AMPs), including DAPT post discharge, is sparse. This analysis evaluated real-world AMPs up to 2 years post discharge for ACS. HYPOTHESIS: There is wide variability in AMP use for ACS management in Asia. METHODS: EPICOR Asia (NCT01361386) is a prospective observational study of patients discharged after hospitalization for an ACS in eight countries/regions in Asia, followed up for 2 years. Here, we describe AMPs used and present an exploratory analysis of characteristics and outcomes in patients who received DAPT for ≤12 months post discharge compared with >12 months. RESULTS: Data were available for 12 922 patients; of 11 639 patients discharged on DAPT, 2364 (20.3%) received DAPT for ≤12 months and 9275 (79.7%) for >12 months, with approximately 60% still on DAPT at 2 years. Patients who received DAPT for >12 months were more likely to be younger, obese, lower Killip class, resident in India (vs China), and to have received invasive reperfusion. Clinical event rates during year 2 of follow-up were lower in patients with DAPT >12 vs ≤12 months, but no causal association can be implied in this non-randomized study. CONCLUSIONS: Most ACS patients remained on DAPT up to 1 year, in accordance with current guidelines, and over half remained on DAPT at 2 years post discharge. Patients not on DAPT at 12 months are a higher risk group requiring careful monitoring.

19.
Eur Heart J ; 41(22): 2109-2117, 2020 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-526858

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has important implications for the safety of participants in clinical trials and the research staff caring for them and, consequently, for the trials themselves. Patients with heart failure may be at greater risk of infection with COVID-19 and the consequences might also be more serious, but they are also at risk of adverse outcomes if their clinical care is compromised. As physicians and clinical trialists, it is our responsibility to ensure safe and effective care is delivered to trial participants without affecting the integrity of the trial. The social contract with our patients demands no less. Many regulatory authorities from different world regions have issued guidance statements regarding the conduct of clinical trials during this COVID-19 crisis. However, international trials may benefit from expert guidance from a global panel of experts to supplement local advice and regulations, thereby enhancing the safety of participants and the integrity of the trial. Accordingly, the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology on 21 and 22 March 2020 conducted web-based meetings with expert clinical trialists in Europe, North America, South America, Australia, and Asia. The main objectives of this Expert Position Paper are to highlight the challenges that this pandemic poses for the conduct of clinical trials in heart failure and to offer advice on how they might be overcome, with some practical examples. While this panel of experts are focused on heart failure clinical trials, these discussions and recommendations may apply to clinical trials in other therapeutic areas.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/ética , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/normas , Europa (Continente) , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/ética , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/normas , Segurança do Paciente , Seleção de Pacientes/ética
20.
Eur Heart J ; 41(22): 2109-2117, 2020 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32498081

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has important implications for the safety of participants in clinical trials and the research staff caring for them and, consequently, for the trials themselves. Patients with heart failure may be at greater risk of infection with COVID-19 and the consequences might also be more serious, but they are also at risk of adverse outcomes if their clinical care is compromised. As physicians and clinical trialists, it is our responsibility to ensure safe and effective care is delivered to trial participants without affecting the integrity of the trial. The social contract with our patients demands no less. Many regulatory authorities from different world regions have issued guidance statements regarding the conduct of clinical trials during this COVID-19 crisis. However, international trials may benefit from expert guidance from a global panel of experts to supplement local advice and regulations, thereby enhancing the safety of participants and the integrity of the trial. Accordingly, the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology on 21 and 22 March 2020 conducted web-based meetings with expert clinical trialists in Europe, North America, South America, Australia, and Asia. The main objectives of this Expert Position Paper are to highlight the challenges that this pandemic poses for the conduct of clinical trials in heart failure and to offer advice on how they might be overcome, with some practical examples. While this panel of experts are focused on heart failure clinical trials, these discussions and recommendations may apply to clinical trials in other therapeutic areas.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/ética , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/normas , Europa (Continente) , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/ética , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/normas , Segurança do Paciente , Seleção de Pacientes/ética
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