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1.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cerebellum is a target of alcoholism-related brain damage in adults, yet no study has prospectively tracked deviations from normal cerebellar growth trajectories in adolescents before and after initiating drinking. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging tracked developmental volume trajectories of 10 cerebellar lobule and vermis tissue constituents in 548 no/low drinking youths age 12 to 21 years at induction into this 5-site, NCANDA (National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence) study. Over the 3- to 4-year longitudinal examination yielding 2043 magnetic resonance imaging scans, 328 youths remained no/low drinkers, whereas 220 initiated substantial drinking after initial neuroimaging. RESULTS: Normal growth trajectories derived from no/low drinkers indicated that gray matter volumes of lobules V and VI, crus II, lobule VIIB, and lobule X declined faster with age in male youths than in female youths, whereas white matter volumes in crus I and crus II and lobules VIIIA and VIIIB expanded faster in female youths than in male youths; cerebrospinal fluid volume expanded faster in most cerebellar regions of male youths than female youths. Drinkers exhibited accelerated gray matter decline in anterior lobules and vermis, accelerated vermian white matter expansion, and accelerated cerebrospinal fluid volumes expansion of anterior lobules relative to youths who remained no/low drinkers. Analyses including both alcohol and marijuana did not support an independent role for marijuana in alcohol effects on cerebellar gray matter trajectories. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol use-related cerebellar growth trajectory differences from normal involved anterior lobules and vermis of youths who initiated substantial drinking. These regions are commonly affected in alcohol-dependent adults, raising the possibility that cerebellar structures affected by youthful drinking may be vulnerable to age-alcohol interactions in later adulthood.

2.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 43(10): 2144-2152, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among the neurological consequences of alcoholism is peripheral neuropathy. Relative to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or diabetes-related neuropathies, neuropathy associated with alcohol use disorders (AUD) is understudied. In both the diabetes and HIV literature, emerging evidence supports a central nervous system (CNS) component to peripheral neuropathy. METHODS: In seeking a central substrate for AUD-related neuropathy, the current study was conducted in 154 individuals with AUD (43 women, age 21 to 74 years) and 99 healthy controls (41 women, age 21 to 77 years) and explored subjective symptoms (self-report) and objective signs (perception of vibration, deep tendon ankle reflex, position sense, 2-point discrimination) of neuropathy separately. In addition to regional brain volumes, risk factors for AUD-related neuropathy, including age, sex, total lifetime ethanol consumed, nutritional indices (i.e., thiamine, folate), and measures of liver integrity (i.e., γ-glutamyltransferase), were evaluated. RESULTS: The AUD group described more subjective symptoms of neuropathy and was more frequently impaired on bilateral perception of vibration. From 5 correlates, the number of AUD-related seizures was most significantly associated with subjective symptoms of neuropathy. There were 15 correlates of impaired perception of vibration among the AUD participants: Of these, age and volume of frontal precentral cortex were the most robust predictors. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports CNS involvement in objective signs of neuropathy in AUD.

3.
Neuroimage Clin ; 24: 101974, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419768

RESUMO

Recent advances in robust and reliable methods of MRI-derived cerebellar lobule parcellation volumetry present the opportunity to assess effects of Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) on selective cerebellar lobules and relations with indices of nutrition and motor functions. In pursuit of this opportunity, we analyzed high-resolution MRI data acquired in 24 individuals with AUD and 20 age- and sex-matched controls with a 32-channel head coil using three different atlases: the online automated analysis pipeline volBrain Ceres, SUIT, and the Johns Hopkins atlas. Participants had also completed gait and balance examination and hematological analysis of nutritional and liver status, enabling testing of functional meaningfulness of each cerebellar parcellation scheme. Compared with controls, each quantification approach yielded similar patterns of group differences in regional volumes: All three approaches identified AUD-related deficits in total tissue and total gray matter, but only Ceres identified a total white matter volume deficit. Convergent volume differences occurred in lobules I-V, Crus I, VIIIB, and IX. Coefficients of variation (CVs) were <20% for 46 of 56 regions measured and in general were graded: Ceres

