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1.
Neurology ; 92(13): e1435-e1446, 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30814321

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether long-term treatment with candesartan/hydrochlorothiazide, rosuvastatin, or their combination can slow cognitive decline in older people at intermediate cardiovascular risk. METHODS: The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation-3 (HOPE-3) study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial using a 2 × 2 factorial design. Participants without known cardiovascular disease or need for treatment were randomized to candesartan (16 mg) plus hydrochlorothiazide (12.5 mg) or placebo and to rosuvastatin (10 mg) or placebo. Participants who were ≥70 years of age completed the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), the modified Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and the Trail Making Test Part B at baseline and study end. RESULTS: Cognitive assessments were completed by 2,361 participants from 228 centers in 21 countries. Compared with placebo, candesartan/hydrochlorothiazide reduced systolic blood pressure by 6.0 mm Hg, and rosuvastatin reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 24.8 mg/dL. Participants were followed up for 5.7 years (median), and 1,626 completed both baseline and study-end assessments. Mean participant age was 74 years (SD ±3.5 years); 59% were women; 45% had hypertension; and 24% had ≥12 years of education. The mean difference in change in DSST scores was -0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI] -2.25 to 0.42) for candesartan/hydrochlorothiazide compared with placebo, -0.54 (95% CI -1.88 to 0.80) for rosuvastatin compared with placebo, and -1.43 (95% CI -3.37 to 0.50) for combination therapy vs double placebo. No significant differences were found for other measures. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term blood pressure lowering with candesartan plus hydrochlorothiazide, rosuvastatin, or their combination did not significantly affect cognitive decline in older people. CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER: NCT00468923. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class II evidence that for older people, candesartan plus hydrochlorothiazide, rosuvastatin, or their combination does not significantly affect cognitive decline.

2.
Heart Rhythm ; 2018 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30063996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Shockless IMPLant Evaluation (SIMPLE) trial showed that defibrillation testing (DT) at the time of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implant did not improve shock efficacy or reduce mortality. There are no data regarding the risk of complications, including stroke, among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) who undergo DT. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this prospectively planned substudy of SIMPLE was to evaluate the effect of DT vs no DT on clinical outcomes among patients with AF. METHODS: We compared efficacy (failed appropriate shock/arrhythmic death) and safety between patients who had AF on their immediate preprocedural ECG to the rest of the study patients. Then among patients with AF we compared these outcomes between patients randomized to DT vs no DT. RESULTS: Of the 2500 patients enrolled in SIMPLE, 251 (10%) were in AF immediately before ICD implant. AF patients had an increased risk of failed appropriate shock/arrhythmic death (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.64; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-2.39; P = .009) and higher all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 1.58; 95% CI 1.2-2.08; P = .001). Among AF patients, perioperative complications and stroke did not significantly differ between DT vs no-DT groups (9.2% vs 5.4%; P = .2; and 1.7% vs 1.5%; P >.999, respectively). Failed appropriate shock or arrhythmic death occurred in 35 of 251 AF patients (14%), and the no-DT group proved not inferior to the DT group (HR 0.58; 95% CI 0.30-1.15; Pnoninferiority = .006). CONCLUSION: ICD recipients with AF are at increased risk for adverse outcomes; however, DT does not improve arrhythmic survival or shock efficacy. There is no evidence that DT increased the occurrence of perioperative stroke.

