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1.
ASAIO J ; 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560717

RESUMO

Selecting patients most likely to benefit from venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-A ECMO) to treat refractory drug-induced cardiovascular shock remains a difficult challenge for physicians. This study reported short-term survival outcomes and factors associated with mortality in V-A ECMO-treated patients for poisoning. Twenty-two patients placed on V-A ECMO after drug intoxication from January 2014 to December 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. he primary endpoint of this study was survival at hospital discharge. Univariate descriptive analysis was performed to compare survivors and nonsurvivors during hospitalization. The overall survival at hospital discharge was 45.4% (n = 10/22). Survival rate tended to be higher in patients treated for refractory shock (n = 7/10) compared with those treated for refractory cardiac arrest (n = 3/12, p = 0.08). Low-flow duration and time from admission to ECMO cannulation were shorter in survivors (p = 0.02 and p = 0.03, respectively). Baseline characteristics before ECMO, including the class of drugs involved in the poisoning, between survivors and nonsurvivors were not statistically different except pH, bicarbonate, serum lactate, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, and Survival After Veno-arterial-ECMO (SAVE) score. All patients with SAVE-score risk classes II/III survived whereas 85.7% (n = 12/14) of those with SAVE-score risk classes IV/V died. A lactic acid >9 mmol/L predicts mortality with a sensitivity/specificity ratio of 83.3%/100%. V-A ECMO for severe drug intoxication should be reserved for highly selected poisoned patients who do not respond to conventional therapies. Shortening the timing of V-A ECMO initiation should be a key priority in improving outcomes. Low-flow time >60min, lactic acid >9mmol/L, and SAVE-score may be good indicators of a worse prognosis.

2.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The antiviral efficacy of remdesivir against SARS-CoV-2 is still controversial. We aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of remdesivir plus standard of care compared with standard of care alone in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19, with indication of oxygen or ventilator support. METHODS: DisCoVeRy was a phase 3, open-label, adaptive, multicentre, randomised, controlled trial conducted in 48 sites in Europe (France, Belgium, Austria, Portugal, Luxembourg). Adult patients (aged ≥18 years) admitted to hospital with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and illness of any duration were eligible if they had clinical evidence of hypoxaemic pneumonia, or required oxygen supplementation. Exclusion criteria included elevated liver enzymes, severe chronic kidney disease, any contraindication to one of the studied treatments or their use in the 29 days before random assignment, or use of ribavirin, as well as pregnancy or breastfeeding. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1:1) to receive standard of care alone or in combination with remdesivir, lopinavir-ritonavir, lopinavir-ritonavir and interferon beta-1a, or hydroxychloroquine. Randomisation used computer-generated blocks of various sizes; it was stratified on severity of disease at inclusion and on European administrative region. Remdesivir was administered as 200 mg intravenous infusion on day 1, followed by once daily, 1-h infusions of 100 mg up to 9 days, for a total duration of 10 days. It could be stopped after 5 days if the participant was discharged. The primary outcome was the clinical status at day 15 measured by the WHO seven-point ordinal scale, assessed in the intention-to-treat population. Safety was assessed in the modified intention-to-treat population and was one of the secondary outcomes. This trial is registered with the European Clinical Trials Database, EudraCT2020-000936-23, and ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04315948. FINDINGS: Between March 22, 2020, and Jan 21, 2021, 857 participants were enrolled and randomly assigned to remdesivir plus standard of care (n=429) or standard of care only (n=428). 15 participants were excluded from analysis in the remdesivir group, and ten in the control group. At day 15, the distribution of the WHO ordinal scale was: (1) not hospitalised, no limitations on activities (61 [15%] of 414 in the remdesivir group vs 73 [17%] of 418 in the control group); (2) not hospitalised, limitation on activities (129 [31%] vs 132 [32%]); (3) hospitalised, not requiring supplemental oxygen (50 [12%] vs 29 [7%]); (4) hospitalised, requiring supplemental oxygen (76 [18%] vs 67 [16%]); (5) hospitalised, on non-invasive ventilation or high flow oxygen devices (15 [4%] vs 14 [3%]); (6) hospitalised, on invasive mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (62 [15%] vs 79 [19%]); (7) death (21 [5%] vs 24 [6%]). The difference between treatment groups was not significant (odds ratio 0·98 [95% CI 0·77-1·25]; p=0·85). There was no significant difference in the occurrence of serious adverse events between treatment groups (remdesivir, 135 [33%] of 406 vs control, 130 [31%] of 418; p=0·48). Three deaths (acute respiratory distress syndrome, bacterial infection, and hepatorenal syndrome) were considered related to remdesivir by the investigators, but only one by the sponsor's safety team (hepatorenal syndrome). INTERPRETATION: No clinical benefit was observed from the use of remdesivir in patients who were admitted to hospital for COVID-19, were symptomatic for more than 7 days, and required oxygen support. FUNDING: European Union Commission, French Ministry of Health, Domaine d'intérêt majeur One Health Île-de-France, REACTing, Fonds Erasme-COVID-Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre, Austrian Group Medical Tumor, European Regional Development Fund, Portugal Ministry of Health, Portugal Agency for Clinical Research and Biomedical Innovation. TRANSLATION: For the French translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.