4.
Brain Struct Funct ; 224(6): 2087-2101, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161472

RESUMO

Despite the common co-occurrence of cognitive impairment and brain structural deficits in alcoholism, demonstration of relations between regional gray matter volumes and cognitive and motor processes have been relatively elusive. In pursuit of identifying brain structural substrates of impairment in alcoholism, we assessed executive functions (EF), episodic memory (MEM), and static postural balance (BAL) and measured regional brain gray matter volumes of cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar structures commonly affected in individuals with alcohol dependence (ALC) compared with healthy controls (CTRL). ALC scored lower than CTRL on all composite scores (EF, MEM, and BAL) and had smaller frontal, cingulate, insular, parietal, and hippocampal volumes. Within the ALC group, poorer EF scores correlated with smaller frontal and temporal volumes; MEM scores correlated with frontal volume; and BAL scores correlated with frontal, caudate, and pontine volumes. Exploratory analyses investigating relations between subregional frontal volumes and composite scores in ALC yielded different patterns of associations, suggesting that different neural substrates underlie these functional deficits. Of note, orbitofrontal volume was a significant predictor of memory scores, accounting for almost 15% of the variance; however, this relation was evident only in ALC with a history of a non-alcohol substance diagnosis and not in ALC without a non-alcohol substance diagnosis. The brain-behavior relations observed provide evidence that the cognitive and motor deficits in alcoholism are likely a result of different neural systems and support the hypothesis that a number of identifiable neural systems rather than a common or diffuse neural pathway underlies cognitive and motor deficits observed in chronic alcoholism.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982583

RESUMO

The incidence of alcohol use disorder (AUD) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is twice that of the rest of the population. This study documents complex radiologically identified, neuroanatomical effects of AUD+HIV comorbidity by identifying structural brain systems that predicted diagnosis on an individual basis. Applying novel machine learning analysis to 549 participants (199 control subjects, 222 with AUD, 68 with HIV, 60 with AUD+HIV), 298 magnetic resonance imaging brain measurements were automatically reduced to small subsets per group. Significance of each diagnostic pattern was inferred from its accuracy in predicting diagnosis and performance on six cognitive measures. While all three diagnostic patterns predicted the learning and memory score, the AUD+HIV pattern was the largest and had the highest predication accuracy (78.1%). Providing a roadmap for analyzing large, multimodal datasets, the machine learning analysis revealed imaging phenotypes that predicted diagnostic membership of magnetic resonance imaging scans of individuals with AUD, HIV, and their comorbidity.

6.
Addict Biol ; 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30932270

RESUMO

The World Health Organization estimates a 12-month prevalence rate of 8+% for an alcohol use disorder (AUD) diagnosis in people age 15 years and older in the United States and Europe, presenting significant health risks that have the potential of accelerating age-related functional decline. According to neuropathological studies, white matter systems of the cerebellum are vulnerable to chronic alcohol dependence. To pursue the effect of AUD on white matter structure and functions in vivo, this study used T1-weighted, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify the total corpus medullare of the cerebellum and a finely grained analysis of its surface in 135 men and women with AUD (mean duration of abstinence, 248 d) and 128 age- and sex-matched control participants; subsets of these participants completed motor testing. We identified an AUD-related volume deficit and accelerated aging in the total corpus medullare. Novel deformation-based surface morphometry revealed regional shrinkage of surfaces adjacent to lobules I-V, lobule IX, and vermian lobule X. In addition, accelerated aging was detected in the regional surface areas adjacent to lobules I-V, lobule VI, lobule VIIB, and lobules VIII, IX, and X. Sex differences were not identified for any measure. For both volume-based and surface-based analyses, poorer performance in gait and balance, manual dexterity, and grip strength were linked to greater regional white matter structural deficits. Our results suggest that local deformation of the corpus medullare has the potential of identifying structurally and functionally segregated networks affected in AUD.