3.
Anesth Analg ; 125(1): 162-169, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28622175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the frequency of new clinically important atrial fibrillation (AF) after noncardiac surgery and its increased association with the risk of stroke at 30 days, there are limited data informing their prediction, association with outcomes, and management. METHODS: We used the data from the PeriOperative ISchemic Evaluation trial to determine, in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, the association of new clinically important AF with 30-day outcomes, and to assess management of these patients. We also aimed to derive a clinical prediction rule for new clinically important AF in this population. We defined new clinically important AF as new AF that resulted in symptoms or required treatment. We recorded an electrocardiogram 6 to 12 hours postoperatively and on the 1st, 2nd, and 30th days after surgery. RESULTS: A total of 211 (2.5% [8351 patients]; 95% confidence interval, 2.2%-2.9%) patients developed new clinically important AF within 30 days of randomization (8140 did not develop new AF). AF was independently associated with an increased length of hospital stay by 6.0 days (95% confidence interval, 3.5-8.5 days) and vascular complications (eg, stroke or congestive heart failure). The usage of an oral anticoagulant at the time of hospital discharge among patients with new AF and a CHADS2 score of 0, 1, 2, 3, and ≥4 was 6.9%, 10.2%, 23.0%, 9.4%, and 33.3%, respectively. Two independent predictors of patients developing new clinically important AF were identified (ie, age and surgery). The prediction rule included the following factors and assigned weights: age ≥85 years (4 points), age 75 to 84 years (3 points), age 65 to 74 years (2 points), intrathoracic surgery (3 points), major vascular surgery (2 points), and intra-abdominal surgery (1 point). The incidence of new AF based on scores of 0 to 1, 2, 3 to 4, and 5 to 6 was 0.5%, 1.0%, 3.1%, and 5.3%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Age and surgery are independent predictors of new clinically important AF in the perioperative setting. A minority of patients developing new clinically important AF with high CHADS2 scores are discharged on an oral anticoagulant. There is a need to develop effective and safe interventions to prevent this outcome and to optimize the management of this event when it occurs.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Abdome/cirurgia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Torácicos/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/efeitos adversos
4.
Can J Cardiol ; 32(11): 1332-1339, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27062239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several biomarkers have been shown to improve risk stratification in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS); however, they have not been integrated into risk prediction tools. METHODS: C-reactive-protein, N-terminal-pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and haemoglobin A1C were measured in 6447 patients with NSTEACS who were enrolled in the Clopidogrel in Unstable Angina to Prevent Recurrent Events trial. A risk score to predict cardiovascular (CV) death, myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke at 1 year was developed by incorporating biomarkers that were independently predictive of events with traditional variables, electrocardiogram, and troponin-T. Model discrimination was evaluated using c-statistic, integrated discrimination improvement, and net reclassification index, and validated using bootstrap methods. RESULTS: During 1 year of follow-up, 686 patients experienced a CV event. Each biomarker predicted CV death, MI, or stroke; however, only NT-proBNP and haemoglobin A1C improved model discrimination, increasing the c-statistic (0.66-0.71), integrated discrimination improvement to 3.4%, and net reclassification index to 17.5% (P < 0.0001 for all measures). A risk score ranging from 0 to 20 points including variables for age, prior MI/stroke, sex, ST-segment deviation, troponin-T, NT-proBNP, and haemoglobin A1C classified individuals into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups with rates of CV death, MI, stroke of 3.7%, 9.1%, 17.8%, respectively. The absolute benefit of dual antiplatelet therapy vs aspirin alone was 1.0%, 4.7%, and 3.0% in low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of NT-proBNP and haemoglobin A1C to 5 standard variables creates a 7-variable risk score that improves prediction of CV events at 1 year and aids in risk-based selection of patients with NSTEACS for dual antiplatelet therapy.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Medição de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Troponina T/sangue
5.
N Engl J Med ; 374(21): 2021-31, 2016 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27040132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous trials have shown that the use of statins to lower cholesterol reduces the risk of cardiovascular events among persons without cardiovascular disease. Those trials have involved persons with elevated lipid levels or inflammatory markers and involved mainly white persons. It is unclear whether the benefits of statins can be extended to an intermediate-risk, ethnically diverse population without cardiovascular disease. METHODS: In one comparison from a 2-by-2 factorial trial, we randomly assigned 12,705 participants in 21 countries who did not have cardiovascular disease and were at intermediate risk to receive rosuvastatin at a dose of 10 mg per day or placebo. The first coprimary outcome was the composite of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke, and the second coprimary outcome additionally included revascularization, heart failure, and resuscitated cardiac arrest. The median follow-up was 5.6 years. RESULTS: The overall mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was 26.5% lower in the rosuvastatin group than in the placebo group. The first coprimary outcome occurred in 235 participants (3.7%) in the rosuvastatin group and in 304 participants (4.8%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64 to 0.91; P=0.002). The results for the second coprimary outcome were consistent with the results for the first (occurring in 277 participants [4.4%] in the rosuvastatin group and in 363 participants [5.7%] in the placebo group; hazard ratio, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.88; P<0.001). The results were also consistent in subgroups defined according to cardiovascular risk at baseline, lipid level, C-reactive protein level, blood pressure, and race or ethnic group. In the rosuvastatin group, there was no excess of diabetes or cancers, but there was an excess of cataract surgery (in 3.8% of the participants, vs. 3.1% in the placebo group; P=0.02) and muscle symptoms (in 5.8% of the participants, vs. 4.7% in the placebo group; P=0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with rosuvastatin at a dose of 10 mg per day resulted in a significantly lower risk of cardiovascular events than placebo in an intermediate-risk, ethnically diverse population without cardiovascular disease. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and AstraZeneca; HOPE-3 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00468923.).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Rosuvastatina Cálcica/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Rosuvastatina Cálcica/efeitos adversos
6.
N Engl J Med ; 374(21): 2009-20, 2016 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27041480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antihypertensive therapy reduces the risk of cardiovascular events among high-risk persons and among those with a systolic blood pressure of 160 mm Hg or higher, but its role in persons at intermediate risk and with lower blood pressure is unclear. METHODS: In one comparison from a 2-by-2 factorial trial, we randomly assigned 12,705 participants at intermediate risk who did not have cardiovascular disease to receive either candesartan at a dose of 16 mg per day plus hydrochlorothiazide at a dose of 12.5 mg per day or placebo. The first coprimary outcome was the composite of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke; the second coprimary outcome additionally included resuscitated cardiac arrest, heart failure, and revascularization. The median follow-up was 5.6 years. RESULTS: The mean blood pressure of the participants at baseline was 138.1/81.9 mm Hg; the decrease in blood pressure was 6.0/3.0 mm Hg greater in the active-treatment group than in the placebo group. The first coprimary outcome occurred in 260 participants (4.1%) in the active-treatment group and in 279 (4.4%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79 to 1.10; P=0.40); the second coprimary outcome occurred in 312 participants (4.9%) and 328 participants (5.2%), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.11; P=0.51). In one of the three prespecified hypothesis-based subgroups, participants in the subgroup for the upper third of systolic blood pressure (>143.5 mm Hg) who were in the active-treatment group had significantly lower rates of the first and second coprimary outcomes than those in the placebo group; effects were neutral in the middle and lower thirds (P=0.02 and P=0.009, respectively, for trend in the two outcomes). CONCLUSIONS: Therapy with candesartan at a dose of 16 mg per day plus hydrochlorothiazide at a dose of 12.5 mg per day was not associated with a lower rate of major cardiovascular events than placebo among persons at intermediate risk who did not have cardiovascular disease. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and AstraZeneca; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00468923.).


