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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444695

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In this study, procedures were developed to achieve efficient reversible conversion of a clinical linear accelerator (LINAC) and deliver ultrahigh-dose-rate (UHDR) electron or conventional beams to the treatment room isocenter for FLASH radiation therapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The LINAC was converted to deliver UHDR beam within 20 minutes by retracting the x-ray target from the beam's path, positioning the carousel on an empty port, and selecting 10 MV photon beam energy in the treatment console. Dose rate surface and depth dose profiles were measured in solid water phantom at different field sizes with Gafchromic film and an optically stimulated luminescent dosimeter (OSLD). A pulse controller counted the pulses via scattered radiation signal and gated the delivery for a preset pulse count. A fast photomultiplier tube-based Cherenkov detector measured the per pulse beam output at a 2-ns sampling rate. After conversion back to clinical mode, conventional beam output, flatness, symmetry, field size, and energy were measured for all clinically commissioned energies. RESULTS: The surface average dose rates at the isocenter for 1-cm diameter and 1.5-in diameter circular fields and for a jaws-wide-open field were 238 ± 5 Gy/s, 262 ± 5 Gy/s, and 290 ± 5 Gy/s, respectively. The radial symmetry of the beams was within 2.4%, 0.5%, and 0.2%, respectively. The doses from simultaneous irradiation of film and OSLD were within 1%. The photomultiplier tube showed the LINAC required ramp up time in the first 4 to 6 pulses before the output stabilized, after which its stability was within 3%. CONCLUSIONS: At the isocenter of the treatment room, 10 MeV UHDR beams were achieved. The beam output was reproducible but requires further investigation of the ramp up time, equivalent to ∼1 Gy, requiring dose monitoring. The UHDR beam can irradiate both small and large subjects to investigate potential FLASH radiobiological effects in minimally modified clinical settings, and the dose rate can be further increased by reducing the source-to-surface distance.

2.
J Biomed Opt ; 26(1)2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33423407

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: The study has confirmed the feasibility of using ultraviolet (UV) excitation to visualize and quantify desmoplasia in fresh tumor tissue of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model, which provides a useful imaging platform to evaluate acute therapeutic responses. AIM: Stromal network of collagen prominent in PDAC tumors is examined by imaging fresh tissue samples stained with histological dyes. Fluorescence signals are color-transferred to mimic Masson's trichrome staining. APPROACH: Murine tumor samples were stained with Hoechst, eosin, and rhodamine B and excited at 275-nm. Fluorescence signals in the visible spectrum were captured by a CMOS color camera with high contrast and resolution at whole-tumor slice field of view. RESULTS: Fluorescence imaging using UV excitation is capable of visualizing collagen deposition in PDAC tumors. Both fluorescence and histology data showed collagen content of up to 30%. The collagen modulation effect due to photodynamic priming treatment was observed showing 13% of collagen reduction. Necrosis area is visible and perfusion imaging using Texas Red dextran is feasible. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrates collagen visualization in fresh PDAC tumor samples using UV excitation. This imaging platform also provides quantitative stromal information from fiber analysis and visibility of necrosis and perfusion, suitable for therapeutic response assessment of photodynamic therapy.

3.
J Biomed Opt ; 26(1)2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386709

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: Deep-tissue penetration by x-rays to induce optical responses of specific molecular reporters is a new way to sense and image features of tissue function in vivo. Advances in this field are emerging, as biocompatible probes are invented along with innovations in how to optimally utilize x-ray sources. AIM: A comprehensive review is provided of the many tools and techniques developed for x-ray-induced optical molecular sensing, covering topics ranging from foundations of x-ray fluorescence imaging and x-ray tomography to the adaptation of these methods for sensing and imaging in vivo. APPROACH: The ways in which x-rays can interact with molecules and lead to their optical luminescence are reviewed, including temporal methods based on gated acquisition and multipoint scanning for improved lateral or axial resolution. RESULTS: While some known probes can generate light upon x-ray scintillation, there has been an emergent recognition that excitation of molecular probes by x-ray-induced Cherenkov light is also possible. Emission of Cherenkov radiation requires a threshold energy of x-rays in the high kV or MV range, but has the advantage of being able to excite a broad range of optical molecular probes. In comparison, most scintillating agents are more readily activated by lower keV x-ray energies but are composed of crystalline inorganic constituents, although some organic biocompatible agents have been designed as well. Methods to create high-resolution structured x-ray-optical images are now available, based upon unique scanning approaches and/or a priori knowledge of the scanned x-ray beam geometry. Further improvements in spatial resolution can be achieved by careful system design and algorithm optimization. Current applications of these hybrid x-ray-optical approaches include imaging of tissue oxygenation and pH as well as of certain fluorescent proteins. CONCLUSIONS: Discovery of x-ray-excited reporters combined with optimized x-ray scan sequences can improve imaging resolution and sensitivity.