7.
Neuroimage Clin ; 22: 101764, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30904825

RESUMO

The profile of brain structural dysmorphology of individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD) involves disruption of the limbic system. In vivo imaging studies report hippocampal volume loss in AUD relative to controls, but only recently has it been possible to articulate different regions of this complex structure. Volumetric analysis of hippocampal regions rather than total hippocampal volume may augment differentiation of disease processes. For example, damage to hippocampal subfield cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) is often reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD), whereas deficits in CA4/dentate gyrus are described in response to stress and trauma. Two previous studies explored the effects of chronic alcohol use on hippocampal subfields: one reported smaller volume of the CA2+3 in alcohol-dependent subjects relative to controls, associated with years of alcohol consumption; the other, smaller volumes of presubiculum, subiculum, and fimbria in alcohol-dependent relative to control men. The current study, conducted in 24 adults with DSM5-diagnosed AUD (7 women, 53.7 ±â€¯8.8) and 20 controls (7 women, 54.1 ±â€¯9.3), is the first to use FreeSurfer 6.0, which provides state-of-the art hippocampal parcellation, to explore the sensitivity of hippocampal sufields to alcoholism. T1- and T2- images were collected on a GE MR750 system with a 32-channel Nova head coil. FreeSurfer 6.0 hippocampal subfield analysis produced 12 subfields: parasubiculum; presubiculum; subiculum; CA1; CA2+3; CA4; GC-ML-DG (Granule Cell (GC) and Molecular Layer (ML) of the Dentate Gyrus (DG)); molecular layer; hippocampus-amygdala-transition-area (HATA); fimbria; hippocampal tail; hippocampal fissure; and whole volume for left and right hippocampi. A comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests comprising attention, memory and learning, visuospatial abilities, and executive functions was administered. Multiple regression analyses of raw volumetric data for each subfields by group, age, sex, hemisphere, and supratentorial volume (svol) showed significant effects of svol (p < .04) on nearly all structures (excluding tail and fissure). Volumes corrected for svol showed effects of age (fimbria, fissure) and group (subiculum, CA1, CA4, GC-ML-DG, HATA, fimbria); CA2+3 showed a diagnosis-by-age interaction indicating older AUD individuals had a smaller volume than would be expected for their age. There were no selective relations between hippocampal subfields and performance on neuropsychological tests, likely due to lack of statistical power. The current results concur with the previous study identifying CA2+3 as sensitive to alcoholism, extend them by identifying an alcoholism-age interaction, and suggest an imaging phenotype distinguishing AUD from AD and stress/trauma.

8.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 40(8): 2511-2528, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30806009

RESUMO

Increasing numbers of neuroimaging studies are acquiring data to examine changes in brain architecture by investigating intrinsic functional networks (IFN) from longitudinal resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI). At the subject level, these IFNs are determined by cross-sectional procedures, which neglect intra-subject dependencies and result in suboptimal estimates of the networks. Here, a novel longitudinal approach simultaneously extracts subject-specific IFNs across multiple visits by explicitly modeling functional brain development as an essential context for seeking change. On data generated by an innovative simulation based on real rs-fMRI, the method was more accurate in estimating subject-specific IFNs than cross-sectional approaches. Furthermore, only group-analysis based on longitudinally consistent estimates identified significant developmental effects within IFNs of 246 adolescents from the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA) study. The findings were confirmed by the cross-sectional estimates when the corresponding group analysis was confined to the developmental effects. Those effects also converged with current concepts of neurodevelopment.

9.
J Neuroimmune Pharmacol ; 14(3): 436-447, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30741374

RESUMO

Neuropathy, typically diagnosed by the presence of either symptoms or signs of peripheral nerve dysfunction, remains a frequently reported complication in the antiretroviral (ART)-treated HIV population. This study was conducted in 109 healthy controls and 57 HIV-infected individuals to investigate CNS regions associated with neuropathy. An index of objective neuropathy was computed based on 4 measures: deep tendon ankle reflex, vibration sense (great toes), position sense (great toes), and 2-point discrimination (feet). Subjective neuropathy (self-report of pain, aching, or burning; pins and needles; or numbness in legs or feet) was also evaluated. Structural MRI data were available for 126/166 cases. The HIV relative to the healthy control group was impaired on all 4 signs of neuropathy. Within the HIV group, an objective neuropathy index of 1 (bilateral impairment on 1 measure) or 2 (bilateral impairment on at least 2/4 measures) was associated with older age and a smaller volume of the cerebellar vermis. Moderate to severe symptoms of neuropathy were associated with more depressive symptoms, reduced quality of life, and a smaller volume of the parietal precuneus. This study is consistent with the recent contention that ART-treated HIV-related neuropathy has a CNS component. Distinguishing subjective symptoms from objective signs of neuropathy allowed for a dissociation between the precuneus, a brain region involved in conscious information processing and the vermis, involved in fine tuning of limb movements. Graphical Abstract In HIV patients, objective signs of neuropathy correlated with smaller cerebellar vermis (red) volumes whereas subjective symptoms of neuropathy were associated with smaller precuneus (blue) volumes.