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Benzimidazóis/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Hidroclorotiazida/administração & dosagem , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Tetrazóis/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotensão/induzido quimicamente , Incidência , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
7.
N Engl J Med ; 374(21): 2032-43, 2016 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27039945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated blood pressure and elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Lowering both should reduce the risk of cardiovascular events substantially. METHODS: In a trial with 2-by-2 factorial design, we randomly assigned 12,705 participants at intermediate risk who did not have cardiovascular disease to rosuvastatin (10 mg per day) or placebo and to candesartan (16 mg per day) plus hydrochlorothiazide (12.5 mg per day) or placebo. In the analyses reported here, we compared the 3180 participants assigned to combined therapy (with rosuvastatin and the two antihypertensive agents) with the 3168 participants assigned to dual placebo. The first coprimary outcome was the composite of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke, and the second coprimary outcome additionally included heart failure, cardiac arrest, or revascularization. The median follow-up was 5.6 years. RESULTS: The decrease in the LDL cholesterol level was 33.7 mg per deciliter (0.87 mmol per liter) greater in the combined-therapy group than in the dual-placebo group, and the decrease in systolic blood pressure was 6.2 mm Hg greater with combined therapy than with dual placebo. The first coprimary outcome occurred in 113 participants (3.6%) in the combined-therapy group and in 157 (5.0%) in the dual-placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56 to 0.90; P=0.005). The second coprimary outcome occurred in 136 participants (4.3%) and 187 participants (5.9%), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.57 to 0.89; P=0.003). Muscle weakness and dizziness were more common in the combined-therapy group than in the dual-placebo group, but the overall rate of discontinuation of the trial regimen was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of rosuvastatin (10 mg per day), candesartan (16 mg per day), and hydrochlorothiazide (12.5 mg per day) was associated with a significantly lower rate of cardiovascular events than dual placebo among persons at intermediate risk who did not have cardiovascular disease. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and AstraZeneca; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00468923.).


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Benzimidazóis/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Hidroclorotiazida/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Rosuvastatina Cálcica/administração & dosagem , Tetrazóis/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Rosuvastatina Cálcica/efeitos adversos
8.
Europace ; 18(7): 973-8, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26944733

RESUMO

AIMS: The Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy (RE-LY) trial allowed patients who completed the trial receiving their assigned dabigatran 150 mg (D150) or 110 mg (D110) twice a day to continue into the Long-term Multicenter Extension of Dabigatran Treatment in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation (RELY-ABLE) trial. This permitted assessment of outcomes over a median of 4.6 and a maximum of 6.7 years, respectively. METHODS AND RESULTS: The analysed population included only those patients who completed RE-LY on dabigatran and continued into RELY-ABLE without interruption of assigned dabigatran. Cumulative risk was expressed as Kaplan-Meier plots. Outcomes were compared using Cox proportional hazard modelling. Stroke or systemic embolization rates were 1.25 and 1.54% per year (D150 and D110, respectively); hazard ratio (HR) 0.81 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68-0.96] (P = 0.02). Ischaemic stroke was 1.03 (D150) and 1.29%/year (D110); HR 0.79 (95% CI: 0.66-0.95) (P = 0.01). Haemorrhagic stroke rates were 0.11 (D150) and 0.13%/year (D110); HR 0.91 (95% CI: 0.51-1.62) (P = 0.75). Rates of major haemorrhage were 3.34 (D150) and 2.76%/year (D110); HR 1.22 (95% CI: 1.08-1.37) (P = 0.0008). Intracranial haemorrhage rates were 0.32 (D150) and 0.23%/year (D110); HR 1.37 (95% CI: 0.93-2.01) (P = 0.11). Mortality was 3.43 (D150) and 3.55%/year (D110); HR 0.97 (95% CI: 0.87-1.08) (P = 0.54). CONCLUSION: Annualized rates of all outcomes were constant with better efficacy of D150, less major bleeding with D110, and low intracerebral haemorrhage rates for both doses. There were no additional safety concerns. This is the longest continuous randomized experience of a novel anticoagulant.