4.
Biomed Opt Express ; 11(11): 6458-6469, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33282501

RESUMO

In this study, an indocyanine green (ICG)-based dynamic contrast- enhanced fluorescence imaging (DCE-FI) technique was evaluated as a method to provide objective real-time data on bone perfusion using a porcine osteotomy model. DCE-FI with sequentially increasing injury to osseous blood supply was performed in 12 porcine tibias. There were measurable, reproducible and predictable changes to DCE-FI data across each condition have been observed on simple kinetic curve-derived variables as well variables derived from a novel bone-specific kinetic model. The best accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of 89%, 88% and 90%, have been achieved to effectively differentiate injured from normal/healthy bone.

5.
Opt Lett ; 45(23): 6378-6381, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33258816

RESUMO

We examine the value of an active line scan with spatial gating for imaging sub-diffuse, wide-field reflectance microtexture. Line scanning combined with spatial gating and linear translation can be used for localized detection of features in the surface layer of a turbid target. The line scan provides broadband spatial frequency modulation, and the spatial gating effectively high-pass filters the reflectance. The major benefit of this approach is that of high dynamic range (70%-90%) signal preservation and high contrast to noise when imaging at high spatial frequencies. Alternative approaches, such as spatial frequency domain imaging, are degraded by low dynamic range in demodulated images, making it nearly impossible to image over a wide field of view at frequencies over 1.5mm-1 using commercial technology. As such, active line scanning with spatial gating presents as an inherently high sensitivity and high dynamic range method of imaging microscopic scattering features in only the surface layer of a turbid medium.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227443

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The value of Cherenkov imaging as an on-patient, real-time, treatment delivery verification system was examined in a 64-patient cohort during routine radiation treatments in a single-center study. METHODS & MATERIALS: Cherenkov cameras were mounted in treatment rooms and used to image patients during their standard radiotherapy regimen for various sites, predominantly for whole breast and total skin electron therapy. For most patients, multiple fractions were imaged, with some involving bolus or scintillators on the skin. Measures of repeatability were calculated with a mean distance to conformity (MDC) for breast irradiation images. RESULTS: In breast treatments, Cherenkov images identified fractions when treatment delivery resulted in dose on the contralateral breast, the arm, or chin, and found non-ideal bolus positioning. In sarcoma treatments, safe positioning of the contralateral leg was monitored. For all 199 imaged breast treatment fields, the inter-fraction MDC was within 7 mm as compared to the first day of treatment (with only 7.5% of treatments exceeding 3 mm), and all but one fell within 7 mm relative to the treatment plan. The value of imaging dose through clear bolus or quantifying surface dose with scintillator dots was examined. Cherenkov imaging also was able to assess field match lines in cerebral-spinal (CSI) and breast irradiation with nodes. Treatment imaging of other anatomical sites confirmed the value of surface dose imaging more broadly. CONCLUSIONS: Daily radiotherapy can be imaged routinely via Cherenkov emissions. Both the real-time images and the post-treatment, cumulative images provide surrogate maps of surface dose delivery that can be used for incident discovery and/or continuous improvement in many delivery techniques. In this initial 64-patient cohort, we discovered six minor incidents using Cherenkov imaging, without which, would have gone undetected. In addition, imaging provides automated, quantitative metrics useful to determining the quality of radiotherapy delivery.