10.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2018 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30406353

RESUMO

Adolescence is a time of continued cognitive and emotional evolution occurring with continuing brain development involving synaptic pruning and cortical myelination. The hypothesis of this study is that heavy myelination occurs in cortical regions with relatively direct, predetermined circuitry supporting unimodal sensory or motor functions and shows a steep developmental slope during adolescence (12-21 years) until young adulthood (22-35 years) when further myelination decelerates. By contrast, light myelination occurs in regions with highly plastic circuitry supporting complex functions and follows a delayed developmental trajectory. In support of this hypothesis, cortical myelin content was estimated and harmonized across publicly available datasets provided by the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA) and the Human Connectome Project (HCP). The cross-sectional analysis of 226 no-to-low alcohol drinking NCANDA adolescents revealed relatively steeper age-dependent trajectories of myelin growth in unimodal primary motor cortex and flatter age-dependent trajectories in multimodal mid/posterior cingulate cortices. This pattern of continued myelination showed smaller gains when the same analyses were performed on 686 young adults of the HCP cohort free of neuropsychiatric diagnoses. Critically, a predicted correlation between a motor task and myelin content in motor or cingulate cortices was found in the NCANDA adolescents, supporting the functional relevance of this imaging neurometric. Furthermore, the regional trajectory slopes were confirmed by performing longitudinally consistent analysis of cortical myelin. In conclusion, coordination of myelin content and circuit complexity continues to develop throughout adolescence, contributes to performance maturation, and may represent active cortical development climaxing in young adulthood.

11.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30496644

RESUMO

To track iron accumulation and location in the brain across adolescence, we repurposed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data acquired in 513 adolescents and validated iron estimates with quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) in 104 of these subjects. DTI and fMRI data were acquired longitudinally over 1 year in 245 male and 268 female, no-to-low alcohol-consuming adolescents (12-21 years at baseline) from the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA) study. Brain region average signal values were calculated for susceptibility to nonheme iron deposition: pallidum, putamen, dentate nucleus, red nucleus, and substantia nigra. To estimate nonheme iron, the corpus callosum signal (robust to iron effects) was divided by regional signals to generate estimated R2 (edwR2 for DTI) and R2 * (eR2 * for fMRI). Longitudinal iron deposition was measured using the normalized signal change across time for each subject. Validation using baseline QSM, derived from susceptibility-weighted imaging, was performed on 46 male and 58 female participants. Normalized iron deposition estimates from DTI and fMRI correlated with age in most regions; both estimates indicated less iron in boys than girls. QSM results correlated highly with DTI and fMRI results (adjusted R2 = 0.643 for DTI, 0.578 for fMRI). Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses indicated an initial rapid increase in iron, notably in the putamen and red nucleus, that slowed with age. DTI and fMRI data can be repurposed for identifying regional brain iron deposition in developing adolescents as validated with high correspondence with QSM.

