Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 236
Filtrar
1.
Bone Rep ; 16: 101524, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35372644

RESUMO

Objective: Faciocraniosynostoses (FCS) are malformations affecting the development of the bones of the skull and face, due to the premature closure of one or more craniofacial sutures, mostly secondary to activating Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR) 1-3 mutations. Gain-of-function FGFR3 mutations are also responsible for various conditions referred to as osteochondrodysplasia (OCD), characterized by structural and functional abnormalities of growth plate cartilages. We hypothesized that patients with FGFR-related faciocraniosynostoses may present extra-cranial growth anomalies. Study design: We retrospectively collected height and weight data from a cohort of 70 patients. Included patients were admitted for FGFR-related FCS between 2000 and 2021 at the Craniofacial Unit of Necker - Enfants Malades University Hospital in Paris, France. Results: We showed that FGFR-related faciocraniosynostoses had significantly reduced heights and weights relative to controls, and that two specific time periods (1-3 years and > 8 years of age) were associated with lower height and weight values. Four patients had received growth hormone treatment but remained below normal values for growth in height and weight. Conclusions: Patients with FGFR-related faciocraniosynostoses have clinically significant extra-cranial anomalies which are not currently investigated and managed in usual protocols; these patients could benefit from a systematic pre-pubertal endocrine assessment. More generally, our results extend the scope of extracranial anomalies in FGFR-related faciocraniosynostoses and support the hypothesis that all conditions with activating FGFR mutations affect both membranous ossification and long bones.

2.
Prog Retin Eye Res ; : 101133, 2022 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36280537

RESUMO

Congenital PAX6-aniridia, initially characterized by the absence of the iris, has progressively been shown to be associated with other developmental ocular abnormalities and systemic features making congenital aniridia a complex syndromic disorder rather than a simple isolated disease of the iris. Moreover, foveal hypoplasia is now recognized as a more frequent feature than complete iris hypoplasia and a major visual prognosis determinant, reversing the classical clinical picture of this disease. Conversely, iris malformation is also a feature of various anterior segment dysgenesis disorders caused by PAX6-related developmental genes, adding a level of genetic complexity for accurate molecular diagnosis of aniridia. Therefore, the clinical recognition and differential genetic diagnosis of PAX6-related aniridia has been revealed to be much more challenging than initially thought, and still remains under-investigated. Here, we update specific clinical features of aniridia, with emphasis on their genotype correlations, as well as provide new knowledge regarding the PAX6 gene and its mutational spectrum, and highlight the beneficial utility of clinically implementing targeted Next-Generation Sequencing combined with Whole-Genome Sequencing to increase the genetic diagnostic yield of aniridia. We also present new molecular mechanisms underlying aniridia and aniridia-like phenotypes. Finally, we discuss the appropriate medical and surgical management of aniridic eyes, as well as innovative therapeutic options. Altogether, these combined clinical-genetic approaches will help to accelerate time to diagnosis, provide better determination of the disease prognosis and management, and confirm eligibility for future clinical trials or genetic-specific therapies.

3.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 107(12): 3378-3388, 2022 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36062966

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Somapacitan, a once-weekly reversible albumin-binding GH derivative, is evaluated in children with GH deficiency (GHD). OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate efficacy and safety of somapacitan vs daily GH. METHODS: REAL4 is a randomised, multinational, open-labeled, active-controlled parallel group phase 3 trial, comprising a 52-week main trial and 3-year extension (NCT03811535). SETTING: Eighty-six sites across 20 countries. PATIENTS: 200 treatment-naïve patients were randomized and exposed. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomized 2:1 to somapacitan (0.16 mg/kg/wk) or daily GH (Norditropin; 0.034 mg/kg/d), administered subcutaneously. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary endpoint was annualized height velocity (HV; cm/y) at week 52. Additional assessments included HV SD score (SDS), height SDS, bone age, IGF-I SDS, patient-reported outcomes, and safety measures. RESULTS: Estimated mean HV at week 52 was 11.2 and 11.7 cm/y for somapacitan and daily GH, respectively. Noninferiority was confirmed. Changes in HV SDS, height SDS, bone age, and IGF-I SDS from baseline to week 52 were similar between treatment groups. At week 52, mean IGF-I SDS values were similar between treatment groups and within normal range (-2 to +2). Safety of somapacitan was consistent with the well-known daily GH profile. Low proportions of injection-site reactions were reported for somapacitan (5.3%) and daily GH (5.9%). Both treatments similarly reduced disease burden from baseline to week 52, whereas a greater treatment burden reduction was observed for somapacitan. CONCLUSIONS: Similar efficacy for somapacitan compared to daily GH was demonstrated over 52 weeks of treatment with comparable safety and mean IGF-I SDS levels in treatment-naïve children with GHD.