Assuntos
Antitrombinas/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Dabigatrana/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Antitrombinas/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Dabigatrana/efeitos adversos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
9.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 4(3): 244-253, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26857999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adherence to drugs and healthy lifestyles is low after acute coronary syndrome. We assessed whether trained community health workers could improve adherence to drugs, lifestyle changes, and clinical risk markers in patients with acute coronary syndrome in India. METHODS: In this study done at 14 hospitals in India we randomly assigned (1:1) patients with acute coronary syndrome 1 or 2 days before discharge from hospital to a community health worker-based intervention group or a standard care group. Patients were randomly assigned with a telephone randomisation service. In the intervention group, during four in-hospital and two home visits, community health workers used unstructured discussions, visual methods, and patient diaries to educate patients on healthy lifestyle and drugs, and measures to enhance adherence. The primary outcome was adherence to proven secondary prevention drugs (antiplatelet drugs, ß blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, and statins) estimated using a Composite Medication Adherence Scale at 1 year. The secondary outcomes were difference in lifestyle factors (diet, exercise, and tobacco and alcohol use), and clinical risk markers (blood pressure, bodyweight, BMI, heart rate, and lipids). All analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with the Clinical Trial Registry of India, number REF/2013/03/004737, and ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01207700. RESULTS: Between Aug 23, 2011, and June 25, 2012, 806 participants were randomly assigned (405 to a community health worker-based intervention group and 401 to a standard care group). At 1 year, 40 patients had died and 15 had discontinued or been lost to follow-up, so 750 (93%) were included in the analyses (375 in each group). Secondary prevention drugs prescribed at discharge were 98% (786/803) for any antiplatelet drug, 79% (638/803) for dual antiplatelet drugs, 69% (555/803) for ß blockers, 69% (552/803) for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers, and 95% (762/803) for statins. At one year, overall adherence (≥80%) to prescribed evidence-based drugs was higher in the intervention group than in the control group (97% vs 92%, odds ratio [OR] 2·62, 95% CI 1·32-5·19; p=0·006). For individual drugs, we recorded significant differences for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (97% [233/240] in the intervention group vs 93% [223/240] in the control group; p=0·036) and statins (97% [346/356] vs 93% [321/345]; p=0·011). The intervention group had significantly greater adherence to smoking cessation (85% [110/129] vs 52% [71/138], OR 5·46, 95% CI 3·03-9·86; p<0·0001), regular physical activity (89% [333/375] vs 60% [226/375], OR 5·23, 95% CI 3·57-7·66; p<0·0001), and healthy diet (score 5·0 vs 3·0, OR 2·47, 95% CI 1·88-3·25; p<0·0001). More patients in the intervention group had stopped alcohol use at 1 year (87% [64/74] vs 46% [46/67], OR 2·92, 95% CI 1·26-6·79; p =0·010). At 1 year, the mean systolic blood pressure (124·4 mm Hg [SD 13·5] vs 128·0 mm Hg [15·9]; p=0·002), weight (65·0 kg [11·0] vs 66·5 kg [11·5]; p<0·0001), cholesterol (157·0 [40·2] vs 166·9 [48·4]; p=0·184), LDL (81·0 [20·6] vs 87·3 [29·9]; p=0·191), HDL (42·0 [11·4] vs 38·2 [6·5]; p=0·042), and BMI (24·4 kg/m(2) [SD 3·7] vs 25·0 kg/m(2) [3·8]; p<0·0001) were lower in the intervention group than in the control group. However, we noted no significant difference in diastolic blood pressure and heart rate. INTERPRETATION: A community health worker-based personalised intervention strategy in patients with acute coronary syndrome improved adherence to evidence-based drugs and healthy lifestyles, and resulted in an improvement in clinical risk markers. Integration of trained community health workers can improve secondary prevention in coronary artery disease. FUNDING: US National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, and the UnitedHealth group, USA.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/psicologia , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Adesão à Medicação , Prevenção Secundária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Can J Cardiol ; 32(3): 311-8, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26481083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cholesterol and blood pressure (BP) can be effectively and safely lowered with statin drugs and BP-lowering drugs, reducing major cardiovascular (CV) events by 20%-30% within 5 years in high-risk individuals. However, there are limited data in lower-risk populations. The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation-3 (HOPE-3) trial is evaluating whether cholesterol lowering with a statin drug, BP lowering with low doses of 2 antihypertensive agents, and their combination safely reduce major CV events in individuals at intermediate risk who have had no previous vascular events and have average cholesterol and BP levels. METHODS: A total of 12,705 women 65 years or older and men 55 years or older with at least 1 CV risk factor, no known CV disease, and without any clear indication or contraindication to the study drugs were randomized to rosuvastatin 10 mg/d or placebo and to candesartan/hydrochlorothiazide 16/12.5 mg/d or placebo (2 × 2 factorial design) and will be followed for a mean of 5.8 years. The coprimary study outcomes are the composite of CV death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), and nonfatal stroke and the composite of CV death, nonfatal MI, nonfatal stroke, resuscitated cardiac arrest, heart failure, and arterial revascularization. RESULTS: Participants were recruited from 21 countries in North America, South America, Europe, Asia, and Australia. Mean age at randomization was 66 years and 46% were women. CONCLUSIONS: The HOPE-3 trial will provide new information on cholesterol and BP lowering in intermediate-risk populations with average cholesterol and BP levels and is expected to inform approaches to primary prevention worldwide (HOPE-3 ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00468923).