12.
Neuroimage ; 183: 425-437, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30138676

RESUMO

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection continues to have major adverse public health and clinical consequences despite the effectiveness of combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART) in reducing HIV viral load and improving immune function. As successfully treated individuals with HIV infection age, their cognition declines faster than reported for normal aging. This phenomenon underlines the importance of improving long-term care, which requires a better understanding of the impact of HIV on the brain. In this paper, automated identification of patients and brain regions affected by HIV infection are modeled as a classification problem, whose solution is determined in two steps within our proposed Chained-Regularization framework. The first step focuses on selecting the HIV pattern (i.e., the most informative constellation of brain region measurements for distinguishing HIV infected subjects from healthy controls) by constraining the search for the optimal parameter setting of the classifier via group sparsity (ℓ2,1-norm). The second step improves classification accuracy by constraining the parameterization with respect to the selected measurements and the Euclidean regularization (ℓ2-norm). When applied to the cortical and subcortical structural Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) measurements of 65 controls and 65 HIV infected individuals, this approach is more accurate in distinguishing the two cohorts than more common models. Finally, the brain regions of the identified HIV pattern concur with the HIV literature that uses traditional group analysis models.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30093343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Life expectancy of successfully treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals is approaching normal longevity. The growing HIV population ≥50 years of age is now at risk of developing HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, acquiring coinfection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV), and engaging in hazardous drinking or drug consumption that can adversely affect trajectories of the healthy aging of brain structures. METHODS: This cross-sectional/longitudinal study quantified regional brain volumes from 1101 magnetic resonance imaging scans collected over 14 years in 549 participants (25 to 75 years of age): 68 HIV-infected individuals without alcohol dependence, 60 HIV-infected individuals with alcohol dependence, 222 alcohol-dependent individuals, and 199 control subjects. We tested 1) whether localized brain regions in HIV-infected individuals exhibited accelerated aging, or alternatively, nonaccelerated premature aging deficits; and 2) the extent to which alcohol or substance dependence or HCV coinfection altered brain aging trajectories. RESULTS: The HIV-infected cohort exhibited steeper declining volume trajectories than control subjects, consistently in the frontal cortex. Nonaccelerated volume deficits occurred in the temporal, parietal, insular, and cingulate regions of all three diagnostic groups. Alcohol and drug dependence comorbidities and HCV coinfection exacerbated HIV-related volume deficits. Accelerated age interactions in frontal and posterior parietal volumes endured in HIV-infected individuals free of alcohol or substance dependence and HCV infection comorbidities. Functionally, poorer HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder scores and Veterans Aging Cohort Study indices correlated with smaller regional brain volumes in the HIV-infected individuals without alcohol dependence and alcohol-dependent groups. CONCLUSIONS: HIV infection itself may confer a heightened risk of accelerated brain aging, potentially exacerbated by HCV coinfection and substance dependency. Confirmation would require a prospective study with a preinfection baseline.

14.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 8297, 2018 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29844507

RESUMO

Group analysis of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) metrics frequently employs generalized additive models (GAM) to remove contributions of confounding factors before identifying cohort specific characteristics. For example, the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA) used such an approach to identify effects of alcohol misuse on the developing brain. Here, we hypothesized that considering confounding factors before group analysis removes information relevant for distinguishing adolescents with drinking history from those without. To test this hypothesis, we introduce a machine-learning model that identifies cohort-specific, neuromorphometric patterns by simultaneously training a GAM and generic classifier on macrostructural MRI and microstructural diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics and compare it to more traditional group analysis and machine-learning approaches. Using a baseline NCANDA MR dataset (N = 705), the proposed machine learning approach identified a pattern of eight brain regions unique to adolescents who misuse alcohol. Classifying high-drinking adolescents was more accurate with that pattern than using regions identified with alternative approaches. The findings of the joint model approach thus were (1) impartial to confounding factors; (2) relevant to drinking behaviors; and (3) in concurrence with the alcohol literature.

15.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 75(5): 474-483, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29541774