Assuntos
Nanismo Hipofisário , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano , Criança , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/uso terapêutico , Nanismo Hipofisário/tratamento farmacológico , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/efeitos adversos , Hormônio do Crescimento/uso terapêutico
4.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 107(12): 3287-3301, 2022 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102184

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The Kabi/Pfizer International Growth Database (KIGS) is a large, international database (1987-2012) of children treated with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in real-world settings. OBJECTIVE: This work aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of rhGH from the full KIGS cohort. METHODS: Data were collected by investigators from children with growth disorders treated with rhGH (Genotropin [somatropin]; Pfizer). Safety was evaluated in all treated patients, and efficacy in those treated for 1 year or more. A subgroup included patients treated for 5 years or more (≥ 2 years prepubertal) who had reached near-adult height (NAH). Main outcomes included adverse events (AEs), serious AEs (SAEs), and height growth. RESULTS: The full KIGS cohort (N = 83 803 [58% male]) was treated for idiopathic GH deficiency (IGHD; 46.9%), organic GHD (10.0%), small for gestational age (SGA; 9.5%), Turner syndrome (TS; 9.2%), idiopathic short stature (ISS; 8.2%), and others (16.2%). Median rhGH treatment duration was 2.7 years and observation 3.1 years. SAEs occurred in 3.7% of patients and death in 0.4%. The most common SAEs were recurrence of craniopharyngioma (n = 151), neoplasm (n = 99), and cancer (n = 91); and scoliosis (n = 91). Median first-year delta height-SD score (SDS) (Prader) in prepubertal patients was 0.66 (IGHD), 0.55 (ISS), 0.58 (TS), and 0.71 (SGA). Median gains in NAH-SDS were 1.79 (IGHD), 1.37 (ISS), and 1.34 (SGA) for boys, and 2.07 (IGHD), 1.62 (ISS), 1.07 (TS), and 1.57 (SGA) for girls. CONCLUSION: Data from KIGS, the largest and longest running international database of rhGH-treated children, show that rhGH is safe and increases short-term height gain and adult height across GHD and non-GHD conditions.


Assuntos
Nanismo Hipofisário , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano , Adulto , Feminino , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/efeitos adversos , Hormônio do Crescimento , Transtornos do Crescimento/tratamento farmacológico , Estatura , Proteínas Recombinantes/efeitos adversos
5.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 107(12): 3418-3427, 2022 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36107810