Assuntos
Benzimidazóis/administração & dosagem , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Hidroclorotiazida/administração & dosagem , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Rosuvastatina Cálcica/administração & dosagem , Tetrazóis/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/administração & dosagem , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , LDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , Diuréticos/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
N Engl J Med ; 374(21): 2009-2020, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: ses-34743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antihypertensive therapy reduces the risk of cardiovascular events among high-risk persons and among those with a systolic blood pressure of 160 mm Hg or higher, but its role in persons at intermediate risk and with lower blood pressure is unclear. METHODS: In one comparison from a 2-by-2 factorial trial, we randomly assigned 12,705 participants at intermediate risk who did not have cardiovascular disease to receive either candesartan at a dose of 16 mg per day plus hydrochlorothiazide at a dose of 12.5 mg per day or placebo. The first coprimary outcome was the composite of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke; the second coprimary outcome additionally included resuscitated cardiac arrest, heart failure, and revascularization. The median follow-up was 5.6 years. RESULTS: The mean blood pressure of the participants at baseline was 138.1/81.9 mm Hg; the decrease in blood pressure was 6.0/3.0 mm Hg greater in the active-treatment group than in the placebo group. The first coprimary outcome occurred in 260 participants (4.1%) in the active-treatment group and in 279 (4.4%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79 to 1.10; P=0.40); the second coprimary outcome occurred in 312 participants (4.9%) and 328 participants (5.2%), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.11; P=0.51). In one of the three prespecified hypothesis-based subgroups, participants in the subgroup for the upper third of systolic blood pressure (>143.5 mm Hg) who were in the active-treatment group had significantly lower rates of the first and second coprimary outcomes than those in the placebo group; effects were neutral in the middle and lower thirds (P=0.02 and P=0.009, respectively, for trend in the two outcomes)...(AU)


