Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 85
Filtrar
1.
Am Heart J ; 222: 26-29, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004797

RESUMO

Atrial arrhythmias commonly occur in patients with cardiac amyloidosis (CA), but there is limited data on safety or efficacy of cardioversion (DCCV) for management of these rhythms in CA. We identified 25 patients with CA (20 with transthyretin (TTR) and 5 with light-chain (AL) amyloidosis) at Duke University who underwent DCCV for atrial arrhythmias and documented procedural success, complications, and long-term morbidity and mortality. While DCCV successfully restored sinus rhythm in 96% of patients, 36% of patients experienced immediate procedural complications (primarily bradycardia and hypotension), 80% had recurrence of atrial arrhythmias at 1 year, and 52% died at 3 years, highlighting short-term safety concerns, long-term inefficacy, and poor prognosis associated with symptomatic atrial arrhythmias requiring DCCV in CA.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943485

RESUMO

Cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) frequently need to be extracted due to infection, hardware failure, and other causes. The extraction of the CIED is typically performed using percutaneous methods. While these procedures are mostly performed without incident there is a small risk of significant complications. Dedicated imaging pre-CEID removal to include the central veins and heart with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) can be utilized to evaluate the lead course and termination, the integrity of the central veins and cardiac chambers, and identify potential complications that may alter the lead extraction procedure as well as reimplantation of subsequent leads. Indications for preprocedural imaging, the technique of dedicated preprocedural lead extraction MDCT, and the approach to the interpretation of the images is discussed in this review.

3.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(2): 215-221, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771758

RESUMO

Information on paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) patient characteristics and the associated economic burden of the disease is limited. Therefore, we sought to characterize newly diagnosed PSVT patients and quantify their healthcare resource use and expenditures. We used enrollment, demographic, and claims data from IBM MarketScan Research Database and Medicare Limited Data Set (LDS) to identify patients newly diagnosed with PSVT (ICD-9: 427.0; ICD-10: I47.1) from 10/1/2012 to 9/30/2016. Patients were required to be observable 1-year before and after index diagnosis. Patients were stratified by age (<65 years and ≥65 years), and propensity-matched to patients without PSVT. Expenditures and healthcare resource use were analyzed 1 year before and 1-year following index diagnosis. Among 49,316 patients <65 years and 23,954 patients ≥65 years, most were female (64% and 63%, respectively). Compared with matched controls, all PSVT patients had significantly more emergency department visits pre- and postdiagnosis, and more hospitalizations following diagnosis. Mean annual per patient expenditures paid by insurers were significantly higher in the year post-PSVT diagnosis, tripling for patients <65 years ($9,028 to $29,867) and nearly doubling for patients ≥65 years ($10,867 to $20,143). Spending for PSVT services accounted for 43% and 33% of the increase in expenditures in these patient-groups, respectively. Few patients had an ablation within 1 year of diagnosis, although ablations were more frequent in patients age <65 years (13% vs 3%). In conclusion, PSVT imposes a substantial economic burden, with increases in expenditures following initial diagnosis in both younger (<65 years) and older (≥65 years) patients who are not accounted for by cardiac ablation spending alone.

4.
Am Heart J ; 220: 145-154, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amiodarone is the most effective antiarrhythmic drug (AAD) for atrial fibrillation (AF), but it has a high incidence of adverse effects. METHODS: Using the ORBIT AF registry, patients with AF on amiodarone at enrollment, prescribed amiodarone during follow-up, or never on amiodarone were analyzed for the proportion treated with a guideline-based indication for amiodarone, the variability in amiodarone use across sites, and the outcomes (mortality, hospitalization, and stroke) among patients treated with amiodarone. Hierarchical logistic regression modeling with site-specific random intercepts compared rates of amiodarone use across 170 sites. A logistic regression model for propensity to receive amiodarone created a propensity-matched cohort. Cox proportional hazards modeling, stratified by matched pairs evaluated the association between amiodarone and outcomes. RESULTS: Among 6,987 AF patients, 867 (12%) were on amiodarone at baseline and 451 (6%) started on incident amiodarone during the 3-year follow-up. Use of amiodarone varied among sites from 3% in the lowest tertile to 21% in the highest (p<0.0001). Among those treated, 32% had documented contraindications to other AADs or had failed another AAD in the past. Mortality, cardiovascular hospitalization, and stroke were similar among matched patients on and not on amiodarone at baseline, while incident amiodarone use in matched patients was associated with higher all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 2.06, 95% CI 1.35-3.16). CONCLUSIONS: Use of amiodarone among AF patients in community practice is highly variable. More than 2 out of 3 patients treated with amiodarone appeared to be eligible for a different AAD.