RESUMO

Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the most frequent neonatal endocrine disorder and the most common preventable cause of development delay and growth failure if diagnosed and treated early. The thyroid is the first endocrine gland to develop during embryonic life and to be recognizable in humans. Thyroid development and maturation can be divided into 2 phases: a first phase of embryogenesis and a second phase of folliculogenesis and differentiation with thyroid hormone production at the final steps. Regulation of the thyroid function requires normal development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, which occurs during the embryonic and neonatal period. Defects in any of steps of thyroid development, differentiation, and regulation lead to permanent CH. Newborn screening programs, established in only one-third of countries worldwide, detect CH and are cost-effective and highly sensitive and specific. During the last decade, epidemiology of CH has changed with increased frequency of thyroid in situ in primary CH. Advances in molecular testing have expanded knowledge and understanding of thyroid development and function. However, a molecular cause is identified in only 5% of CH due to thyroid dysgenesis. The purpose of this article is to describe the clinical approach to the child with CH, focusing on diagnostic work-up and future challenges on optimizing thyroid replacement therapy and regenerative medicine. The review is written from the perspective of the case of 2 girls referred for CH after newborn screening and diagnosed with thyroid ectopy. The genetic work-up revealed novel mutations in TUBB1 gene, associated with large platelets and abnormal platelet physiology.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo Congênito , Disgenesia da Tireoide , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/diagnóstico , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/genética , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/terapia , Triagem Neonatal , Disgenesia da Tireoide/complicações , Hormônios Tireóideos
6.
EBioMedicine ; 84: 104246, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (POI), a public health problem, affects 1-3.7% of women under 40 yielding infertility and a shorter lifespan. Most causes are unknown. Recently, genetic causes were identified, mostly in single families. We studied an unprecedented large cohort of POI to unravel its molecular pathophysiology. METHODS: 375 patients with 70 families were studied using targeted (88 genes) or whole exome sequencing with pathogenic/likely-pathogenic variant selection. Mitomycin-induced chromosome breakages were studied in patients' lymphocytes if necessary. FINDINGS: A high-yield of 29.3% supports a clinical genetic diagnosis of POI. In addition, we found strong evidence of pathogenicity for nine genes not previously related to a Mendelian phenotype or POI: ELAVL2, NLRP11, CENPE, SPATA33, CCDC150, CCDC185, including DNA repair genes: C17orf53(HROB), HELQ, SWI5 yielding high chromosomal fragility. We confirmed the causal role of BRCA2, FANCM, BNC1, ERCC6, MSH4, BMPR1A, BMPR1B, BMPR2, ESR2, CAV1, SPIDR, RCBTB1 and ATG7 previously reported in isolated patients/families. In 8.5% of cases, POI is the only symptom of a multi-organ genetic disease. New pathways were identified: NF-kB, post-translational regulation, and mitophagy (mitochondrial autophagy), providing future therapeutic targets. Three new genes have been shown to affect the age of natural menopause supporting a genetic link. INTERPRETATION: We have developed high-performance genetic diagnostic of POI, dissecting the molecular pathogenesis of POI and enabling personalized medicine to i) prevent/cure comorbidities for tumour/cancer susceptibility genes that could affect life-expectancy (37.4% of cases), or for genetically-revealed syndromic POI (8.5% of cases), ii) predict residual ovarian reserve (60.5% of cases). Genetic diagnosis could help to identify patients who may benefit from the promising in vitro activation-IVA technique in the near future, greatly improving its success in treating infertility. FUNDING: Université Paris Saclay, Agence Nationale de Biomédecine.


Assuntos
Infertilidade , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária , Feminino , Humanos , Infertilidade/complicações , Mitomicinas , NF-kappa B , Medicina de Precisão , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/etiologia
8.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 802351, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35813646

RESUMO

Aims/Hypothesis: Caused by biallelic mutations of the gene encoding the transcription factor RFX6, the rare Mitchell-Riley syndrome (MRS) comprises neonatal diabetes, pancreatic hypoplasia, gallbladder agenesis or hypoplasia, duodenal atresia, and severe chronic diarrhea. So far, sixteen cases have been reported, all with a poor prognosis. This study discusses the multidisciplinary intensive clinical management of 4 new cases of MRS that survived over the first 2 years of life. Moreover, it demonstrates how the mutations impair the RFX6 function. Methods: Clinical records were analyzed and described in detail. The functional impact of two RFX6R181W and RFX6V506G variants was assessed by measuring their ability to transactivate insulin transcription and genes that encode the L-type calcium channels required for normal pancreatic beta-cell function. Results: All four patients were small for gestational age (SGA) and prenatally diagnosed with duodenal atresia. They presented with neonatal diabetes early in life and were treated with intravenous insulin therapy before switching to subcutaneous insulin pump therapy. All patients faced recurrent hypoglycemic episodes, exacerbated when parenteral nutrition (PN) was disconnected. A sensor-augmented insulin pump therapy with a predictive low-glucose suspension system was installed with good results. One patient had a homozygous c.1517T>G (p.Val506Gly) mutation, two patients had a homozygous p.Arg181Trp mutation, and one patient presented with new compound heterozygosity. The RFX6V506G and RFX6R181W mutations failed to transactivate the expression of insulin and genes that encode L-type calcium channel subunits required for normal pancreatic beta-cell function. Conclusions/Interpretation: Multidisciplinary and intensive disease management improved the clinical outcomes in four patients with MRS, including adjustment of parenteral/oral nutrition progression and advanced diabetes technologies. A better understanding of RFX6 function, in both intestine and pancreas cells, may break ground in new therapies, particularly regarding the use of drugs that modulate the enteroendocrine system.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Doenças do Recém-Nascido , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Obstrução Duodenal , Doenças da Vesícula Biliar , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Insulina/genética , Atresia Intestinal , Mutação , Fatores de Transcrição de Fator Regulador X/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Fator Regulador X/metabolismo
9.
Pediatr Investig ; 6(2): 123-134, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35774517