3.
Mycoses ; 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of candidemia is evolving with raising concern about the emergence of intrinsically resistant non-albicans Candida species and acquisition of antifungal resistance. In addition to microbiological surveys, epidemiological studies including clinical data are needed to assess the impact of candidemia on morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical and microbiological trends of candidemia in a Swiss university hospital. PATIENTS/METHODS: This single-centre retrospective study compared the incidence of candidemia, Candida species distribution, antifungal resistance profiles, clinical characteristics and outcomes between two periods separated by one decade. RESULTS: A total of 170 candidemic episodes were included (68 from period 1, 2004-2006, and 102 from period 2, 2014-2017). Incidence of candidemia (0.85 to 0.97 episode/10,000 patient-days), species distribution (55%-57% C albicans) and antifungal susceptibilities remained unchanged. During period 2, candidemia was more frequently observed in intensive care units (ICU, 38% vs 19% in period 1, P = .01) and amongst older patients (median age 68 vs 59 years old, P < .01) with more immunosuppressive conditions (24% vs 9%, P = .01). Candidemia in period 2 was more frequently followed by septic shock (23% vs 7% in period 1, P = .01) and ICU admission (42% vs 12%, P < .01) and was associated with higher mortality (34% vs 18%, P = .03). Overall, factors associated with mortality in multivariate analyses included cirrhosis, solid malignancies and ICU stay at the time of candidemia. CONCLUSIONS: Despite stable incidence, species distribution and antifungal resistance of candidemia, an epidemiological shift of the disease towards older and more critically ill patients was observed, with higher mortality rates.

4.
Eur J Dermatol ; 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463284

RESUMO

Various skin manifestations have been reported during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Among these are acral vascular skin lesions in non-severe patients, but few studies have focused specifically on patients with severe COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) We aimed to assess the frequency of acral vascular skin manifestations (AVSM) in patients admitted to the ICU based on systematic dermatological examination We conducted a clinical, observational and prospective study in the ICU of Lille University Hospital (France). All adult patients with RT-PCR-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection were included on May 5th and 6th, 2020 A total of 39 patients with severe COVID-19 were examined (34 males and five females; median age: 61 [55-59]). We observed AVSM in 11/39 patients (28%) including five with acral necrotic lesions, three with haemorrhagic blisters, one with acral livedoid rash, and one with erosive distal lesions. Chilblain or chilblain-like lesions were not seen, unlike ambulatory or non-severe patients described in the literature. There was no difference regarding the median length of stay in the ICU, initial symptoms of COVID-19 or baseline characteristics, except for a lower BMI in patients with AVSM. All patients had biological coagulation abnormalities (e.g. higher levels of fibrinogen or D-dimers), but there was no difference between patients with and without AVSM AVSM are infrequent and heterogenous and seem to be non-specific to patients with severe SARS-CoV-2, and possibly unrelated to COVID-19. The pathophysiology of AVSM described during the COVID-19 pandemic is not fully elucidated.