7.
J Biomed Opt ; 25(11)2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185051

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Unlike fluorescence imaging utilizing an external excitation source, Cherenkov emissions and Cherenkov-excited luminescence occur within a medium when irradiated with high-energy x-rays. Methods to improve the understanding of the lateral spread and axial depth distribution of these emissions are needed as an initial step to improve the overall system resolution. METHODS: Monte Carlo simulations were developed to investigate the lateral spread of thin sheets of high-energy sources and compared to experimental measurements of similar sources in water. Additional simulations of a multilayer skin model were used to investigate the limits of detection using both 6- and 18-MV x-ray sources with fluorescence excitation for inclusion depths up to 1 cm. RESULTS: Simulations comparing the lateral spread of high-energy sources show approximately 100 × higher optical yield from electrons than photons, although electrons showed a larger penumbra in both the simulations and experimental measurements. Cherenkov excitation has a roughly inverse wavelength squared dependence in intensity but is largely redshifted in excitation through any distance of tissue. The calculated emission spectra in tissue were convolved with a database of luminescent compounds to produce a computational ranking of potential Cherenkov-excited luminescence molecular contrast agents. CONCLUSIONS: Models of thin x-ray and electron sources were compared with experimental measurements, showing similar trends in energy and source type. Surface detection of Cherenkov-excited luminescence appears to be limited by the mean free path of the luminescence emission, where for the given simulation only 2% of the inclusion emissions reached the surface from a depth of 7 mm in a multilayer tissue model.

8.
Opt Lett ; 45(22): 6130-6133, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186932

RESUMO

Cherenkov light induced from megavolt (MV) X-rays during external beam radiotherapy serves as an internal light source to excite phosphors or fluorophores within biological tissues for molecular imaging. The broad spectrum of Cherenkov light leads to significant spectral overlap with any luminescence emission and, to overcome this problem, a single pixel hyperspectral imaging methodology was demonstrated here by coupling the detection with light sheet scanning and filtered back projection reconstruction of hyperspectral images. Thin scanned sheets of MV X-rays produce Cherenkov light to illuminate the planes deep within the tissue-simulating media. A fluorescence probe was excited by Cherenkov light, and a complete hyperspectral sinogram of the data was obtained through translation and rotation of the beam. Hyperspectral 2D images finally were reconstructed. Through this approach of spectral unmixing, it was possible to resolve hyperspectral images of both the Cherenkov and resulting fluorescence intensity from molecular sensors.

9.
Phys Med Biol ; 65(22): 225013, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179612

RESUMO

In this study the metric of detective quantum efficiency (DQE) was applied to Cherenkov imaging systems for the first time, and results were compared for different detector hardware, gain levels and with imaging processing for noise suppression. Intensified complementary metal oxide semiconductor cameras using different image intensifier designs (Gen3 and Gen2+) were used to image Cherenkov emission from a tissue phantom in order to measure the modulation transfer function (MTF) and noise power spectrum (NPS) of the systems. These parameters were used to calculate the DQE for varying acquisition settings and image processing steps. MTF curves indicated that the Gen3 system had superior contrast transfer and spatial resolution than the Gen2+ system, with [Formula: see text] values of 0.52 mm-1 and 0.31 mm-1, respectively. With median filtering for noise suppression, these values decreased to 0.50 mm-1 and 0.26 mm-1. The maximum NPS values for the Gen3 and Gen2+ systems at high gain were 1.3 × 106 mm2 and 9.1 × 104 mm2 respectively, representing a 14x decrease in noise power for the Gen2+ system. Both systems exhibited increased NPS intensity with increasing gain, while median filtering lowered the NPS. The DQE of each system increased with increasing gain, and at the maximum gain levels the Gen3 system had a low-frequency DQE of 0.31%, while the Gen2+ system had a value of 1.44%. However, at a higher frequency of 0.4 mm-1, these values became 0.54% and 0.03%. Filtering improved DQE for the Gen3 system and reduced DQE for the Gen2+ system and had a mix of detrimental and beneficial qualitative effects by decreasing the spatial resolution and sharpness but also substantially lowering noise. This methodology for DQE measurement allowed for quantitative comparison between Cherenkov imaging cameras and improvements to their sensitivity, and yielded the first formal assessment of Cherenkov image formation efficiency.

