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Sci Adv ; 8(8): eabm1515, 2022 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35213223


Since Bell's theorem, it is known that local realism fails to explain quantum phenomena. Bell inequality violations manifestly show the incompatibility of quantum theory with classical notions of cause and effect. As recently found, however, the instrumental scenario-a pivotal tool in causal inference-allows for nonclassicality signatures going beyond this paradigm. If we are not limited to observational data and can intervene in our setup, then we can witness quantum violations of classical bounds on the causal influence among the involved variables even when no Bell-like violation is possible. That is, through interventions, the quantum behavior of a system that would seem classical can be demonstrated. Using a photonic setup-faithfully implementing the instrumental causal structure and switching between observation and intervention run by run-we experimentally witness such a nonclassicality. We also test quantum bounds for the causal influence, showing that they provide a reliable tool for quantum causal modeling.

Sci Adv ; 7(12)2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741595


Quantum key distribution-exchanging a random secret key relying on a quantum mechanical resource-is the core feature of secure quantum networks. Entanglement-based protocols offer additional layers of security and scale favorably with quantum repeaters, but the stringent requirements set on the photon source have made their use situational so far. Semiconductor-based quantum emitters are a promising solution in this scenario, ensuring on-demand generation of near-unity-fidelity entangled photons with record-low multiphoton emission, the latter feature countering some of the best eavesdropping attacks. Here, we use a coherently driven quantum dot to experimentally demonstrate a modified Ekert quantum key distribution protocol with two quantum channel approaches: both a 250-m-long single-mode fiber and in free space, connecting two buildings within the campus of Sapienza University in Rome. Our field study highlights that quantum-dot entangled photon sources are ready to go beyond laboratory experiments, thus opening the way to real-life quantum communication.

Sci Adv ; 5(3): eaau1946, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944851


The number of parameters describing a quantum state is well known to grow exponentially with the number of particles. This scaling limits our ability to characterize and simulate the evolution of arbitrary states to systems, with no more than a few qubits. However, from a computational learning theory perspective, it can be shown that quantum states can be approximately learned using a number of measurements growing linearly with the number of qubits. Here, we experimentally demonstrate this linear scaling in optical systems with up to 6 qubits. Our results highlight the power of the computational learning theory to investigate quantum information, provide the first experimental demonstration that quantum states can be "probably approximately learned" with access to a number of copies of the state that scales linearly with the number of qubits, and pave the way to probing quantum states at new, larger scales.

ACS Photonics ; 4(11): 2807-2812, 2017 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29250573


In classical physics, properties of objects exist independently of the context, i.e., whether and how measurements are performed. Quantum physics showed this assumption to be wrong, and that Nature is indeed "contextual". Contextuality has been observed in the simplest physical systems, such as single particles, and plays fundamental roles in quantum computation advantage. Here, we demonstrate for the first time quantum contextuality in an integrated photonic chip. The chip implements different combinations of measurements on a single photon delocalized on four distinct spatial modes, showing violations of a Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH)-like noncontextuality inequality. This paves the way to compact and portable devices for contextuality-based quantum-powered protocols.