5.
Sci Immunol ; 6(62)2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413139

RESUMO

Circulating autoantibodies (auto-Abs) neutralizing high concentrations (10 ng/mL, in plasma diluted 1 to 10) of IFN-α and/or -ω are found in about 10% of patients with critical COVID-19 pneumonia, but not in subjects with asymptomatic infections. We detect auto-Abs neutralizing 100-fold lower, more physiological, concentrations of IFN-α and/or -ω (100 pg/mL, in 1/10 dilutions of plasma) in 13.6% of 3,595 patients with critical COVID-19, including 21% of 374 patients > 80 years, and 6.5% of 522 patients with severe COVID-19. These antibodies are also detected in 18% of the 1,124 deceased patients (aged 20 days-99 years; mean: 70 years). Moreover, another 1.3% of patients with critical COVID-19 and 0.9% of the deceased patients have auto-Abs neutralizing high concentrations of IFN-ß. We also show, in a sample of 34,159 uninfected subjects from the general population, that auto-Abs neutralizing high concentrations of IFN-α and/or -ω are present in 0.18% of individuals between 18 and 69 years, 1.1% between 70 and 79 years, and 3.4% >80 years. Moreover, the proportion of subjects carrying auto-Abs neutralizing lower concentrations is greater in a subsample of 10,778 uninfected individuals: 1% of individuals <70 years, 2.3% between 70 and 80 years, and 6.3% >80 years. By contrast, auto-Abs neutralizing IFN-ß do not become more frequent with age. Auto-Abs neutralizing type I IFNs predate SARS-CoV-2 infection and sharply increase in prevalence after the age of 70 years. They account for about 20% of both critical COVID-19 cases in the over-80s, and total fatal COVID-19 cases.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/sangue , COVID-19/mortalidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Interferon-alfa/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
6.
Thromb Res ; 205: 120-127, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In intensive-care unit (ICU) patients, pathophysiological changes may affect the pharmacokinetics of enoxaparin and result in underdosing. OBJECTIVES: To develop a pharmacokinetic model of enoxaparin to predict the time-exposure profiles of various thromboprophylactic regimens in COVID-19 ICU-patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective study in ICUs of two French hospitals. Anti-Xa activities from consecutive patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection treated with enoxaparin for the prevention or the treatment of venous thrombosis were used to develop a population pharmacokinetic model using non-linear mixed effects techniques. Monte Carlo simulations were then performed to predict enoxaparin exposure at steady-state after three days of administration. RESULTS: A total of 391 anti-Xa samples were measured in 95 patients. A one-compartment model with first-order kinetics best fitted the data. The covariate analysis showed that enoxaparin clearance (typical value 1.1 L.h-1) was related to renal function estimated by the CKD-EPI formula and volume of distribution (typical value 17.9 L) to actual body weight. Simulation of anti-Xa activities with enoxaparin 40 mg qd indicated that 64% of the patients had peak levels within the range 0.2 to 0.5 IU.mL-1 and 75% had 12-hour levels above 0.1 IU.mL-1. Administration of a total daily dose of at least 60 mg per day improved the probability of target attainment. CONCLUSION: In ICU COVID-19 patients, exposure to enoxaparin is reduced due to an increase in the volume of distribution and clearance. Consequently, enoxaparin 40 mg qd is suboptimal to attain thromboprophylactic anti-Xa levels.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Enoxaparina , Anticoagulantes , Estado Terminal , Enoxaparina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
7.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253198, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161365

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Ventilator-acquired pneumonia (VAP) is the leading cause of serious associated infections in Intensive Care Units (ICU) and is associated with significant morbidity. The use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) in patients on mechanical ventilation may increase exposure to certain risk factors such as hyperoxemia and the need for multiple transfers. The aim of our study was to assess the relationship between HBOT and VAP. METHOD: This retrospective observational study was performed from March 2017 to March 2018 in a 10-bed ICU using HBOT. All patients receiving mechanical ventilation (MV) for more than 48 hours were eligible. VAP was defined using clinical and radiological criteria. Data collection was carried out via digital medical records. Risk factors for VAP were determined by univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Forty-two (23%) of the 182 patients enrolled developed at least one episode of VAP. One hundred and twenty-four (68%) patients received HBOT. The incidence rate of VAP was 34 per 1000 ventilator days. The occurrence of VAP was significantly associated with immunosuppression (p<0.029), MV duration (5 [3-7] vs 8 [5-11.5] days, p<0.0001), length of stay (8 [5-13] vs 19.5 [13-32] days, p<0.0001), reintubation (p<0.0001), intra-hospital transport (p = 0.001), use of paralytic agents (p = 0.013), tracheotomy (p = 0.003) and prone position (p = 0.003). The use of HBOT was not associated with the occurrence of VAP. Multivariate analysis identified reintubation (OR: 8.3 [2.6-26.6]; p<0.0001), intra-hospital transport (OR: 3.5 [1.3-9.2]; p = 0.011) and the use of paralytic agents (OR: 3.3 [1.3-8.4]; p = 0.014) as independent risk factors for VAP. CONCLUSION: Known risk factors for VAP are to be found within our ICU population. HBOT, however, is not an extra risk factor for VAP within this group. Further experimental and clinical investigations are needed to understand the impact of HBOT on the occurrence of VAP and on physiological microbiome.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34048876