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Pressão Arterial , Risco , Doenças Cardiovasculares
12.
Circulation ; 132(24): 2297-304, 2015 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26518765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serum biomarkers may identify people at risk for cardiovascular (CV) outcomes. Biobanked serum samples from 8494 participants with dysglycemia in the completed Outcome Reduction With Initial Glargine Intervention trial were assayed for 284 biomarkers to identify those that could identify people at risk for a CV outcome or death when added to clinical measurements. METHODS AND RESULTS: A multiplex analysis measured a panel of cardiometabolic biomarkers in 1 mL of stored frozen serum from every participant who provided biobanked blood. After eliminating undetectable or unanalyzable biomarkers, 8401 participants who each had a set of 237 biomarkers were analyzed. Forward-selection Cox regression models were used to identify biomarkers that were each independent determinants of 3 different incident outcomes: (1) the composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, or CV death; (2) these plus heart failure hospitalization or revascularization; and (3) all-cause death. When added to clinical variables, 10 biomarkers were independent determinants of the 1405 CV composite outcomes observed during follow-up; 9 biomarkers (including 8 of these 10) were independent determinants of the 2435 expanded composite outcomes; and 15 (including the 10 CV composite biomarkers) were independent determinants of the 1340 deaths. Adjusted C statistics increased from 0.64 for the clinical variables to 0.71 and 0.68 for the 2 CV composite outcomes, respectively, with the greatest increase to 0.75 for death (P<0.001 for the change). CONCLUSIONS: A systematic hypothesis-free approach identified combinations of up to 15 cardiometabolic biomarkers as independent determinants of CV outcomes or death in people with dysglycemia. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00069784.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Causas de Morte/tendências , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
13.
Lancet ; 386(10000): 1243-1253, 2015 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26460660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary bypass initiates a systemic inflammatory response syndrome that is associated with postoperative morbidity and mortality. Steroids suppress inflammatory responses and might improve outcomes in patients at high risk of morbidity and mortality undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. We aimed to assess the effects of steroids in patients at high risk of morbidity and mortality undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS: The Steroids In caRdiac Surgery (SIRS) study is a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial. We used a central computerised phone or interactive web system to randomly assign (1:1) patients at high risk of morbidity and mortality from 80 hospital or cardiac surgery centres in 18 countries undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass to receive either methylprednisolone (250 mg at anaesthetic induction and 250 mg at initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass) or placebo. Patients were assigned with block randomisation with random block sizes of 2, 4, or 6 and stratified by centre. Patients aged 18 years or older were eligible if they had a European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation of at least 6. Patients were excluded if they were taking or expected to receive systemic steroids in the immediate postoperative period or had a history of bacterial or fungal infection in the preceding 30 days. Patients, caregivers, and those assessing outcomes were masked to allocation. The primary outcomes were 30-day mortality and a composite of death and major morbidity (ie, myocardial injury, stroke, renal failure, or respiratory failure) within 30 days, both analysed by intention to treat. Safety outcomes were also analysed by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00427388. FINDINGS: Patients were recruited between June 21, 2007, and Dec 19, 2013. Complete 30-day data was available for all 7507 patients randomly assigned to methylprednisolone (n=3755) and to placebo (n=3752). Methylprednisolone, compared with placebo, did not reduce the risk of death at 30 days (154 [4%] vs 177 [5%] patients; relative risk [RR] 0·87, 95% CI 0·70-1·07, p=0·19) or the risk of death or major morbidity (909 [24%] vs 885 [24%]; RR 1·03, 95% CI 0·95-1·11, p=0·52). The most common safety outcomes in the methylprednisolone and placebo group were infection (465 [12%] vs 493 [13%]), surgical site infection (151 [4%] vs 151 [4%]), and delirium (295 [8%] vs 289 [8%]). INTERPRETATION: Methylprednisolone did not have a significant effect on mortality or major morbidity after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. The SIRS trial does not support the routine use of methylprednisolone for patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. FUNDING: Canadian Institutes of Health Research.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/mortalidade , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/etiologia
14.
N Engl J Med ; 373(14): 1295-306, 2015 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26323937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of trypanocidal therapy in patients with established Chagas' cardiomyopathy is unproven. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, multicenter, randomized study involving 2854 patients with Chagas' cardiomyopathy who received benznidazole or placebo for up to 80 days and were followed for a mean of 5.4 years. The primary outcome in the time-to-event analysis was the first event of any of the components of the composite outcome of death, resuscitated cardiac arrest, sustained ventricular tachycardia, insertion of a pacemaker or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, cardiac transplantation, new heart failure, stroke, or other thromboembolic event. RESULTS: The primary outcome occurred in 394 patients (27.5%) in the benznidazole group and in 414 (29.1%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81 to 1.07; P=0.31). At baseline, a polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) assay was performed on blood samples obtained from 1896 patients; 60.5% had positive results for Trypanosoma cruzi on PCR. The rates of conversion to negative PCR results (PCR conversion) were 66.2% in the benznidazole group and 33.5% in the placebo group at the end of treatment, 55.4% and 35.3%, respectively, at 2 years, and 46.7% and 33.1%, respectively, at 5 years or more (P<0.001 for all comparisons). The effect of treatment on PCR conversion varied according to geographic region: in Brazil, the odds ratio for PCR conversion was 3.03 (95% CI, 2.12 to 4.34) at 2 years and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.33 to 2.63) at 5 or more years; in Colombia and El Salvador, the odds ratio was 1.33 (95% CI, 0.90 to 1.98) at 2 years and 0.96 (95% CI, 0.63 to 1.45) at 5 or more years; and in Argentina and Bolivia, the odds ratio was 2.63 (95% CI, 1.89 to 3.66) at 2 years and 2.79 (95% CI, 1.99 to 3.92) at 5 or more years (P<0.001 for interaction). However, the rates of PCR conversion did not correspond to effects on clinical outcome (P=0.16 for interaction). CONCLUSIONS: Trypanocidal therapy with benznidazole in patients with established Chagas' cardiomyopathy significantly reduced serum parasite detection but did not significantly reduce cardiac clinical deterioration through 5 years of follow-up. (Funded by the Population Health Research Institute and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00123916; Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN13967269.).