10.
J Biomed Opt ; 25(11)2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236619

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: The necessity to use exogenous probes for optical oxygen measurements in radiotherapy poses challenges for clinical applications. Options for implantable probe biotechnology need to be improved to alleviate toxicity concerns in human use and facilitate translation to clinical trial use. AIM: To develop an implantable oxygen sensor containing a phosphorescent oxygen probe such that the overall administered dose of the probe would be below the Federal Drug Administration (FDA)-prescribed microdose level, and the sensor would provide local high-intensity signal for longitudinal measurements of tissue pO2. APPROACH: PtG4, an oxygen quenched dendritic molecule, was mixed into an agarose matrix at 100 µM concentration, allowing for local injection into tumors at the total dose of 10 nmol per animal, forming a gel at the site of injection. Cherenkov-excited luminescence imaging (CELI) was used to acquire the phosphorescence and provide intratumoral pO2. RESULTS: Although PtG4 does not form covalent bonds with agarose and gradually leaches out into the surrounding tissue, its retention time within the gel was sufficiently long to demonstrate the capability to measure intratumoral pO2 with the implantable gel sensors. The sensor's performance was first evaluated in vitro in tissue simulation phantoms, and then the sensor was used to measure changes in oxygen in MDA-MB-231 tumors during hypofractionated radiotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that implantable oxygen sensors in combination with CELI present a promising approach for quantifying oxygen changes during the course of radiation therapy and thus for evaluating the tumor response to radiation. By improving the design of the gel-probe composition in order to prevent leaching of the probe into the tissue, biosensors can be created that should allow longitudinal oxygen measurements in tumors by means of CELI while using FDA-compliant microdose levels of the probe and thus lowering toxicity concerns.

11.
Med Phys ; 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030241

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A Geant4-based TOPAS Monte Carlo toolkit was utilized to model a Varian ProBeam proton therapy system, with the aim of providing an independent computational platform for validating advanced dosimetric methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The model was tested for accuracy of dose and linear energy transfer (LET) prediction relative to the commissioning data, which included integral depth dose (IDD) in water and spot profiles in air measured at varying depths (for energies of 70 to 240 MeV in increments of 10 MeV, and 242 MeV), and absolute dose calibration. Emittance was defined based on depth-dependent spot profiles and Courant-Snyder's particle transport theory, which provided spot size and angular divergence along the inline and crossline plane. Energy spectra were defined as Gaussian distributions that best matched the range and maximum dose of the IDD. The validity of the model was assessed based on measurements of range, dose to peak difference, mean point to point difference, spot sizes at different depths, and spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) IDD and was compared to the current treatment planning software (TPS). RESULTS: Simulated and commissioned spot sizes agreed within 2.5%. The single spot IDD range, maximum dose, and mean point to point difference of each commissioned energy agreed with the simulated profiles generally within 0.07 mm, 0.4%, and 0.6%, respectively. A simulated SOBP plan agreed with the measured dose within 2% for the plateau region. The protons/MU and absolute dose agreed with the current TPS to within 1.6% and exhibited the greatest discrepancy at higher energies. CONCLUSIONS: The TOPAS model agreed well with the commissioning data and included inline and crossline asymmetry of the beam profiles. The discrepancy between the measured and TOPAS-simulated SOBP plan may be due to beam modeling simplifications of the current TPS and the nuclear halo effect. The model can compute LET, and motivates future studies in understanding equivalent dose prediction in treatment planning, and investigating scintillation quenching.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002542