RESUMO

Importance: The prevalence of alcohol misuse increased substantially over a decade in adults, particularly in those aged 65 years or older. Ramifications for brain structural integrity are significant, especially in older adults. Objectives: To combine cross-sectional, longitudinal data to test age-alcoholism interactions and examine the association between prevalent comorbidities (drug dependence and hepatitis C virus [HCV] infection) and cortical volume deficits in alcohol dependence. Design, Setting, and Participants: During 14 years, 826 structural magnetic resonance images were acquired in 222 individuals with alcohol dependence and 199 age-matched control participants (aged 25-75 years at initial study), parcellated with a common atlas, and adjusted for brain volume. Longitudinal data were available on 116 participants with alcoholism and 96 control participants. DSM-IV criteria determined alcohol and drug diagnoses; serology testing determined HCV status. The study was conducted at SRI International and Stanford University School of Medicine from April 11, 2003, to March 3, 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures: Magnetic resonance imaging-derived regional cortical volumes corrected for supratentorial volume and sex. Results: Of the 222 participants with alcoholism, 156 (70.3%) were men; mean (SD) age was 48.0 (10.0) years; the mean age for the 199 control participants was 47.6 (14.0) years. Participants with alcohol dependence had volume deficits in frontal (t = -5.732, P < .001), temporal (t = -3.151, P = .002), parietal (t = -5.063, P < .001), cingulate (t = -3.170, P = .002), and insular (t = -4.920, P < .001) cortices; deficits were prominent in frontal subregions and were not sex dependent. Accelerated aging occurred in frontal cortex (t = -3.019, P < .02) and precentral (t = -2.691, P < .05) and superior gyri (t = -2.763, P < .05) and could not be attributed to the amount of alcohol consumed, which was greater in younger-onset than older-onset participants with alcoholism (t = 6.1191, P < .001). Given the high drug-dependence incidence (54.5%) in the alcoholism group, analysis examined drug subgroups (cocaine, cannabis, amphetamines, opiates) compared with drug-dependence-free alcoholism and control groups. Although the alcohol plus cocaine (t = -2.310, P = .04) and alcohol plus opiate (t = -2.424, P = .04) groups had smaller frontal volumes than the drug-dependence-free alcoholism group, deficits in precentral (t = -2.575, P = .01), supplementary motor (t = -2.532, P = .01), and medial (t = -2.800, P = .01) volumes endured in drug-dependence-free participants with alcoholism compared with control participants. Those with HCV infection had greater deficits than those without HCV infection in frontal (t = 3.468, P = .01), precentral (t = 2.513, P = .03), superior (t = 2.533, P = .03), and orbital (t = 2.506, P = .03) volumes, yet total frontal (t = 2.660, P = .02), insular (t = 3.526, P = .003), parietal (t = 2.414, P = .03), temporal (t = 3.221, P = .005), and precentral (t = 3.180, P = .01) volume deficits persisted in the uninfected participants with alcoholism compared with control participants with known HCV status. Conclusions and Relevance: Drug dependence and HCV infection compounded deleterious effects of alcohol dependence on frontal cortical volumes but could not account for the frontally distributed volume deficits in the drug-free participants with alcoholism. We speculate that age-alcohol interactions notable in frontal cortex put older adults at heightened risk for age-associated neurocompromise even if alcohol misuse is initiated later in life.

16.
Cereb Cortex ; 28(3): 1049-1063, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28168274

RESUMO

The transition from adolescent to adult cognition and emotional control requires neurodevelopmental maturation likely involving intrinsic functional networks (IFNs). Normal neurodevelopment may be vulnerable to disruption from environmental insult such as alcohol consumption commonly initiated during adolescence. To test potential disruption to IFN maturation, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) in 581 no-to-low alcohol-consuming and 117 moderate-to-high-drinking youth. Functional seed-to-voxel connectivity analysis assessed age, sex, and moderate alcohol drinking on default-mode, executive-control, salience, reward, and emotion networks and tested cognitive and motor coordination correlates of network connectivity. Among no-to-low alcohol-consuming adolescents, executive-control frontolimbicstriatal connectivity was stronger in older than younger adolescents, particularly boys, and predicted better ability in balance, memory, and impulse control. Connectivity patterns in moderate-to-high-drinking youth were tested mainly in late adolescence when drinking was initiated. Implicated was the emotion network with attenuated connectivity to default-mode network regions. Our cross-sectional rs-fMRI findings from this large cohort of adolescents show sexual dimorphism in connectivity and suggest neurodevelopmental rewiring toward stronger and spatially more distributed executive-control networking in older than younger adolescents. Functional network rewiring in moderate-to-high-drinking adolescents may impede maturation of affective and self-reflection systems and obscure maturation of complex social and emotional behaviors.

17.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng ; 65(4): 733-744, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28641243

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This paper presents a framework for temporal shape analysis to capture the shape and changes of anatomical structures from three-dimensional+t(ime) medical scans. METHOD: We first encode the shape of a structure at each time point with the spectral signature, i.e., the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Laplace operator. We then expand it to capture morphing shapes by tracking the eigenmodes across time according to the similarity of their eigenfunctions. The similarity metric is motivated by the fact that small-shaped deformations lead to minor changes in the eigenfunctions. Following each eigenmode from the beginning to end results in a set of eigenmode curves representing the shape and its changes over time. RESULTS: We apply our encoding to a cardiac dataset consisting of series of segmentations outlining the right and left ventricles over time. We measure the accuracy of our encoding by training classifiers on discriminating healthy adults from patients that received reconstructive surgery for Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). The classifiers based on our encoding significantly surpass deformation-based encodings of the right ventricle, the structure most impacted by TOF. CONCLUSION: The strength of our framework lies in its simplicity: It only assumes pose invariance within a time series but does not assume point-to-point correspondence across time series or a (statistical or physical) model. In addition, it is easy to implement and only depends on a single parameter, i.e., the number of curves.