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the clinical, virological and safety outcomes of lopinavir/ritonavir, lopinavir/ritonavir-interferon (IFN)-ß-1a, hydroxychloroquine or remdesivir in comparison to standard of care (control) in coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) inpatients requiring oxygen and/or ventilatory support. METHODS: We conducted a phase III multicentre, open-label, randomized 1:1:1:1:1, adaptive, controlled trial (DisCoVeRy), an add-on to the Solidarity trial (NCT04315948, EudraCT2020-000936-23). The primary outcome was the clinical status at day 15, measured by the WHO seven-point ordinal scale. Secondary outcomes included quantification of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in respiratory specimens and pharmacokinetic and safety analyses. We report the results for the lopinavir/ritonavir-containing arms and for the hydroxychloroquine arm, trials of which were stopped prematurely. RESULTS: The intention-to-treat population included 583 participants-lopinavir/ritonavir (n = 145), lopinavir/ritonavir-IFN-ß-1a (n = 145), hydroxychloroquine (n = 145), control (n = 148)-among whom 418 (71.7%) were male, the median age was 63 years (IQR 54-71), and 211 (36.2%) had a severe disease. The day-15 clinical status was not improved with the investigational treatments: lopinavir/ritonavir versus control, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.83, (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55-1.26, p 0.39), lopinavir/ritonavir-IFN-ß-1a versus control, aOR 0.69 (95%CI 0.45-1.04, p 0.08), and hydroxychloroquine versus control, aOR 0.93 (95%CI 0.62-1.41, p 0.75). No significant effect of investigational treatment was observed on SARS-CoV-2 clearance. Trough plasma concentrations of lopinavir and ritonavir were higher than those expected, while those of hydroxychloroquine were those expected with the dosing regimen. The occurrence of serious adverse events was significantly higher in participants allocated to the lopinavir/ritonavir-containing arms. CONCLUSION: In adults hospitalized for COVID-19, lopinavir/ritonavir, lopinavir/ritonavir-IFN-ß-1a and hydroxychloroquine improved neither the clinical status at day 15 nor SARS-CoV-2 clearance in respiratory tract specimens.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876439

RESUMO

AIMS: The role of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockers on the course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is debated. We assessed the association between chronic use of RAAS blockers and mortality among inpatients with COVID-19 and explored reasons for discrepancies in the literature. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included adult hypertensive patients from a prospective nationwide cohort of 3512 inpatients with COVID-19 up to June 30, 2020. Cox proportional hazard models with various adjustment or propensity weighting methods were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) of 30-day mortality for chronic users versus non-users of RAAS blockers. We analyzed data of 1160 hypertensive patients: 719 (62%) were male and 777 (67%) were older than 65 years. The main comorbidities were diabetes (n = 416, 36%), chronic cardiac disease (n = 401, 35%), and obesity (n = 340, 29%); 705 (61%) received oxygen therapy. We recorded 135 (11.6%) deaths within 30 days of diagnosis. We found no association between chronic use of RAAS blockers and mortality (unadjusted HR = 1.13, 95% CI [0.8-1.6]; propensity inverse probability treatment weighted HR = 1.09 [0.86-1.39]; propensity standardized mortality ratio weighted HR = 1.08 [0.79-1.47]). Our comprehensive review of previous studies highlighted that significant associations were mostly found in unrestricted populations with inappropriate adjustment, or with biased in-hospital exposure measurement. CONCLUSION: Our results do not support previous concerns regarding these drugs, nor a potential protective effect as reported in previous poorly designed studies and meta-analyses. RAAS blockers should not be discontinued during the pandemic, while in-hospital management of these drugs will be clarified by randomized trials. NCT04262921.