RESUMO

Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the most common neonatal endocrine disorder and one of the most common preventable causes of intellectual disability in the world. CH may be due to developmental or functional thyroid defects (primary or peripheral CH) or be hypothalamic-pituitary in origin (central CH). In most cases, primary CH is caused by a developmental malformation of the gland (thyroid dysgenesis, TD) or by a defect in thyroid hormones synthesis (dyshormonogenesis, DH). TD represents about 65% of CH and a genetic cause is currently identified in fewer than 5% of patients. The remaining 35% are cases of DH and are explained with certainty at the molecular level in more than 50% of cases. The etiology of CH is mostly unknown and may include contributions from individual and environmental factors. In recent years, the detailed phenotypic description of patients, high-throughput sequencing technologies, and the use of animal models have made it possible to discover new genes involved in the development or function of the thyroid gland. This paper reviews all the genetic causes of CH. The modes by which CH is transmitted will also be discussed, including a new oligogenic model. CH is no longer simply a dominant disease for cases of CH due to TD and recessive for cases of CH due to DH, but a far more complex disorder.

10.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 23(6): 675-692, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35657808

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In monogenic diabetes due to KCNJ11 and ABCC8 mutations that impair KATP- channel function, sulfonylureas improve long-term glycemic control. Although KATP channels are extensively expressed in the brain, the effect of sulfonylureas on neurological function has varied widely. We evaluated published evidence about potential effects of sulfonylureas on neurological features, especially epilepsy, cognition, motor function and muscular tone, visuo-motor integration, and attention deficits in children and adults with KCNJ11 and ABCC8-related neonatal-onset diabetes mellitus. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses of the literature (PROSPERO, CRD42021254782), including individual-patient data, according to PRISMA, using RevMan software. We also graded the level of evidence. RESULTS: We selected 34 of 776 publications. The evaluation of global neurological function before and after sulfonylurea (glibenclamide) treatment in 114 patients yielded a risk difference (RD) of 58% (95%CI, 43%-74%; I2  = 54%) overall and 73% (95%CI, 32%-113%; I2  = 0%) in the subgroup younger than 4 years; the level of evidence was moderate and high, respectively. EEG studies of epilepsy showed a RD of 56% (95%CI, 23%-89%; I2  = 34%) in patients with KCNJ11 mutations, with a high quality of evidence. For hypotonia and motor function, the RDs were 90% (95%CI, 69%-111%; I2  = 0%) and 73% (95%CI, 35%-111%; I2  = 0%), respectively, with a high level of evidence. CONCLUSIONS: Glibenclamide significantly improved neurological abnormalities in patients with neonatal-onset diabetes due to KCNJ11 or ABCC8 mutations. Hypotonia was the symptom that responded best. Earlier treatment initiation was associated with greater benefits.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Epilepsia , Doenças do Recém-Nascido , Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização , Adulto , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Glibureto , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/genética , Canais KATP/genética , Hipotonia Muscular , Mutação , Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização/genética , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/uso terapêutico , Receptores de Sulfonilureias/genética
13.
Endocr Connect ; 11(6)2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35521805

RESUMO

Neonatal screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) faces many specific challenges. It must be done using a performant analytical approach that combines sensitivity and specificity to capture the potential causes of mortality during the first week of life, such as salt wasting and glucocorticoid deficiency. Here, we confirm that maternal inhaled corticosteroid intake during pregnancy is a possible cause of missed CAH diagnosis. Thanks to liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis, we were able to quantify endogenous steroid metabolites and also detect the presence of exogenous steroids in the dried blood spot of a newborn. Adding LC-MS/MS analysis as second-tier test, especially one that includes both 17-hydroxyprogesterone and 21-deoxycortisol measurements, would probably improve CAH diagnosis. In familial neonatal screening one could also look for maternal corticosteroid therapies that are hidden to prevent false-negative tests.