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The extreme microscopic heterogeneity of tumors makes it difficult to characterize tumor hypoxia. We evaluated how changes in the spatial resolution of oxygen imaging could alter measures of tumor hypoxia and their correlation to radiation therapy response. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Cherenkov-Excited Luminescence Imaging (CELI) in combination with an oxygen probe, Oxyphor PtG4 was used to directly image tumor pO2 distributions with 0.2 mm spatial resolution at the time of radiation delivery. These pO2 images were analyzed with variations of reduced spatial resolution from 0.2 mm to 5 mm, to investigate the influence of how reduced imaging spatial resolution would affect the observed tumor hypoxia. As an in vivo validation test, mice bearing tumor xenografts were imaged for hypoxic fraction and median pO2 to examine the predictive link with tumor response to radiation therapy, while accounting for spatial resolution. RESULTS: In transitioning from voxel sizes of 200 µm to 3mm, the median pO2 values increased by a few mmHg, while the hypoxic fraction decreased by more than 50%. When looking at radiation-responsive tumors, the median pO2 values changed just a few mmHg as a result of treatment, while the hypoxic fractions changed by as much as 50%. This latter change, however, could only be seen when sampling was performed with high spatial resolution. Median pO2 or similar quantities obtained from low resolution measurements are commonly used in clinical practice, however these parameters are much less sensitive to changes in the tumor microenvironment than the tumor hypoxic fraction obtained from high-resolution oxygen images. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the hypothesis that for adequate measurements of the tumor response to radiation therapy, oxygen imaging with high spatial resolution is required in order to accurately characterize the hypoxic fraction.

13.
J Biomed Opt ; 25(8)2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869567

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: Extremity injury represents the leading cause of trauma hospitalizations among adults under the age of 65 years, and long-term impairments are often substantial. Restoring function depends, in large part, on bone and soft tissue healing. Thus, decisions around treatment strategy are based on assessment of the healing potential of injured bone and/or soft tissue. However, at the present, this assessment is based on subjective clinical clues and/or cadaveric studies without any objective measure. Optical imaging is an ideal method to solve several of these issues. AIM: The aim is to highlight the current challenges in assessing bone and tissue perfusion/viability and the potentially high impact applications for optical imaging in orthopaedic surgery. APPROACH: The prospective will review the current challenges faced by the orthopaedic surgeon and briefly discuss optical imaging tools that have been published. With this in mind, it will suggest key research areas that could be evolved to help make surgical assessments more objective and quantitative. RESULTS: Orthopaedic surgical procedures should benefit from incorporation of methods to measure functional blood perfusion or tissue metabolism. The types of measurements though can vary in the depth of tissue sampled, with some being quite superficial and others sensing several millimeters into the tissue. Most of these intrasurgical imaging tools represent an ideal way to improve surgical treatment of orthopaedic injuries due to their inherent point-of-care use and their compatibility with real-time management. CONCLUSION: While there are several optical measurements to directly measure bone function, the choice of tools can determine also the signal strength and depth of sampling. For orthopaedic surgery, real-time data regarding bone and tissue perfusion should lead to more effective patient-specific management of common orthopaedic conditions, requiring deeper penetrance commonly seen with indocyanine green imaging. This will lower morbidity and result in decreased variability associated with how these conditions are managed.

14.
J Surg Oncol ; 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current practices for fluorescence-guided cancer surgery utilize a single fluorescent agent, but homogeneous distribution throughout the tumor is difficult to achieve. We hypothesize that administering a perfusion and a molecular-targeted agent at their optimal administration-to-imaging time will improve whole-tumor contrast. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Mice bearing subcutaneous xenograft human synovial sarcomas were administered indocyanine green (ICG) (3 mg/kg) or ABY-029 (48.7 µg/kg)-an epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted Affibody molecule-alone or in combination. Fluorescence contrast and signal distribution were compared between treatment groups. Two commercial fluorescence imaging systems were tested for simultaneous imaging of ICG and ABY-029. RESULTS: ABY-029 has a moderate positive correlation with viable tumor (ρ = 0.2 ± 0.4), while ICG demonstrated a strong negative correlation (ρ = -0.6 ± 0.1). The contrast-to-variance ratio was highest in the ABY-029 +ICG (2.5 ± 0.8), compared to animals that received ABY-029 (2.3 ± 0.8) or ICG (2.0 ± 0.5) alone. Moreover, the combination of ABY-029 + ICG minimizes the correlation between viable tumor and fluorescence intensity (ρ = -0.1 ± 0.2) indicating the fluorescence signal distribution is more homogeneous throughout the tumor milieu. CONCLUSION: Dual-agent imaging utilizing a single channel in a commercial fluorescence-guided imaging system tailored for IRDye 800CW is a promising method to increase tumor contrast in a clinical setting.