10.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802451

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused an ongoing pandemic. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the gold standard for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 and has been applied to different specimen types. Understanding the virus load and virus detection frequency in different specimen types is important to improve diagnosis and estimate the duration of potential infectivity. We conducted a retrospective single-center cohort study on hospitalized and outpatients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. We analyzed the frequency of virus detection, virus load, and duration of the virus excretion in upper and lower respiratory specimens as well as stool and plasma. We found that the frequency of SARS-CoV-2 detection, the virus load, and duration of virus excretion was higher in lower respiratory tract (LRT) than in upper respiratory tract (URT) specimens. The duration of virus excretion was longer in patients requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission. In conclusion, LRT specimens are the most appropriate specimen type for the detection and follow-up of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Duration of virus excretion is longer in severe cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

11.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(6): e14121, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No risk stratification tool has been validated in hospitalised patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), despite a high rate of intensive care requirement and in-hospital mortality. We aimed to determine whether the National Early Warning Score (NEWS) at admission can accurately predict in-hospital mortality and ICU transfer. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study from January 24 to April 16, 2020, at Lille University Hospital. All consecutive adult patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who were initially admitted to non-ICU wards were included. The primary outcome was a composite criterion consisting of ICU transfer or in-hospital mortality. We evaluated the prognostic performance of NEWS by calculating the area under (AUC) the receiver operating characteristic curve, the optimal threshold value of NEWS, and its association with the primary outcome. RESULTS: Of the 202 COVID-19 patients, the median age was 65 (interquartile range 52-78), 38.6% were women and 136 had at least one comorbidity. The median NEWS was 4 (2-6). A total of 65 patients were transferred to the ICU or died in the hospital. Compared with patients with favourable outcome, these patients were significantly older, had more comorbidities and higher NEWS. The AUC for NEWS was 0.68 (0.60-0.77) and the best cutoff value was 6. Adjusted odds ratio for NEWS ≥ 6 as an independent predictor was 3.78 (1.94-7.09). CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalised COVID-19 patients, NEWS was an independent predictor of ICU transfer and in-hospital death. In daily practice, NEWS ≥ 6 at admission may help to identify patients who are at risk to deteriorate.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Escore de Alerta Precoce , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 132(5): 1009-1017, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743295

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe EEG patterns of critical Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with suspicion of encephalopathy and test their association with clinical outcome. METHODS: EEG after discontinuation of sedation in all patients, and somesthesic evoked potentials and brainstem auditive evoked potentials when EEG did not show reactivity, were performed. Clinical outcome was assessed at day 7 and 14 after neurophysiological explorations. RESULTS: 33 patients were included for analysis. We found slowed background activity in 85% of cases, unreactive activity in 42% of cases, low-voltage activity in 21% of cases and rhythmic or periodic delta waves in 61% of cases. EEG epileptic events were never recorded. Clinical outcome at day 14 was associated with unreactive background activity and tended to be associated with rhythmic or periodic delta waves and with low-voltage activity. Results of multimodal evoked potentials were in favor of a preservation of central nervous system somatosensory and auditory functions. CONCLUSIONS: Among critical COVID-19 patients with abnormal arousal at discontinuation of sedation, EEG patterns consistent with encephalopathy are found and are predictive for short term clinical outcome. SIGNIFICANCE: The abnormal EEG with presence of periodic discharges and lack of reactivity could be related to encephalopathy linked to COVID-19.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Idoso , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/fisiologia , Potenciais Somatossensoriais Evocados/fisiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(8)2021 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536313