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/tratamento farmacológico , Nitroimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Tripanossomicidas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/complicações , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/mortalidade , Doença Crônica , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitroimidazóis/efeitos adversos , Carga Parasitária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Falha de Tratamento , Tripanossomicidas/efeitos adversos , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação
15.
Circulation ; 132(9): 796-803, 2015 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26224811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonvalvular atrial fibrillation is a major cause of thromboembolic events. In comparison with atrial fibrillation-related stroke, extracranial systemic embolic events (SEEs) remain poorly defined. METHODS AND RESULTS: All suspected SEEs reported among 37 973 participants of 4 large contemporary randomized clinical trials of anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation were independently readjudicated for clinical and objective evidence of sudden loss of perfusion of a limb or organ. Over 91 746 patient-years of follow-up, 221 SEEs occurred in 219 subjects. The SEE incidence was 0.24 of 100 and stroke incidence was 1.92 of 100 patient-years. In comparison with patients with stroke, those with SEE were more often female (56% versus 47%; P=0.01) and had comparable mean age (73.1±8.5 versus 73.5±8.8 years; P=0.57) and mean CHADS2 scores (2.4±1.3 versus 2.5±1.2; P=0.33). SEEs more frequently involved the lower extremity (58%) than visceral-mesenteric (31%) or upper extremity (10%). SEE-related care involved clinic assessment alone in 5%, 30% were hospitalized without procedures, 60% underwent endovascular or surgical intervention, and 5% underwent amputation. Within 30 days, 54% of patients recovered fully, 20% survived with deficits, and 25% died. Thirty-day mortality was greater after visceral-mesenteric than lower- or upper-extremity SEE (55%, 17%, and 9%, respectively, P≤0.0001). The relative risk of death throughout follow-up was 4.33 (95% confidence interval, 3.29-5.70) after SEE versus 6.79 (95% confidence interval, 6.22-7.41) after stroke in comparison with patients without either event. CONCLUSIONS: SEE constituted 11.5% of clinically recognized thromboembolic events in patients with atrial fibrillation and was associated with high morbidity and mortality. SEE mortality was comparable to that of ischemic stroke and varied by anatomic site.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Embolia/diagnóstico , Embolia/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Método Duplo-Cego , Embolia/mortalidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
N Engl J Med ; 372(15): 1389-98, 2015 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25853743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), manual thrombectomy may reduce distal embolization and thus improve microvascular perfusion. Small trials have suggested that thrombectomy improves surrogate and clinical outcomes, but a larger trial has reported conflicting results. METHODS: We randomly assigned 10,732 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary PCI to a strategy of routine upfront manual thrombectomy versus PCI alone. The primary outcome was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, recurrent myocardial infarction, cardiogenic shock, or New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IV heart failure within 180 days. The key safety outcome was stroke within 30 days. RESULTS: The primary outcome occurred in 347 of 5033 patients (6.9%) in the thrombectomy group versus 351 of 5030 patients (7.0%) in the PCI-alone group (hazard ratio in the thrombectomy group, 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85 to 1.15; P=0.86). The rates of cardiovascular death (3.1% with thrombectomy vs. 3.5% with PCI alone; hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.12; P=0.34) and the primary outcome plus stent thrombosis or target-vessel revascularization (9.9% vs. 9.8%; hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.14; P=0.95) were also similar. Stroke within 30 days occurred in 33 patients (0.7%) in the thrombectomy group versus 16 patients (0.3%) in the PCI-alone group (hazard ratio, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.13 to 3.75; P=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with STEMI who were undergoing primary PCI, routine manual thrombectomy, as compared with PCI alone, did not reduce the risk of cardiovascular death, recurrent myocardial infarction, cardiogenic shock, or NYHA class IV heart failure within 180 days but was associated with an increased rate of stroke within 30 days. (Funded by Medtronic and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research; TOTAL ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01149044.).


Assuntos
Trombose Coronária/terapia , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Trombectomia , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Terapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Trombose Coronária/complicações , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Microvasos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Trombectomia/efeitos adversos
17.
Lancet ; 385(9970): 785-91, 2015 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25715991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Defibrillation testing by induction and termination of ventricular fibrillation is widely done at the time of implantation of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of ICD implantation without defibrillation testing versus the standard of ICD implantation with defibrillation testing. METHODS: In this single-blind, randomised, multicentre, non-inferiority trial (Shockless IMPLant Evaluation [SIMPLE]), we recruited patients aged older than 18 years receiving their first ICD for standard indications at 85 hospitals in 18 countries worldwide. Exclusion criteria included pregnancy, awaiting transplantation, particpation in another randomised trial, unavailability for follow-up, or if it was expected that the ICD would have to be implanted on the right-hand side of the chest. Patients undergoing initial implantation of a Boston Scientific ICD were randomly assigned (1:1) using a computer-generated sequence to have either defibrillation testing (testing group) or not (no-testing group). We used random block sizes to conceal treatment allocation from the patients, and randomisation was stratified by clinical centre. Our primary efficacy analysis tested the intention-to-treat population for non-inferiority of no-testing versus testing by use of a composite outcome of arrhythmic death or failed appropriate shock (ie, a shock that did not terminate a spontaneous episode of ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation). The non-inferiority margin was a hazard ratio (HR) of 1·5 calculated from a proportional hazards model with no-testing versus testing as the only covariate; if the upper bound of the 95% CI was less than 1·5, we concluded that ICD insertion without testing was non-inferior to ICD with testing. We examined safety with two, 30 day, adverse event outcome clusters. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00800384. FINDINGS: Between Jan 13, 2009, and April 4, 2011, of 2500 eligible patients, 1253 were randomly assigned to defibrillation testing and 1247 to no-testing, and followed up for a mean of 3·1 years (SD 1·0). The primary outcome of arrhythmic death or failed appropriate shock occurred in fewer patients (90 [7% per year]) in the no-testing group than patients who did receive it (104 [8% per year]; HR 0·86, 95% CI 0·65-1·14; pnon-inferiority <0·0001). The first safety composite outcome occurred in 69 (5·6%) of 1236 patients with no-testing and in 81 (6·5%) of 1242 patients with defibrillation testing, p=0·33. The second, pre-specified safety composite outcome, which included only events most likely to be directly caused by testing, occurred in 3·2% of patients with no-testing and in 4·5% with defibrillation testing, p=0·08. Heart failure needing intravenous treatment with inotropes or diuretics was the most common adverse event (in 20 [2%] of 1236 patients in the no-testing group vs 28 [2%] of 1242 patients in the testing group, p=0·25). INTERPRETATION: Routine defibrillation testing at the time of ICD implantation is generally well tolerated, but does not improve shock efficacy or reduce arrhythmic death. FUNDING: Boston Scientific and the Heart and Stroke Foundation (Ontario Provincial office).