15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(40): 44383-44392, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914957

RESUMO

Concurrent chemoradiotherapy is used for advanced cancers, but the chemotherapy is dose limited by normal tissue toxicity. Localized X-ray activation of chemotherapy could overcome this, as studied here, with release from self-assembled nanomicelles (NMs) created from copolymers loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) having a photocleavable o-nitrobenzyl ester (o-Ne) group. The micelles demonstrated release of DOX from X-ray-induced Cherenkov light and conversion from a caged hydrophobic form to hydrophilic DOX, which achieves nuclear localization. Folate on the exterior of the NMs directed them for effective intracellular uptake prior to irradiation. Irradiation with 8 Gy released the DOX, which then entered the cell nucleus, providing near-complete in vivo tumor eradication and negligible off-target organ damage. Micelles were assembled from molecular component materials that are commonly in human use. This study realizes triple targeting in chemoradiation with potential for cell-receptor-mediated uptake, localized radiotherapy activation, and nuclear relocalization, all leading to limited off-target toxicity.

16.
Physiol Rep ; 8(15): e14541, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32786045

RESUMO

It is well understood that the level of molecular oxygen (O2 ) in tissue is a very important factor impacting both physiology and pathological processes as well as responsiveness to some treatments. Data on O2 in tissue could be effectively utilized to enhance precision medicine. However, the nature of the data that can be obtained using existing clinically applicable techniques is often misunderstood, and this can confound the effective use of the information. Attempts to make clinical measurements of O2 in tissues will inevitably provide data that are aggregated over time and space and therefore will not fully represent the inherent heterogeneity of O2 in tissues. Additionally, the nature of existing techniques to measure O2 may result in uneven sampling of the volume of interest and therefore may not provide accurate information on the "average" O2 in the measured volume. By recognizing the potential limitations of the O2 measurements, one can focus on the important and useful information that can be obtained from these techniques. The most valuable clinical characterizations of oxygen are likely to be derived from a series of measurements that provide data about factors that can change levels of O2 , which then can be exploited both diagnostically and therapeutically. The clinical utility of such data ultimately needs to be verified by careful studies of outcomes related to the measured changes in levels of O2 .

17.
Opt Lett ; 45(13): 3761-3764, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32630948

RESUMO

Fluorescence imaging is severely limited by the background and autofluorescence of tissues for in vivo detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Time-gated luminescence (TGL) imaging, in combination with luminescent probes that possess hundreds of microsecond emission lifetimes, can be used to effectively suppress this background, which has predominantly nanosecond lifetimes. This Letter demonstrates the feasibility of TGL imaging using luminescent probes for the in vivo real time imaging and tracking of single CTCs circulating freely in the blood vessels with higher accuracy given by substantially higher signal-to-noise ratio. The luminescent probe used in this Letter was a commercial Eu3+ chelate (EuC) nanosphere with a super-long lifetime of near 800 µs, which enabled TGL imaging to achieve background-free detection with ∼5 times higher SNR versus steady state. Phantom and in vivo mouse studies indicated that EuC labeled tumor cells moving in medium or bloodstream at the speed of 1-2 mm/s could be captured in real time.