18.
Am J Psychiatry ; 175(4): 370-380, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29084454

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The authors sought evidence for altered adolescent brain growth trajectory associated with moderate and heavy alcohol use in a large national, multisite, prospective study of adolescents before and after initiation of appreciable alcohol use. METHOD: This study examined 483 adolescents (ages 12-21) before initiation of drinking and 1 and 2 years later. At the 2-year assessment, 356 participants continued to meet the study's no/low alcohol consumption entry criteria, 65 had initiated moderate drinking, and 62 had initiated heavy drinking. MRI was used to quantify regional cortical and white matter volumes. Percent change per year (slopes) in adolescents who continued to meet no/low criteria served as developmental control trajectories against which to compare those who initiated moderate or heavy drinking. RESULTS: In no/low drinkers, gray matter volume declined throughout adolescence and slowed in many regions in later adolescence. Complementing gray matter declines, white matter regions grew at faster rates at younger ages and slowed toward young adulthood. Youths who initiated heavy drinking exhibited an accelerated frontal cortical gray matter trajectory, divergent from the norm. Although significant effects on trajectories were not observed in moderate drinkers, their intermediate position between no/low and heavy drinkers suggests a dose effect. Neither marijuana co-use nor baseline volumes contributed significantly to the alcohol effect. CONCLUSIONS: Initiation of drinking during adolescence, with or without marijuana co-use, disordered normal brain growth trajectories. Factors possibly contributing to abnormal cortical volume trajectories include peak consumption in the past year and family history of alcoholism.

19.
Brain Struct Funct ; 223(2): 669-685, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28913599

RESUMO

During the course of adolescence, reductions occur in cortical thickness and gray matter (GM) volume, along with a 65% reduction in slow-wave (delta) activity during sleep (SWA) but empirical data linking these structural brain and functional sleep differences, is lacking. Here, we investigated specifically whether age-related differences in cortical thickness and GM volume and cortical thickness accounted for the typical age-related difference in slow-wave (delta) activity (SWA) during sleep. 132 healthy participants (age 12-21 years) from the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence study were included in this cross-sectional analysis of baseline polysomnographic, electroencephalographic, and magnetic resonance imaging data. By applying mediation models, we identified a large, direct effect of age on SWA in adolescents, which explained 45% of the variance in ultra-SWA (0.3-1 Hz) and 52% of the variance in delta-SWA (1 to <4 Hz), where SWA was lower in older adolescents, as has been reported previously. In addition, we provide evidence that the structure of several, predominantly frontal, and parietal brain regions, partially mediated this direct age effect, models including measures of brain structure explained an additional 3-9% of the variance in ultra-SWA and 4-5% of the variance in delta-SWA, with no differences between sexes. Replacing age with pubertal status in models produced similar results. As reductions in GM volume and cortical thickness likely indicate synaptic pruning and myelination, these results suggest that diminished SWA in older, more mature adolescents may largely be driven by such processes within a number of frontal and parietal brain regions.

20.
Front Behav Neurosci ; 11: 223, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29180956

RESUMO

During adolescence, problems reflecting cognitive, behavioral and affective dysregulation, such as inattention and emotional dyscontrol, have been observed to be associated with substance use disorder (SUD) risks and outcomes. Prior studies have typically been with small samples, and have typically not included comprehensive measurement of executive dysfunction domains. The relationships of executive dysfunction in daily life with performance based testing of cognitive skills and structural brain characteristics, thought to be the basis for executive functioning, have not been definitively determined. The aims of this study were to determine the relationships between executive dysfunction in daily life, measured by the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), cognitive skills and structural brain characteristics, and SUD risks, including a global SUD risk indicator, sleep quality, and risky alcohol and cannabis use. In addition to bivariate relationships, multivariate models were tested. The subjects (n = 817; ages 12 through 21) were participants in the National Consortium on Alcohol and Neurodevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA) study. The results indicated that executive dysfunction was significantly related to SUD risks, poor sleep quality, risky alcohol use and cannabis use, and was not significantly related to cognitive skills or structural brain characteristics. In multivariate models, the relationship between poor sleep quality and risky substance use was mediated by executive dysfunction. While these cross-sectional relationships need to be further examined in longitudinal analyses, the results suggest that poor sleep quality and executive dysfunction may be viable preventive intervention targets to reduce adolescent substance use.

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