14.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 186(6): P35-P52, 2022 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35319491

RESUMO

Growth hormone (GH) has been used for over 35 years, and its safety and efficacy has been studied extensively. Experimental studies showing the permissive role of GH/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) in carcinogenesis have raised concerns regarding the safety of GH replacement in children and adults who have received treatment for cancer and those with intracranial and pituitary tumours. A consensus statement was produced to guide decision-making on GH replacement in children and adult survivors of cancer, in those treated for intracranial and pituitary tumours and in patients with increased cancer risk. With the support of the European Society of Endocrinology, the Growth Hormone Research Society convened a Workshop, where 55 international key opinion leaders representing 10 professional societies were invited to participate. This consensus statement utilized: (1) a critical review paper produced before the Workshop, (2) five plenary talks, (3) evidence-based comments from four breakout groups, and (4) discussions during report-back sessions. Current evidence reviewed from the proceedings from the Workshop does not support an association between GH replacement and primary tumour or cancer recurrence. The effect of GH replacement on secondary neoplasia risk is minor compared to host- and tumour treatment-related factors. There is no evidence for an association between GH replacement and increased mortality from cancer amongst GH-deficient childhood cancer survivors. Patients with pituitary tumour or craniopharyngioma remnants receiving GH replacement do not need to be treated or monitored differently than those not receiving GH. GH replacement might be considered in GH-deficient adult cancer survivors in remission after careful individual risk/benefit analysis. In children with cancer predisposition syndromes, GH treatment is generally contraindicated but may be considered cautiously in select patients.


Assuntos
Hormônio do Crescimento Humano , Neoplasias Hipofisárias , Adulto , Criança , Hormônio do Crescimento , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/tratamento farmacológico , Sobreviventes
15.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 812568, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35250870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Puberty is delayed in untreated children and adolescents with severe primary IGF-1 deficiency (SPIGFD); to date, it has not been reported whether recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-1 mecasermin (rhIGF-1) treatment affects this. Pubertal growth outcomes were extracted from the European Increlex® Growth Forum Database (Eu-IGFD) Registry (NCT00903110). METHODS: The Eu-IGFD Registry includes children and adolescents aged 2 to 18 years with growth failure associated with SPIGFD who are treated with rhIGF-1. Reported outcomes include: age at last registration of Tanner stage 1 and first registration of Tanner stage 2-5 (T2-T5; based on breast development for girls and genital development for boys, respectively); maximum height velocity during each Tanner stage; and pubertal peak height velocity (PPHV). Data cut-off was 13 May 2019. RESULTS: This analysis included 213 patients (132 boys and 81 girls). Mean (SD) age at last registration of T1 and first registration of T5 was 13.0 (2.0) and 16.3 (1.6) years, respectively, in boys and 11.6 (1.8) and 14.7 (1.5) years, respectively, in girls. Among patients reaching the end of puberty (25 boys and 11 girls), mean (SD) height SDS increased from -3.7 (1.4) at baseline in the Eu-IGFD Registry to -2.6 (1.4) at T5 in boys and from -3.1 (1.1) to -2.3 (1.5) in girls. Maximum height velocity was observed during T2 in girls and T3 in boys. Median (range) PPHV was 8.0 (0.3-13.0) cm/year in boys and 6.8 (1.3-9.6) cm/year in girls and occurred most frequently during T2. Overall, the adverse events seen in this analysis were in line with the known safety profile of rhIGF-1. CONCLUSION: Children and adolescents treated with rhIGF-1 for SPIGFD with growth failure experienced an increase in height SDS in prepubertal years compared with baseline. Despite 1.5 years delay in pubertal start and a delayed and slightly lower PPHV, height SDS gain during puberty was maintained.