18.
J Clin Med ; 9(8)2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726945

RESUMO

Receptor heterogeneity in cancer is a major limitation of molecular targeting for cancer therapeutics. Single-receptor-targeted treatment exerts selection pressures that result in treatment escape for low-receptor-expressing tumor subpopulations. To overcome this potential for heterogeneity-driven resistance to molecular targeted photodynamic therapy (PDT), we present for the first time a triple-receptor-targeted photoimmuno-nanoconjugate (TR-PIN) platform. TR-PIN functionalization with cetuximab, holo-transferrin, and trastuzumab conferred specificity for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), transferrin receptor (TfR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2), respectively. The TR-PINs exhibited up to a 24-fold improvement in cancer cell binding compared with EGFR-specific cetuximab-targeted PINs (Cet-PINs) in low-EGFR-expressing cell lines. Photodestruction using TR-PINs was significantly higher than the monotargeted Cet-PINs in heterocellular 3D in vitro models of heterogeneous pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC; MIA PaCa-2 cells) and heterogeneous head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC, SCC9 cells) containing low-EGFR-expressing T47D (high TfR) or SKOV-3 (high HER-2) cells. Through their capacity for multiple tumor target recognition, TR-PINs can serve as a unique and amenable platform for the effective photodynamic eradication of diverse tumor subpopulations in heterogeneous cancers to mitigate escape for more complete and durable treatment responses.

19.
J Med Imaging (Bellingham) ; 7(3): 034002, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32509916

RESUMO

Purpose: Quality assurance (QA) of dose homogeneity in total skin electron therapy (TSET) is challenging since each patient is positioned in six standing poses with two beam angles. Our study tested the feasibility of a unique approach for TSET QA through computational display of the cumulative dose, constructed and synthesized by computer animation methods. Approach: Dose distributions from Cherenkov emission images were projected onto a scanned 3D body model. Topographically mapped surfaces of the patient were recorded in each of six different delivery positions, while a Cherenkov camera acquired images. Computer animation methods allowed a fitted 3D human body model of the patient to be created with deformation of the limbs and torso to each position. A two-dimensional skin map was extracted from the 3D model of the full surface of the patient. This allowed the dose mapping to be additively accumulated independent of body position, with the total dose summed in a 2D map and reinterpreted on the 3D body display. Results: For the body model, the mean Hausdorff error distance was below 2 cm, setting the spatial accuracy limit. The dose distribution over the patient's 3D model generally matched the Cherenkov/dose images. The dose distribution mapping was estimated to be near 1.5 cm accuracy based upon a phantom study. The body model must most closely match at the edges of the mesh to ensure that high dose gradients are not projected onto the wrong location. Otherwise 2 to 3 cm level errors in positioning in the mesh do not appear to cause larger than 5% dose errors. The cumulative dose images showed regions of overlap laterally and regions of low intensity in the posterior arms. Conclusions: The proposed modeling and animation can be used to visualize and analyze the accumulated dose in TSET via display of the summed dose/Cherenkov images on a single body surface.

20.
J Biomed Opt ; 25(6): 1-14, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519522

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: The effects of varying the indocyanine green injection dose, injection rate, physiologic dispersion of dye, and intravenous tubing volume propagate into the shape and magnitude of the arterial input function (AIF) during intraoperative fluorescence perfusion assessment, thereby altering the observed kinetics of the fluorescence images in vivo. AIM: Numerical simulations are used to demonstrate the effect of AIF on metrics derived from tissue concentration curves such as peak fluorescence, time-to-peak (TTP), and egress slope. APPROACH: Forward models of tissue concentration were produced by convolving simulated AIFs with the adiabatic approximation to the tissue homogeneity model using input parameters representing six different tissue examples (normal brain, glioma, normal skin, ischemic skin, normal bone, and osteonecrosis). RESULTS: The results show that AIF perturbations result in variations in estimates of total intensity of up to 80% and TTP error of up to 200%, with the errors more dominant in brain, less in skin, and less in bone. Interestingly, error in ingress slope was as high as 60% across all tissue types. These are key observable parameters used in fluorescence imaging either implicitly by viewing the image or explicitly through intensity fitting algorithms. Correcting by deconvolving the image with a measured subject-specific AIF provides an intuitive means of visualizing the data while also removing the source of variance and allowing intra- and intersubject comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that intraoperative fluorescence perfusion assessment should be corrected by patient-specific AIFs measured by pulse dye densitometry.

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