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J Med Chem ; 62(7): 3228-3250, 2019 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893553


Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, is a member of the Tec family of kinases and is essential for B cell receptor (BCR) mediated signaling. BTK also plays a critical role in the downstream signaling pathways for the Fcγ receptor in monocytes, the Fcε receptor in granulocytes, and the RANK receptor in osteoclasts. As a result, pharmacological inhibition of BTK is anticipated to provide an effective strategy for the clinical treatment of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. This article will outline the evolution of our strategy to identify a covalent, irreversible inhibitor of BTK that has the intrinsic potency, selectivity, and pharmacokinetic properties necessary to provide a rapid rate of inactivation systemically following a very low dose. With excellent in vivo efficacy and a very desirable tolerability profile, 5a (branebrutinib, BMS-986195) has advanced into clinical studies.

Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia/antagonistas & inibidores , Descoberta de Drogas , Indóis/farmacologia , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Animais , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Indóis/farmacocinética , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Macaca fascicularis , Camundongos , Piperidinas/farmacocinética , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico
J Med Chem ; 59(3): 1041-51, 2016 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26751161


GSK-3 is a serine/threonine kinase that has numerous substrates. Many of these proteins are involved in the regulation of diverse cellular functions, including metabolism, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Inhibition of GSK-3 may be useful in treating a number of diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD), type II diabetes, mood disorders, and some cancers, but the approach poses significant challenges. Here, we present a class of isonicotinamides that are potent, highly kinase-selective GSK-3 inhibitors, the members of which demonstrated oral activity in a triple-transgenic mouse model of AD. The remarkably high kinase selectivity and straightforward synthesis of these compounds bode well for their further exploration as tool compounds and therapeutics.

Encéfalo/metabolismo , Descoberta de Drogas , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/antagonistas & inibidores , Niacinamida/farmacologia , Niacinamida/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cristalografia por Raios X , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/metabolismo , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Niacinamida/administração & dosagem , Niacinamida/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 25(9): 1856-63, 2015 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25845281


Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) has been proposed to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of many diseases including cancer, stroke, bipolar disorders, diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases. GSK-3 inhibition has been a major area of pharmaceutical interest over the last two decades. A plethora of reports appeared recently on selective inhibitors and their co-crystal structures in GSK-3ß. We identified several series of promising new GSK-3ß inhibitors from a coherent design around a pyrrolopyridinone core structure. A systematic exploration of the chemical space around the central spacer led to potent single digit and sub-nanomolar GSK-3ß inhibitors. When dosed orally in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD), an exemplary compound showed significant lowering of Tau phosphorylation at one of the GSK-3 phosphorylating sites, Ser396. X-ray crystallography greatly aided in validating the binding hypotheses.

Aminopiridinas/farmacologia , Descoberta de Drogas , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Piridonas/química , Pirróis/química , Aminopiridinas/administração & dosagem , Aminopiridinas/química , Animais , Cristalografia por Raios X , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr ; 70(Pt 1): 134-43, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24419386


The process of iterative structure-based drug design involves the X-ray crystal structure determination of upwards of 100 ligands with the same general scaffold (i.e. chemotype) complexed with very similar, if not identical, protein targets. In conjunction with insights from computational models and assays, this collection of crystal structures is analyzed to improve potency, to achieve better selectivity and to reduce liabilities such as absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicology. Current methods for modeling ligands into electron-density maps typically do not utilize information on how similar ligands bound in related structures. Even if the electron density is of sufficient quality and resolution to allow de novo placement, the process can take considerable time as the size, complexity and torsional degrees of freedom of the ligands increase. A new module, Guided Ligand Replacement (GLR), was developed in Phenix to increase the ease and success rate of ligand placement when prior protein-ligand complexes are available. At the heart of GLR is an algorithm based on graph theory that associates atoms in the target ligand with analogous atoms in the reference ligand. Based on this correspondence, a set of coordinates is generated for the target ligand. GLR is especially useful in two situations: (i) modeling a series of large, flexible, complicated or macrocyclic ligands in successive structures and (ii) modeling ligands as part of a refinement pipeline that can automatically select a reference structure. Even in those cases for which no reference structure is available, if there are multiple copies of the bound ligand per asymmetric unit GLR offers an efficient way to complete the model after the first ligand has been placed. In all of these applications, GLR leverages prior knowledge from earlier structures to facilitate ligand placement in the current structure.

Cristalografia por Raios X/métodos , Desenho de Fármacos , Protease de HIV/química , Protease de HIV/metabolismo , HIV-1/enzimologia , Humanos , Ligantes , Modelos Moleculares , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/química , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
J Chem Inf Model ; 53(7): 1576-88, 2013 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23809058


We describe an extension to the matched molecular pairs approach that merges pairwise activity differences with three-dimensional contextual information derived from X-ray crystal structures and binding pose predictions. The incorporation of 3D binding poses allows the direct comparison of structural changes to diverse chemotypes in particular binding pockets, facilitating the transfer of SAR from one series to another. Integrating matched pair data with the receptor structure can also highlight activity patterns within the binding site--for example, "hot spot" regions can be visualized where changes in the ligand structure are more likely to impact activity. The method is illustrated using P38α structural and activity data to generate novel hybrid ligands, identify SAR transfer networks, and annotate the receptor binding site.

Desenho de Fármacos , Proteína Quinase 14 Ativada por Mitógeno/química , Proteína Quinase 14 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Sítios de Ligação , Bases de Dados de Produtos Farmacêuticos , Humanos , Ligantes , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
J Chem Inf Model ; 51(8): 1931-41, 2011 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21736376


The method of conserved core substructure matching (CSM) for the overlay of protein-ligand complexes is described. The method relies upon distance geometry to align structurally similar substructures without regard to sequence similarity onto substructures from a reference protein empirically selected to include key determinants of binding site location and geometry. The error in ligand position is reduced in reoriented ensembles generated with CSM when compared to other overlay methods. Since CSM can only succeed when the selected core substructure is geometrically conserved, misalignments only rarely occur. The method may be applied to reliably overlay large numbers of protein-ligand complexes in a way that optimizes ligand position at a specific binding site or subsite or to align structures from large and diverse protein families where the conserved binding site is localized to only a small portion of either protein. Core substructures may be complex and must be chosen with care. We have created a database of empirically selected core substructures to demonstrate the utility of CSM alignment of ligand binding sites in important drug targets. A Web-based interface can be used to apply CSM to align large collections of protein-ligand complexes for use in drug design using these substructures or to evaluate the use of alternative core substructures that may then be shared with the larger user community. Examples show the benefit of CSM in the practice of structure-based drug design.

Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Proteínas Quinases/análise , Software , Estaurosporina/análise , Sítios de Ligação , Domínio Catalítico , Simulação por Computador , Mineração de Dados , Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Desenho de Fármacos , Humanos , Ligantes , Modelos Moleculares , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Quinases/química , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas , Estaurosporina/química , Estaurosporina/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Especificidade por Substrato