RESUMO

The characterization of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral kinetics in hospitalized patients and its association with mortality is unknown. We analyzed death and nasopharyngeal viral kinetics in 655 hospitalized patients from the prospective French COVID cohort. The model predicted a median peak viral load that coincided with symptom onset. Patients with age ≥65 y had a smaller loss rate of infected cells, leading to a delayed median time to viral clearance occurring 16 d after symptom onset as compared to 13 d in younger patients (P < 10-4). In multivariate analysis, the risk factors associated with mortality were age ≥65 y, male gender, and presence of chronic pulmonary disease (hazard ratio [HR] > 2.0). Using a joint model, viral dynamics after hospital admission was an independent predictor of mortality (HR = 1.31, P < 10-3). Finally, we used our model to simulate the effects of effective pharmacological interventions on time to viral clearance and mortality. A treatment able to reduce viral production by 90% upon hospital admission would shorten the time to viral clearance by 2.0 and 2.9 d in patients of age <65 y and ≥65 y, respectively. Assuming that the association between viral dynamics and mortality would remain similar to that observed in our population, this could translate into a reduction of mortality from 19 to 14% in patients of age ≥65 y with risk factors. Our results show that viral dynamics is associated with mortality in hospitalized patients. Strategies aiming to reduce viral load could have an effect on mortality rate in this population.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Modelos Teóricos , Nasofaringe/virologia , RNA Viral/análise , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Carga Viral , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Cinética , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Viral/genética , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Taxa de Sobrevida
15.
Chest ; 159(6): 2417-2427, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Because of the high risk of thrombotic complications (TCs) during SARS-CoV-2 infection, several scientific societies have proposed to increase the dose of preventive anticoagulation, although arguments in favor of this strategy are inconsistent. RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the incidence of TC in critically ill patients with COVID-19 and what is the relationship between the dose of anticoagulant therapy and the incidence of TC? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: All consecutive patients referred to eight French ICUs for COVID-19 were included in this observational study. Clinical and laboratory data were collected from ICU admission to day 14, including anticoagulation status and thrombotic and hemorrhagic events. The effect of high-dose prophylactic anticoagulation (either at intermediate or equivalent to therapeutic dose), defined using a standardized protocol of classification, was assessed using a time-varying exposure model using inverse probability of treatment weight. RESULTS: Of 538 patients included, 104 patients experienced a total of 122 TCs with an incidence of 22.7% (95% CI, 19.2%-26.3%). Pulmonary embolism accounted for 52% of the recorded TCs. High-dose prophylactic anticoagulation was associated with a significant reduced risk of TC (hazard ratio, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.66-0.99) without increasing the risk of bleeding (HR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.70-1.75). INTERPRETATION: High-dose prophylactic anticoagulation is associated with a reduction in thrombotic complications in critically ill patients with COVID-19 without an increased risk of hemorrhage. Randomized controlled trials comparing prophylaxis with higher doses of anticoagulants are needed to confirm these results. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT04405869; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/terapia , Cuidados Críticos , Trombose/epidemiologia , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Feminino , França , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia
16.
Crit Care Med ; 49(2): e191-e198, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093279

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Treating acute respiratory failure in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 is challenging due to the lack of knowledge of the underlying pathophysiology. Hypoxemia may be explained in part by the loss of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. The present study assessed the effect of almitrine, a selective pulmonary vasoconstrictor, on arterial oxygenation in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome. DESIGN: Single-center retrospective observational study. SETTING: ICU of Lille Teaching Hospital, France, from February 27, 2020, to April 14, 2020. PATIENTS: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia confirmed by positive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 and acute respiratory distress syndrome according to Berlin definition. Data focused on clinicobiological features, ventilator settings, therapeutics, outcomes, and almitrine-related adverse events. INTERVENTIONS: Almitrine was considered in patients with severe hypoxemia (Pao2/Fio2 ratio < 150 mm Hg) in addition to the recommended therapies, at an hourly IV delivery of 10 µg/kg/min. Comparative blood gases were done before starting almitrine trial and immediately after the end of the infusion. A positive response to almitrine was defined by an increase of Pao2/Fio2 ratio greater than or equal to 20% at the end of the infusion. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A total of 169 patients were enrolled. Thirty-two patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome received an almitrine infusion trial. In most cases, almitrine was infused in combination with inhaled nitric oxide (75%). Twenty-one patients (66%) were responders. The median Pao2/Fio2 ratio improvement was 39% (9-93%) and differs significantly between the responders and nonresponders (67% [39-131%] vs 6% [9-16%], respectively; p < 0.0001). The 28-day mortality rates were 47.6% and 63.6% (p = 0.39) for the responders and nonresponders, respectively. Hemodynamic parameters remained similar before and after the trial, not suggesting acute cor pulmonale. CONCLUSIONS: Almitrine infusion improved oxygenation in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome without adverse effects. In a multistep clinical approach to manage severe hypoxemia in this population, almitrine could be an interesting therapeutic option to counteract the loss of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and redistribute blood flow away from shunting zones.