Assuntos
Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Clínicos como Assunto , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/deficiência , Masculino , Proteínas Recombinantes , Sistema de Registros
16.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 38(3): 263-273, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35333163

RESUMO

Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the most frequent neonatal endocrine disorder. CH is due to thyroid development or thyroid function defects (primary) or may be of hypothalamic-pituitary origin (central). Primary CH is caused essentially by abnormal thyroid gland morphogenesis (thyroid dysgenesis, TD) or defective thyroid hormone synthesis (dyshormonogenesis, DH). DH accounts for about 35% of CH and a genetic cause is identified in 50% of patients. However, TD accounts for about 65% of CH, and a genetic cause is identified in less than 5% of patients. The pathogenesis of CH is largely unknown and may include the contribution of individual and environmental factors. During the last years, detailed phenotypic description of patients, next-generation sequence technologies and use of animal models allowed the discovery of novel candidate genes in thyroid development and function. We provide an overview of recent genetic causes of primary and central CH. In addition, mode of inheritance and the oligogenic model of CH are discussed.


Title: Génétique de l'hypothyroïdie congénitale. Abstract: L'hypothyroïdie congénitale (HC) est la maladie endocrinienne néonatale la plus fréquente. Elle peut être due à des défauts de développement ou de la fonction de la thyroïde (HC primaire ou périphérique) ou d'origine hypothalamo-hypophysaire (HC centrale). L'HC primaire est causée dans la majorité des cas par une anomalie du développement de la glande (dysgénésie thyroïdienne, DT) ou par un défaut de synthèse des hormones thyroïdiennes (dyshormonogenèse, DH). Une origine génétique est identifiée chez 50 % des patients présentant une HCDH mais dans moins de 5 % des patients présentant une HCDT. Cette revue fait le point sur l'ensemble des causes génétiques des HC et sur les différents modes de transmission. L'HC n'est plus simplement une maladie dominante pour les dysgénésies thyroïdiennes et récessive pour les dyshormonogenèses, mais est devenue une maladie plus complexe.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo Congênito , Disgenesia da Tireoide , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Humanos , Mutação , Disgenesia da Tireoide/genética , Hormônios Tireóideos
18.
Lancet Digit Health ; 4(3): e158-e168, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35216750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Time in range (TIR) goals are rarely met in children with type 1 diabetes, except at the cost of increased hypoglycaemia episodes. Our objective was to evaluate the safety and efficiency of the Diabeloop DBL4K (Diabeloop, Grenoble, France) hybrid closed-loop system in prepubescent children. METHODS: We did a multicentre, open-label, randomised, controlled, non-inferiority, two-session crossover study in the paediatric endocrinology departments of three university hospitals in France and Belgium. Eligible participants were aged 6-12 years with type 1 diabetes for at least 1 year, glycated haemoglobin A1C 9% (75 mmol/mol) or less, and insulin pump treatment for at least 3 months. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to a closed-loop device or sensor-augmented pump (open loop) therapy. Randomisation was by a permuted block randomisation scheme, using an interactive web-based response system, and was stratified on centre (block size 6). The assessed closed-loop device, the Diabeloop for Kids DBL4K hybrid closed-loop system, is an automated blood glucose regulation system composed of a handset, insulin pump, and continuous glucose monitor. The open-loop system is defined as a sensor-augmented pump therapy composed of the usual insulin pump used by the patient and a continuous glucose monitor. A 72-h in-patient period was followed by a 6-week home phase. After a 1-week washout period, the participants crossed over to the other device. The primary outcome, assessed in the intention-to-treat population, was the mean proportion of time spent in hypoglycaemia (3·9 mmol/L [<70 mg/dL]) during the hospital phase, with a non-inferiority margin of -2·5% (absolute value). Safety was assessed in the intention-to-treat population on a per-protocol basis. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03671915. FINDINGS: Between May 6 and Dec 23, 2019, we included 21 participants (closed loop then open loop, n=10; open loop then closed loop, n=11). The proportion of time spent in hypoglycaemia was significantly lower with the closed-loop system than the open-loop system in both groups (2·04% [95% CI 0·44 to 3·64] vs 7·06% [5·46 to 8·66]; non-inferiority one-sided p<0·0001). No severe ketoacidosis, nor severe hyoglycaemic events or fatal adverse events occurred. All 25 adverse events (18 with the closed-loop system, seven with the open-loop system) were related to the treatment. INTERPRETATION: The closed-loop Diabeloop system decreased hypoglycaemic episodes and provided good metabolic control in prepubescent children with type 1 diabetes, under real-life conditions. This finding supports the safe use of closed-loop technology in this paediatric population. FUNDING: Diabeloop. TRANSLATION: For the French translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Hipoglicemia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Criança , Estudos Cross-Over , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina
19.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 186(3): 379-387, 2022 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35038310