5.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 15(12): 1747-1755, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855160

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Early evidence with transvenous phrenic nerve stimulation (PNS) demonstrates improved disease severity and quality of life (QOL) in patients with central sleep apnea (CSA). The goal of this analysis is to evaluate the complete prospective experience with PNS in order to better characterize its efficacy and safety, including in patients with concomitant heart failure (HF). METHODS: Using pooled individual data from the pilot (n = 57) and pivotal (n = 151) studies of the remede System in patients with predominant moderate to severe CSA, we evaluated 12-month safety and 6- and 12-month effectiveness based on polysomnography data, QOL, and cardiac function. RESULTS: Among 208 combined patients (June 2010 to May 2015), a remede device implant was successful in 197 patients (95%), 50/57 pilot study patients (88%) and 147/151 pivotal trial patients (97%). The pooled cohort included patients with CSA of various etiologies, and 141 (68%) had concomitant HF. PNS reduced apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) at 6 months by a median of -22.6 episodes/h (25th and 75th percentile; -38.6 and -8.4, respectively) (median 58% reduction from baseline, P < .001). Improvement in sleep variables was maintained through 12 months of follow-up. In patients with HF and ejection fraction ≤ 45%, PNS was associated with improvement in systolic function from 27.0% (23.3, 36.0) to 31.1% (24.0, 41.5) at 12 months (P = .003). In the entire cohort, improvement in QOL was concordant with amelioration of sleep measures. CONCLUSIONS: Transvenous PNS significantly improves CSA severity, sleep quality, ventricular function, and QOL regardless of HF status. Improvements, which are independent of patient compliance, are sustained at 1 year and are associated with acceptable safety.

6.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685094

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Early evidence with transvenous phrenic nerve stimulation (PNS) demonstrates improved disease severity and quality of life (QOL) in patients with central sleep apnea (CSA). The goal of this analysis is to evaluate the complete prospective experience with PNS in order to better characterize its efficacy and safety, including in patients with concomitant heart failure (HF). METHODS: Using pooled individual data from the pilot (n = 57) and pivotal (n = 151) studies of the remede System in patients with predominant moderate to severe CSA, we evaluated 12-month safety and 6- and 12-month effectiveness based on polysomnography data, QOL, and cardiac function. RESULTS: Among 208 combined patients (June 2010 to May 2015), a remede device implant was successful in 197 patients (95%), 50/57 pilot study patients (88%) and 147/151 pivotal trial patients (97%). The pooled cohort included patients with CSA of various etiologies, and 141 (68%) had concomitant HF. PNS reduced apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) at 6 months by a median of -22.6 episodes/h (25th and 75th percentile; -38.6 and -8.4, respectively) (median 58% reduction from baseline, P < .001). Improvement in sleep variables was maintained through 12 months of follow-up. In patients with HF and ejection fraction ≤ 45%, PNS was associated with improvement in systolic function from 27.0% (23.3, 36.0) to 31.1% (24.0, 41.5) at 12 months (P = .003). In the entire cohort, improvement in QOL was concordant with amelioration of sleep measures. CONCLUSIONS: Transvenous PNS significantly improves CSA severity, sleep quality, ventricular function, and QOL regardless of HF status. Improvements, which are independent of patient compliance, are sustained at 1 year and are associated with acceptable safety.