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/terapia , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Cardioversão Elétrica/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Implantação de Prótese/métodos , Arritmias Cardíacas/mortalidade , Cardioversão Elétrica/mortalidade , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segurança do Paciente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Implantação de Prótese/mortalidade , Medição de Risco , Método Simples-Cego , Fibrilação Ventricular/etiologia
18.
Hypertension ; 65(1): 108-14, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25331850

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Excessively high and low achieved blood pressure (BP) may be associated with a bad outcome in patients with coronary artery disease, the J curve phenomenon. The effect of BP changes from baseline in relation with the subsequent risk of stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) is unknown. Of the 25 620 patients randomized in the Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET) study, we selected 19 102 patients with coronary artery disease at baseline. BP at entry was 141/82 mm Hg, and its average decrease during follow-up was 7/6 mm Hg. BP entered the analysis as time-varying variable modeled with restricted cubic splines. After adjustment for several potential determinants of reverse causality, a change in BP from baseline by -34/-21 mm Hg (10th percentile) was associated with a lesser risk of stroke without any significant increase in the risk of MI. A rise in systolic/diastolic BP from baseline by 20/10 mm Hg (90th percentile) was associated with an increased risk of stroke, whereas the risk of MI increased with systolic BP and not with diastolic BP. In conclusion, in patients with coronary artery disease and initially free from congestive heart failure, a BP reduction from baseline over the examined BP range had little effect on the risk of MI and predicted a lower risk of stroke. An increase in systolic BP from baseline increased the risk of stroke and MI. The relationships of BP with risk were much steeper for stroke than for MI. A treatment-induced BP reduction over the explored range seems to be safe in patients with coronary artery disease. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00153101.


Assuntos
Benzimidazóis/administração & dosagem , Benzoatos/administração & dosagem , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Ramipril/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Diástole , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Sístole , Telmisartan , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Kidney Int ; 87(4): 784-91, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25493953

RESUMO

This observational study examined the association between modifiable lifestyle and social factors on the incidence and progression of early chronic kidney disease (CKD) among those with type 2 diabetes. All 6972 people from the Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET) with diabetes but without macroalbuminuria were studied. CKD progression was defined as decline in GFR of more than 5% per year, progression to end-stage renal disease, microalbuminuria, or macroalbuminuria at 5.5 years. Lifestyle/social factors included tobacco and alcohol use, physical activity, stress, financial worries, the size of the social network and education. Adjustments were made for known risks such as age, diabetes duration, GFR, albuminuria, gender, body mass index, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin-receptor blockers use. Competing risk of death was considered. At study end, 31% developed CKD and 15% had died. The social network score (SNS) was a significant independent risk factor of CKD and death, reducing the risk by 11 and 22% when comparing the third to the first tertile of the SNS (odds ratios of CKD 0.89 and death 0.78). Education showed a significant association with CKD but stress and financial worries did not. Those with moderate alcohol consumption had a significantly decreased CKD risk compared with nonusers. Regular physical activity significantly decreased the risk of CKD. Thus, lifestyle is a determinant of kidney health in people at high cardiovascular risk with diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Apoio Social , Idoso , Albuminúria/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/economia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Progressão da Doença , Escolaridade , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atividade Motora , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia
20.
The Lancet ; 386(10000): 1243-1253, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: ses-32878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:Cardiopulmonary bypass initiates a systemic inflammatory response syndrome that is associated with postoperative morbidity and mortality. Steroids suppress inflammatory responses and might improve outcomes in patients at high risk of morbidity and mortality undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. We aimed to assess the effects of steroids in patients at high risk of morbidity and mortality undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass.METHODS:The Steroids In caRdiac Surgery (SIRS) study is a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial. We used a central computerised phone or interactive web system to randomly assign (1:1) patients at high risk of morbidity and mortality from 80 hospital or cardiac surgery centres in 18 countries undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass to receive either methylprednisolone (250 mg at anaesthetic induction and 250 mg at initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass) or placebo. Patients were assigned with block randomisation with random block sizes of 2, 4, or 6 and stratified by centre. Patients aged 18 years or older were eligible if they had a European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation of at least 6. Patients were excluded if they were taking or expected to receive systemic steroids in the immediate postoperative period or had a history of bacterial or fungal infection in the preceding 30 days. Patients, caregivers, and those assessing outcomes were masked to allocation. The primary outcomes were 30-day mortality and a composite of death and major morbidity (ie, myocardial injury, stroke, renal failure, or respiratory failure) within 30 days, both analysed by intention to treat. Safety outcomes were also analysed by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00427388... (AU)


Assuntos
Metilprednisolona , Circulação Extracorpórea
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