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a new care organization on multiple outcomes of transition success and its cost-effectiveness in patients with any endocrine or metabolic disease diagnosed during childhood and transferred to adult care. DESIGN: Non-randomized controlled trial in a French university hospital. METHODS: Patients transferred to adult care during the control period (04/2014-08/2016) and the intervention period (09/2016-06/2018) were included. The intervention is based on case management involving liaising with pediatric services, personalizing care pathways, and liaising with structures outside hospital (general practitioner, educational and social sector). The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients lost to follow-up at 24 months post transfer. Other outcomes were collected from medical files, consultation software, and questionnaires. A cost analysis was performed. RESULTS: Two hundred two patients were included (101 per period), the most represented pathologies were congenital and non-congenital hypopituitarism (respectively n = 34 (17%) and n = 45 (22%)) and thyroid diseases (n = 21, 10%). Patients were aged 22.5 in median at 24 months post transfer where 12 were lost to follow-up in the control group vs 9 with the intervention (P = 0.49). The percentage of honored consultation among those planned during 24 months was higher with intervention (P = 0.0065). Patient satisfaction, physician trust, and transfer delay did not differ between the groups. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was €179 per patient not lost to follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: At 24 months post transfer, the rate of lost to follow-up did not differ significantly, but indicators of a steadier follow-up were increased and the intervention appeared to be cost-effective.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/terapia , Perda de Seguimento , Doenças Metabólicas/terapia , Satisfação do Paciente , Encaminhamento e Consulta/normas , Cuidado Transicional/normas , Adolescente , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/epidemiologia , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Eur J Pediatr ; 181(4): 1497-1506, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34993625

RESUMO

The best protocol for severe inaugural diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in children remains unclear. We compared two protocols by assessing effects during the first 24 h on osmolality, serum sodium, and glucose variations, which are associated with the risk of cerebral oedema, the most dreaded complication of DKA. We also recorded complications. We retrospectively included children aged 28 days to 18 years and admitted for severe DKA to either of two paediatric intensive care units (PICUs) in Paris (France). The two protocols differed regarding hydration volume, glucose intake, and sodium intake. From 17 June 2010 to 17 June 2015, 93 patients were included, 29 at one PICU, and 64 at the other. We compared severe glycaemic drops (> 5.5 mmol/L/h), mean glycaemia variations, serum sodium, serum osmolality, and the occurrence of cerebral oedema (CE) during the first 24 h after PICU admission. Severe glycaemic drops occurred in 70% of patients, with no between-group difference. Blood glucose, serum sodium, and serum osmolality variations were comparable. Seven (7.5%) patients were treated for suspected CE, (4 [10.3%)] and 3 [6.3%]) in each PICU; none had major residual impairments. CONCLUSION:  The two paediatric DKA-management protocols differing in terms of fluid-volume, glucose, and sodium intakes had comparable effects on clinical and laboratory-test changes within 24 h. Major drops in glycaemia and osmolality were common with both protocols. No patients had residual neurological impairments. WHAT IS KNOWN: • Cerebral oedema is the most severe complication of diabteic ketoacidosis in children.The risk of cerebral oedema is dependant on both patient related and treatment-related factors. • The optimal protocol for managing severe inaugural diabetic ketoacidosis in children remains unclear, and few studies have targeted this specific population. WHAT IS NEW: • Two management protocols that complied with ISPAD guidelines but differed regarding the amounts of fluids, glucose, and sodium administered produced similar outcomes in children with severe inaugural diabetic ketoacidosis. • Cerebral oedema was rare with both protocols and caused no lasting impairments.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Cetoacidose Diabética , Adulto , Glicemia , Criança , Cuidados Críticos , Cetoacidose Diabética/diagnóstico , Cetoacidose Diabética/terapia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sódio
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...