7.
Circulation ; 140(25): e944-e963, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694402

RESUMO

The widespread use of cardiac implantable electronic devices and wearable monitors has led to the detection of subclinical atrial fibrillation in a substantial proportion of patients. There is evidence that these asymptomatic arrhythmias are associated with increased risk of stroke. Thus, detection of subclinical atrial fibrillation may offer an opportunity to reduce stroke risk by initiating anticoagulation. However, it is unknown whether long-term anticoagulation is warranted and in what populations. This scientific statement explores the existing data on the prevalence, clinical significance, and management of subclinical atrial fibrillation and identifies current gaps in knowledge and areas of controversy and consensus.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626390

RESUMO

Due to the growing number of patients treated with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) there is an increased need for lead management, evaluation, and extraction. While CIED lead extraction has many indications, a consistent approach to preprocedural planning should be applied in all cases, including a thorough consultation with careful review of the patient's medical and device history, as well as a discussion of informed consent and shared decision-making with the patient and their loved ones. The use of chest X-ray, echocardiography, and computed tomography (CT) scan can further help with risk stratification and procedural planning. Intraprocedural echocardiography (transesophageal or intracardiac) is recommended and allows early recognition of cardiothoracic injury. Establishing an extraction team with cardiology/electrophysiology, anesthesiology, and CT surgery is is crucial to a successful and safe CIED extraction practice, including immediately available surgical backup. This hands-on review will address how to approach patients who are undergoing lead extraction, as well as several innovations in preprocedure and intraprocedural risk assessment.

9.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 5(9): 1068-1070, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537336
10.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 42(11): 1440-1447, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compared with medical therapy, catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with heart failure (HF) improves cardiovascular outcomes. Risk scores (CAAP-AF and APPLE) have been developed to predict the likelihood of AF recurrence after ablation, have not been validated specifically in patients with AF and HF. METHODS: We analyzed baseline characteristics, risk scores, and rates of AF recurrence 12 months postablation in a cohort of 230 consecutive patients with AF and HF undergoing PVI in the Duke Center for Atrial Fibrillation registry from 2009-2013. RESULTS: During a follow-up period of 12 months, 76 of 230 (33%) patients with HF experienced recurrent AF after ablation. The median APPLE and CAAP-AF scores were 1.5 ([Q1, Q3]: [1.0, 2.0]) and 4.0 ([Q1, Q3]: [3.0, 5.0]), respectively and were not different from those patients with and without recurrent AF. Freedom from AF was not different according to APPLE and CAAP-AF scores. Discrimination for recurrent AF with the CAAP-AF score was modest with a C-statistic of 0.60 (95% CI 0.52-0.67). Discrimination with the APPLE score was similarly modest, with a C-statistic of 0.54 (95% CI: 0.47-0.62). CONCLUSIONS: Validated predictive risk scores for recurrent AF after catheter ablation exhibit limited predictive ability in cohorts of AF and HF. Additional tools are needed to facilitate risk stratification and patient selection for AF ablation in patients with concomitant HF.

11.
Hastings Cent Rep ; 49(4): 18-26, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429964

RESUMO

In 2012, a U.S. Institute of Medicine report called for a different approach to health care: "Left unchanged, health care will continue to underperform; cause unnecessary harm; and strain national, state, and family budgets." The answer, they suggested, would be a "continuously learning" health system. Ethicists and researchers urged the creation of "learning health organizations" that would integrate knowledge from patient-care data to continuously improve the quality of care. Our experience with an ongoing research study on atrial fibrillation-a trial known as IMPACT-AFib-gave us some insight into one of the challenges that will have to be dealt with in creating these organizations. Although the proposed educational intervention study placed no restrictions on what providers and health plans could do, the oversight team argued that the ethical principle of beneficence did not allow the researchers to be "bystanders" in relation to a control group receiving suboptimal care. In response, the researchers designed a "workaround" that allowed the project to go forward. We believe the experience suggests that what we call "bystander ethics" will create challenges for the kinds of quality improvement research that LHOs are designed to do.