Assuntos
Almitrina/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos do Sistema Respiratório/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/complicações , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Radiology ; 298(2): E70-E80, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320063

RESUMO

Background The association of pulmonary embolism (PE) with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unclear, and the diagnostic accuracy of D-dimer tests for PE is unknown. Purpose To conduct meta-analysis of the study-level incidence of PE and DVT and to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of D-dimer tests for PE from multicenter individual patient data. Materials and Methods A systematic literature search identified studies evaluating the incidence of PE or DVT in patients with COVID-19 from January 1, 2020, to June 15, 2020. These outcomes were pooled using a random-effects model and were further evaluated using metaregression analysis. The diagnostic accuracy of D-dimer tests for PE was estimated on the basis of individual patient data using the summary receiver operating characteristic curve. Results Twenty-seven studies with 3342 patients with COVID-19 were included in the analysis. The pooled incidence rates of PE and DVT were 16.5% (95% CI: 11.6, 22.9; I2 = 0.93) and 14.8% (95% CI: 8.5, 24.5; I2 = 0.94), respectively. PE was more frequently found in patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) (24.7% [95% CI: 18.6, 32.1] vs 10.5% [95% CI: 5.1, 20.2] in those not admitted to the ICU) and in studies with universal screening using CT pulmonary angiography. DVT was present in 42.4% of patients with PE. D-dimer tests had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.737 for PE, and D-dimer levels of 500 and 1000 µg/L showed high sensitivity (96% and 91%, respectively) but low specificity (10% and 24%, respectively). Conclusion Pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurred in 16.5% and 14.8% of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), respectively, and more than half of patients with PE lacked DVT. The cutoffs of D-dimer levels used to exclude PE in preexisting guidelines seem applicable to patients with COVID-19. © RSNA, 2020 Supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Woodard in this issue.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Venosa/complicações , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem , COVID-19/sangue , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Humanos , Embolia Pulmonar/sangue , SARS-CoV-2 , Trombose Venosa/sangue
18.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(11): 2942-2953, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypercoagulability seems to contribute to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia pathogenesis. However, age and metabolic syndrome are potential confounders when assessing the value of coagulation biomarkers' prediction of COVID-19 outcomes. We assessed whether coagulation biomarkers, including factor VIII (FVIII) and von Willebrand factor (VWF) levels, measured at time of admission, were predictive of COVID-19 adverse outcomes irrespective of age and major comorbidities associated with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Blood was sampled at admission in 243 adult COVID-19 patients for analysis of coagulation biomarkers including FVIII and VWF on platelet-poor plasma. The association between baseline C-reactive protein (CRP), activated partial thromboplastin time ratio, prothrombin time ratio, D-dimers, fibrinogen, FVIII, VWF antigen (VWF:Ag), and FVIII/VWF:Ag ratio levels and adverse outcomes (increased oxygen requirements, thrombosis, and death at day 30) was assessed by regression analysis after adjustment on age, sex, body mass index (BMI), diabetes, and hypertension. RESULTS: In univariable regression analysis increased CRP (subdistribution hazard ratio [SHR], 1.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-2.23), increased fibrinogen (SHR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.04-1.68), and decreased FVIII/VWF:Ag ratio (SHR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.52-0.96) levels at admission were significantly associated with the risk of increased oxygen requirement during follow-up. Leucocytes (SHR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.04-1.76), platelets (SHR,1.71; 95% CI, 1.11-2.62), D-dimers (SHR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.66-3.78), and FVIII (SHR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.17-2.68) were associated with early onset of thrombosis after admission. After adjustment for age, sex, BMI, hypertension, and diabetes, these associations were not modified. CONCLUSION: Coagulation biomarkers are early and independent predictors of increased oxygen requirement in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Coagulação Sanguínea , COVID-19/terapia , Fator VIII/análise , Oxigenoterapia , Trombose/sangue , Tromboembolia Venosa/sangue , Fator de von Willebrand/análise , Fatores Etários , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Admissão do Paciente , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Trombose/diagnóstico , Trombose/epidemiologia , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle
20.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(10): 1716-1718, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858566

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We investigated the potential hepatotoxicity of lopinavir/ritonavir recently used in the treatment of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort of critical patients in a teaching hospital: 12 treated with lopinavir/ritonavir and 30 in the standard-of-care group. RESULTS: Elevation occurred more frequently in patients treated with lopinavir/ritonavir (33% vs 6.7%). DISCUSSION: Caution is advised regarding the use of lopinavir/ritonavir in the most severe cases of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus.


Assuntos
Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Icterícia/induzido quimicamente , Lopinavir/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Ritonavir/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Icterícia/diagnóstico , Icterícia/epidemiologia , Lopinavir/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ritonavir/administração & dosagem , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Padrão de Cuidado/estatística & dados numéricos
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