12.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268487

RESUMO

Importance: Bleeding and thrombotic events (eg, stroke and systemic embolism) are common in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) taking warfarin sodium despite a well-established therapeutic range. Objective: To evaluate whether history of therapeutic warfarin control in patients with AF is independently associated with subsequent bleeding or thrombotic events. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this multicenter cohort study of 176 primary care, cardiology, and electrophysiology clinics in the United States, data were obtained during 51 830 visits among 10 137 patients with AF in the Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation (ORBIT-AF) Registry; 5545 patients treated with warfarin were included in the bleeding analysis, and 5635 patients were included in the thrombotic event analysis. Patient follow-up was performed from June 29, 2010, to November 30, 2014. Data analysis was performed from August 4, 2016, to February 15, 2019. Exposures: Multiple measures of warfarin control within the preceding 6 months were analyzed: time in therapeutic range of 2.0 to 3.0, most recent international normalized ratio (INR), percentage of time that a patient had interpolated INR values less than 2.0 or greater than 3.0, INR variance, INR range, and percentage of INR values in therapeutic range. Main Outcomes and Measures: Association of INR measures, alone or in combination, with clinical factors and risk for thrombotic events and bleeding during the subsequent 6 months was assessed post hoc using logistic regression models. Results: A total of 5545 patients (mean [SD] age, 74.5 [9.8] years; 3184 [57.4%] male) with AF were included in the major bleeding analysis and 5635 patients (mean [SD] age, 74.5 [9.8] years; 3236 [57.4%] male) in the thrombotic event analysis. During a median follow-up of 1.5 years (interquartile range, 1.0-2.5 years), there were 339 major bleeds (6.1%) and 51 strokes (0.9%). Multiple metrics of warfarin control were individually associated with subsequent bleeding. After adjustment for clinical bleeding risk, 3 measures-time in therapeutic range (per 1-SD increase ≤55: adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.16; 95% CI, 1.02-1.32), variation in INR values (aOR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.19-1.47), and maximum INR (aOR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.10-1.31)-remained associated with bleeding risk. Adding INR variance to a clinical risk model slightly increased the C statistic from 0.68 to 0.69 and had a net reclassification improvement index of 0.028 (95% CI, -0.029 to 0.067). No INR measures were associated with subsequent stroke risk. Conclusions and Relevance: Three metrics of prior warfarin control were associated with bleeding risk but only marginally more so than traditional clinical factors. This study did not identify any measures of INR control that were significantly associated with stroke risk.

13.
Eur Heart J ; 40(36): 3022-3025, 2019 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168627
15.
Clin Cardiol ; 42(5): 568-571, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal anticoagulation strategy for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and bioprosthetic valve (BPV) replacement or native valve repair remains uncertain. HYPOTHESIS: We evaluated the safety and efficacy of apixaban vs warfarin in patients with AF and a history of BPV replacement or native valve repair. METHODS: Using data from Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) (n = 18 201), a randomized trial comparing apixaban with warfarin in patients with AF, we analyzed the subgroup of patients (n = 251) with prior valve surgery. We contacted sites by telephone to obtain additional data about prior valve surgery. Full data were available for 156 patients. The primary efficacy endpoint was stroke/systemic embolism. The primary safety endpoint was major bleeding. Treatment groups were compared using a Cox regression model. RESULTS: In ARISTOTLE, 104 (0.6%) patients had a history of BPV replacement (n = 73 [aortic], n = 26 [mitral], n = 5 [mitral and aortic]) and 52 (0.3%) had a history of valve repair (n = 50 [mitral], n = 2 [aortic]). Among patients with BPVs, 55 were randomized to apixaban and 49 to warfarin. Among those with a history of native valve repair, 32 were randomized to apixaban and 20 to warfarin. Overall clinical event rates were low, with no significant differences between apixaban and warfarin for any outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with AF and a history of BPV replacement or repair, the safety and efficacy of apixaban compared with warfarin was consistent with results from ARISTOTLE. These data suggest that apixaban may be reasonable for patients with BPVs or prior valve repair, though future larger randomized trials are needed. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: NCT00412984.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Bioprótese , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/instrumentação , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Varfarina/efeitos adversos
18.
Clin Trials ; 16(1): 90-97, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The US Food and Drug Administration's Sentinel Initiative is well positioned to support pragmatic clinical trials. FDA-Catalyst combines direct contact with health plan members and/or providers with data in the Sentinel infrastructure. Here, we describe the rationale, feasibility analyses, and lessons learned from the planning phase of the first large pragmatic trial conducted using the Sentinel Initiative's delivery system capabilities-IMplementation of a randomized controlled trial to imProve treatment with oral AntiCoagulanTs in patients with Atrial Fibrillation (the IMPACT-AFib trial). METHODS: During the planning phase, we convened representatives from five commercial health plans, FDA, study coordinating centers, and a patient representative for protocol development, institutional review board preparation, and other activities. Administrative claims data from the plans were included in a retrospective cohort analysis to assess sample size for the trial. Members ≥30 years old with ≥365 days of medical/pharmacy coverage, ≥2 diagnosis codes for atrial fibrillation, a guideline-based indication for oral anticoagulant use for stroke prevention, and no evidence of oral anticoagulant use in the 365 days prior to the index atrial fibrillation diagnosis in 2013 were included. Exclusions for the analysis included other conditions requiring anticoagulation, history of intracranial hemorrhage, and gastrointestinal bleed. We calculated rates of oral anticoagulant use, transient ischemic attack or stroke, and bleeding in the 365 days following the index atrial fibrillation diagnosis. RESULTS: A total of 44,786 members with atrial fibrillation with no evidence of recent oral anticoagulant use were identified. In total, 87% (n = 38,759) were classified as having a guideline-based indication for oral anticoagulants. Of those, 33% (n = 12,867) had a new oral anticoagulant dispensed during the following year, 15% (n = 5917) were hospitalized for stroke or transient ischemic attack, and 9% (n = 3469) for bleeding events. This information was used to develop the trial protocol including sample size, power calculations, and level of randomization. CONCLUSION: Sentinel infrastructure generated preliminary data that supported planning and implementation of a large pragmatic trial embedded in health plans. This planning identified unanticipated challenges that must be addressed in similar trials.

19.
Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs ; 18(4): 280-288, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30418049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:: Atrial fibrillation is associated with stroke, yet approximately 50% of patients are not treated with guideline-directed oral anticoagulants (OACs). AIMS:: Given that the etiology of this gap in care is not well understood, we explored decision-making by patients and physicians regarding OAC use for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. METHODS AND RESULTS:: We conducted a descriptive qualitative study among providers ( N=28) and their patients with atrial fibrillation for whom OACs were indicated ( N=25). We used purposive sampling across three outpatient settings in which atrial fibrillation patients are commonly managed: primary care ( n=14), geriatrics ( n=10), and cardiology ( n=4). Eligible patients were stratified by those prescribed OAC ( n=13) and not prescribed OAC ( n=12). Semi-structured, in-depth interviews assessed decision-making regarding risk and OAC use. Classical content analysis was used to code narratives and identify themes. Results among patients consisted of the overarching theme of trust in provider recommendations. Sub-themes included: awareness of increased risk of stroke with atrial fibrillation; willingness to accept medications recommended by their physician; and low demand for explanatory decision aids. Among physicians, the overarching theme was decisional conflict regarding the balance between stroke and bleeding risk, and the optimal medication to prescribe. Subthemes included: absence of decision aids for communication; and misperceptions around the assessment and management of stroke risk with atrial fibrillation. CONCLUSIONS:: Patient involvement in decision-making around OAC use did not occur in this study of patients with atrial fibrillation. Improved access to decision aids may increase patient engagement in the decision-making process of OAC use for stroke prevention.

20.
Heart Rhythm ; 16(1): 91-97, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30059750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with heart failure and sleep apnea are at increased risk for developing arrhythmias. Whether treatment of sleep apnea reduces arrhythmias is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) with optimal medical therapy (OMT) reduces atrial fibrillation (AF) and/or ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF) burden compared to OMT alone. METHODS: We conducted a prospective substudy of patients with pacemakers/defibrillators in the Cardiovascular Improvements with Minute Ventilation-Targeted ASV Therapy in Heart Failure (CAT-HF) trial. Change in arrhythmia burden was compared using a mixed model analysis to account for multiple measurements per patient. RESULTS: Among 35 randomized patients eligible and analyzed (19 ASV, 16 OMT only) in the AF cohort, mean age was 64 ± 12 years, 23% were women (n = 8), 49% had previous AF (n = 17), 89% had reduced ejection fraction (n = 31), and mean apnea hypopnea index was 41 ± 17 events per hour. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. Change in AF burden from baseline to follow-up was -15.8% ± 36.5% with ASV vs +23.7% ± 36.2% with OMT (P = .034). There was no significant change in the AF cohort in the mean number of VT/VF events: +3.3 ± 14.9 events with ASV vs -0.3 ± 7.3 events with OMT (P = .58). Five subjects had appropriate therapies for VT/VF in the ASV arm vs 6 subjects in the OMT arm. CONCLUSION: This study provides proof of concept that treatment of sleep apnea with ASV leads to reduction in AF burden compared with OMT alone, without an increase in VT/VF events. This hypothesis should be tested in a large outcomes trial.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA