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1.
Endocrine ; 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650047

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the most frequent neonatal endocrine disorder and one of the most common preventable forms of mental retardation worldwide. CH is due to thyroid development or thyroid function defects (primary) or may be of hypothalamic-pituitary origin (central). Primary CH is caused essentially by abnormal thyroid gland morphogenesis (thyroid dysgenesis, TD) or defective thyroid hormone synthesis (dyshormonogenesis, DH). TD accounts for about 65% of CH, however a genetic cause is identified in less than 5% of patients. PURPOSE: The pathogenesis of CH is largely unknown and may include the contribution of individual and environmental factors. During the last years, detailed phenotypic description of patients, next-generation sequence technologies and use of animal models allowed the discovery of novel candidate genes in thyroid development, function and pathways. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We provide an overview of recent genetic causes of primary and central CH. In addition, mode of inheritance and the oligogenic model of CH are discussed.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571362

RESUMO

CONTEXT: GH treatment has a generally good safety profile; however, concerns of increased mortality risk in adulthood have been raised. OBJECTIVE: Assessing the long-term safety of GH treatment in clinical practice. DESIGN: Two multicenter longitudinal observational studies: NordiNet® International Outcome Study (2006-2016, Europe) and ANSWER Program (2002-2016, USA). SETTING: Data collected from 676 clinics. PATIENTS: Pediatric patients treated with GH, classified into three risk groups based on diagnosis. INTERVENTION: Daily GH treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence rates (events/1000 patient-years) of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), serious adverse events (SAEs), and serious ADRs, and their relationship to the GH dose. RESULTS: The combined studies comprised 37,702 patients (68.4% in low-risk, 27.5% in intermediate-risk, and 4.1% in high-risk groups) and 130,476 patient-years of exposure. The low-risk group included children born small for gestational age (SGA; 20.7%) and non-SGA children (e.g. with GH deficiency; 79.3%). Average GH dose up to the first adverse event (AE) decreased with increasing risk category. Patients without AEs received higher average GH doses than patients with >1 AE across all groups. A significant inverse relationship with GH dose was shown for ADR and SAE incidence rates in the low-risk group (P = 0.0029 and P = 0.0003, respectively) and the non-SGA subgroup (P = 0.0022 and P = 0.0015, respectively), and for SAEs in the intermediate- and high-risk groups (P = 0.0017 and P = 0.0480, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: We observed no indication of increased mortality risk nor AE incidence related to GH dose in any risk group.

3.
Endocr Connect ; 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491660

RESUMO

Classic galactosemia is a rare inborn error of galactose metabolism with a birth prevalence of about 1/30 000-60 000. Long-term complications occurring despite dietary treatment consist of premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) and neurodevelopmental impairments. We performed with the French Reference Centers for Rare Diseases a multisite collaborative questionnaire survey for classic galactosemic patients. Its primary objective was to assess their puberty, pregnancy, gonadotrop axis, and pelvic morphology by ultrasound The secondary objective was to determine predictive factors for potent pregnancy without oocyte donation. Completed questionnaires from 103 patients, 56 females (median age, 19 years [5-52 years]) and 47 males (median age, 19 years [3-45 years]), were analyzed. Among the 45 females older than 11 years old, mean age for breast development first stage was 12 years; spontaneous menarche occurred in 25 females at a mean age of 14.6 years. After puberty, 60% of females had irregular menstrual cycles and 50% experienced amenorrhea at a median age of 30 years [15;42]. All age-groups confounded, FSH was above normal range for 65% of the patients, anti-Müllerian hormone and inhibin B were below the normal range according to age, and the ovaries were small with few or no follicles detected. Among the 5 females who sought to conceive, 4 had pregnancies. Among the 47 males, 1 had cryptorchidism, all have normal testicular function and none had tried to conceive. Thus, spontaneous puberty and POI are both common in this population. Spontaneous menarche seems to be the best predictive factor for successful spontaneous pregnancy.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(2): 337-345, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434492

RESUMO

Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) is associated with congenital absence of the uterus, cervix, and the upper part of the vagina; it is a sex-limited trait. Disrupted development of the Müllerian ducts (MD)/Wölffian ducts (WD) through multifactorial mechanisms has been proposed to underlie MRKHS. In this study, exome sequencing (ES) was performed on a Chinese discovery cohort (442 affected subjects and 941 female control subjects) and a replication MRKHS cohort (150 affected subjects of mixed ethnicity from North America, South America, and Europe). Phenotypic follow-up of the female reproductive system was performed on an additional cohort of PAX8-associated congenital hypothyroidism (CH) (n = 5, Chinese). By analyzing 19 candidate genes essential for MD/WD development, we identified 12 likely gene-disrupting (LGD) variants in 7 genes: PAX8 (n = 4), BMP4 (n = 2), BMP7 (n = 2), TBX6 (n = 1), HOXA10 (n = 1), EMX2 (n = 1), and WNT9B (n = 1), while LGD variants in these genes were not detected in control samples (p = 1.27E-06). Interestingly, a sex-limited penetrance with paternal inheritance was observed in multiple families. One additional PAX8 LGD variant from the replication cohort and two missense variants from both cohorts were revealed to cause loss-of-function of the protein. From the PAX8-associated CH cohort, we identified one individual presenting a syndromic condition characterized by CH and MRKHS (CH-MRKHS). Our study demonstrates the comprehensive utilization of knowledge from developmental biology toward elucidating genetic perturbations, i.e., rare pathogenic alleles involving the same loci, contributing to human birth defects.


Assuntos
Transtornos 46, XX do Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Ductos Paramesonéfricos/anormalidades , Ductos Paramesonéfricos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mutação , Ductos Mesonéfricos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adulto , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/genética , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 7/genética , Códon sem Sentido , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Pleiotropia Genética , Proteínas Homeobox A10/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Fator de Transcrição PAX8/genética , Herança Paterna , Penetrância , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Ductos Mesonéfricos/anormalidades
5.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 184(2): 267-276, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434161

RESUMO

Objective: The European Increlex® Growth Forum Database Registry monitors the effectiveness and safety of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-1 (rhIGF1; mecasermin, Increlex®) therapy in patients with severe primary IGF1 deficiency (SPIGFD). We present data from patients with and without a reported genetic diagnosis of Laron syndrome (LS). Design: Ongoing, open-label, observational registry (NCT00903110). Methods: Children and adolescents receiving rhIGF1 therapy from 10 European countries were enrolled in 2008-2017 (n = 242). The treatment-naïve/prepubertal (NPP) cohort (n = 138) was divided into subgroups based on reported genetic diagnosis of LS (n = 21) or non-LS (n = 117). Multivariate analysis of the NPP-non-LS subgroup was conducted to identify factors predictive of growth response (first-year-height standard deviation score (SDS) gain ≥ 0.3). Assessments included change in height and weight over 5 years and adverse events (AEs). Results: Height SDS gain from baseline was greater in the NPP-LS than the NPP-non-LS subgroup after 1 years' treatment (P < 0.05). In the NPP-non-LS subgroup, 56% were responders; young age at baseline was a positive independent predictive factor (P < 0.001). NPP-non-LS-responders and the NPP-LS subgroup had a similar mean age (6.07 years vs 7.00 years) at baseline and height SDS gain in year 1 (0.64 vs 0.70), although NPP-non-LS-responders were taller (P < 0.001) at baseline. BMI SDS changes did not differ across subgroups. Treatment-emergent AEs were experienced by 65.3% of patients; hypoglycaemia was most common. Conclusions: In most NPP children with SPIGFD, with or without LS, rhIGF1 therapy promotes linear growth. The safety profile was consistent with previous studies.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Crescimento/tratamento farmacológico , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/deficiência , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Laron/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Estatura , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Criança , Feminino , Crescimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/sangue , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome de Laron/genética , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Segurança do Paciente , Puberdade , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
Thyroid ; 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33272083

RESUMO

Background An ENDO-ERN initiative was launched which was endorsed by the European Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and the European Society for Endocrinology with 22 participants from the ENDO-ERN and the two societies. The aim was to update the practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of congenital hypothyroidism (CH). A systematic literature search was conducted to identify key articles on neonatal screening, diagnosis and management of primary and central congenital hypothyroidism. The evidence-based guidelines were graded with the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system, describing both the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. In the absence of sufficient evidence, conclusions were based on expert opinion. Summary The recommendations include the various neonatal screening approaches for CH as well as the etiology (also genetics), diagnostics, treatment and prognosis of both primary and central CH. When CH is diagnosed, the expert panel recommends the immediate start of correctly dosed levothyroxine treatment and frequent follow-up including laboratory testing to keep thyroid hormone levels in their target ranges, timely assessment of the need to continue treatment, attention for neurodevelopment and neurosensory functions and, if necessary, consulting other health professionals, and education of the child and family about CH. Harmonisation of diagnostics, treatment and follow-up will optimise patient outcomes. Lastly, all individuals with CH are entitled to a well-planned transition of care from pediatrics to adult medicine. Conclusions This consensus guidelines update should be used to further optimize detection, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of children with all forms of CH in the light of the most recent evidence. It should be helpful in convincing health authorities of the benefits of neonatal screening for CH. Further epidemiological and experimental studies are needed to understand the increased incidence of this condition.

7.
Endocr Connect ; 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33263561

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The transition period between paediatric and adult medicine is associated with poor patient outcomes and important numbers of patients lost to follow up. Describe the cohort of patients in adult care who benefit from a new transition program based on case management approach. DESIGN: A longitudinal study was led since September 2016 in a French University Hospital. METHODS: Patients with any endocrine or metabolic disease diagnosed during childhood and transferred to adult care were included. The transition program includes 3 steps based on case management: liaising with paediatric services, personalising care pathways, liaising with structures outside hospital (General practitioner, educational and social sector). RESULTS: The cohort included 500 patients with malignant brain tumour (n=56 (11%)), obesity (n=55 (11%)), type 1 diabetes (n=54 (11%)), or other disease (n=335 (67%)). They were aged 19 in median at transfer, sex ratio: 0.5. At 21 months of follow-up in median, 439 (88%) have regular follow-up in or outside the hospital, 47 (9%) have irregular follow-up (absence at the last appointment or no appointment scheduled within the time recommended), 4 stopped care on the doctor's advice, 4 died, 3 moved, 3 refused care. The program involved 9,615 case management acts, 7% of patients required more than 50 acts. Patients who required most of support are usually affected by a neuro-cognitive disorder and have social issues. CONCLUSIONS: The case manager addresses the complex needs of patients. With time, the cohort will provide unprecedented long-term results of patients with various conditions who went through transition.

8.
Diabetes Care ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184150

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: ABCC8 mutations cause neonatal diabetes mellitus that can be transient (TNDM) or, less commonly, permanent (PNDM); ∼90% of individuals can be treated with oral sulfonylureas instead of insulin. Previous studies suggested that people with ABCC8-PNDM require lower sulfonylurea doses and have milder neurological features than those with KCNJ11-PNDM. However, these studies were short term and included combinations of ABCC8-PNDM and ABCC8-TNDM. We aimed to assess the long-term glycemic and neurological outcomes in sulfonylurea-treated ABCC8-PNDM. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied all 24 individuals with ABCC8-PNDM diagnosed in the U.K., Italy, France, and U.S. known to transfer from insulin to sulfonylureas before May 2010. Data on glycemic control; sulfonylurea dose; adverse effects, including hypoglycemia; and neurological features were analyzed using nonparametric statistical methods. RESULTS: Long-term data were obtained for 21 of 24 individuals (median follow-up 10.0 [range 4.1-13.2] years). Eighteen of 21 remained on sulfonylureas without insulin at the most recent follow-up. Glycemic control improved on sulfonylureas (presulfonylurea vs. 1-year posttransfer HbA1c 7.2% vs. 5.7%, P = 0.0004) and remained excellent long term (1-year vs. 10-year HbA1c 5.7% vs. 6.5%, P = 0.04), n = 16. Relatively high doses were used (1-year vs. 10-year dose 0.37 vs. 0.25 mg/kg/day glyburide, P = 0.50) without any severe hypoglycemia. Neurological features were reported in 13 of 21 individuals; these improved following sulfonylurea transfer in 7 of 13. The most common features were learning difficulties (52%), developmental delay (48%), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (38%). CONCLUSIONS: Sulfonylurea treatment of ABCC8-PNDM results in excellent long-term glycemic control. Overt neurological features frequently occur and may improve with sulfonylureas, supporting early, rapid genetic testing to guide appropriate treatment and neurodevelopmental assessment.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098107

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The international GENHYPOPIT network collects phenotypical data and screens genetic causes of non-acquired hypopituitarism. AIMS: To describe main phenotype patterns and their evolution through life DESIGN: Patients were screened according to their phenotype for coding sequence variations in 8 genes: HESX1, LHX3, LHX4, PROP1, POU1F1, TBX19, OTX2 and PROKR2. RESULTS: Among 1213 patients (1143 index cases), the age of diagnosis of hypopituitarism was congenital (24%), in childhood (28%), at puberty (32%), in adulthood (7.2 %) or not available (8.8%). Noteworthy, pituitary hormonal deficiencies kept on evolving during adulthood in 49 of patients. Growth Hormone deficiency (GHD) affected 85.8% of patients and was often the first diagnosed deficiency. AdrenoCorticoTropic Hormone deficiency rarely preceded GHD, but usually followed it by over 10 years. Pituitary Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) abnormalities were common (79.7%), with 39.4% pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS). The most frequently associated extra pituitary malformations were ophthalmological abnormalities (16.1%). Prevalence of identified mutations was 7.3% of index cases (84/1143), 29.5% in familial cases (n=146). Genetic analysis in 449 patients without extrapituitary phenotype revealed 36 PROP1, 2 POU1F1 and 17 TBX19 mutations. CONCLUSION: This large international cohort highlights atypical phenotypic presentation of constitutional hypopituitarism, such as post pubertal presentation or adult progression of hormonal deficiencies. These results justify long-term follow-up, and the need for systematic evaluation of associated abnormalities. Genetic defects were rarely identified, mainly PROP1 mutations in pure endocrine phenotypes.

10.
Transl Res ; 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080394

RESUMO

Sulfonylureas, widely used as hypoglycemic agents in adults with type 2 diabetes, have neuroprotective effects in preclinical models of central nervous system injury, and in children with neuropsychomotor impairments linked to neonatal diabetes secondary to ATP-sensitive potassium channel mutations. In the human and rodent retina, we show that the glibenclamide-activated channel sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) is expressed in the retina and enriched in the macula; we also show that it colocalizes with the potassium channel Kir6.2, and with the cation channel transporter TRPM4. Glibenclamide (glyburide), administered at doses that did not decrease the glycemia, or injected directly into the eye, protected the structure and the function of the retina in various models of retinal injury that recapitulate the pathogenic neurodegenerative events in the diabetic retina. The downregulation of SUR1 using a siRNA suppressed the neuroprotective effects of glibenclamide on excitotoxic stress-induced cell death. The glibenclamide effects include the transcriptional regulation of antioxidant and neuroprotective genes. Ocular glibenclamide could be repurposed for diabetic retinopathy.

11.
Front Pediatr ; 8: 540718, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33102403

RESUMO

Neonatal Diabetes (ND) mellitus is a rare genetic disease (1 in 90,000 live births). It is defined by the presence of severe hyperglycaemia associated with insufficient or no circulating insulin, occurring mainly before 6 months of age and rarely between 6 months and 1 year. Such hyperglycaemia requires either transient treatment with insulin in about half of cases, or permanent insulin treatment. The disease is explained by two major groups of mechanism: malformation of the pancreas with altered insulin-secreting cells development/survival or abnormal function of the existing pancreatic ß cell. The most frequent genetic causes of neonatal diabetes mellitus with abnormal ß cell function are abnormalities of the 6q24 locus and mutations of the ABCC8 or KCNJ11 genes coding for the potassium channel in the pancreatic ß cell. Other genes are associated with pancreas malformation or insufficient ß cells development or destruction of ß cells. Clinically, compared to patients with an ABCC8 or KCNJ11 mutation, patients with a 6q24 abnormality have lower birth weight and height, are younger at diagnosis and remission, and have a higher malformation frequency. Patients with an ABCC8 or KCNJ11 mutation have neurological and neuropsychological disorders in all those tested carefully. Up to 86% of patients who go into remission have recurrent diabetes when they reach puberty, with no difference due to the genetic origin. All these results reinforce the importance of prolonged follow-up by a multidisciplinary pediatric team, and later doctors specializing in adult medicine. 90% of the patients with an ABCC8 or KCNJ11 mutation as well as those with 6q24 anomalies are amenable to a successful switch from insulin injection to oral sulfonylureas.

13.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929747

RESUMO

TANGO2 disease is a severe inherited disorder associating multiple symptoms such as metabolic crises, encephalopathy, cardiac arrhythmias, and hypothyroidism. The mechanism of action of TANGO2 is currently unknown. Here, we describe a cohort of 20 French patients bearing mutations in the TANGO2 gene. We found that the main clinical presentation was the association of neurodevelopmental delay (n = 17), acute metabolic crises (n = 17) and hypothyroidism (n = 12), with a large intrafamilial clinical variability. Metabolic crises included rhabdomyolysis (15/17), neurological symptoms (14/17), and cardiac features (12/17; long QT (n = 10), Brugada pattern (n = 2), cardiac arrhythmia (n = 6)) that required intensive care. We show previously uncharacterized triggers of metabolic crises in TANGO2 patients, such as some anesthetics and possibly l-carnitine. Unexpectedly, plasma acylcarnitines, plasma FGF-21, muscle histology, and mitochondrial spectrometry were mostly normal. Moreover, in patients' primary myoblasts, palmitate and glutamine oxidation rates, and the mitochondrial network were also normal. Finally, we found variable mitochondrial respiration and defective clearance of oxidized DNA upon cycles of starvation and refeeding. We conclude that TANGO2 disease is a life-threatening disease that needs specific cardiac management and anesthesia protocol. Mechanistically, TANGO2 disease is unlikely to originate from a primary mitochondrial defect. Rather, we suggest that mitochondrial defects are secondary to strong extrinsic triggers in TANGO2 deficient patients.

14.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(5): K1-K5, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805706

RESUMO

Background: Among patients with congenital hypothyroidism, 35% have dyshormonogenesis (DH) with thyroid gland in situ with or without goiter. The majority of DH cases are due to mutations in genes involved in thyroid hormone production as TG, TPO, SLC5A5/NIS, SLC26A4/PDS, IYD/DEHAL1, DUOX2, and DUOXA2, and are usually inherited on an autosomal recessive basis. Most previously reported cases of fetal hypothyroidism and goiter were related to TG or TPO mutations and recently DUOXA2. Patient: In a male patient with antenatal goiter treated with intraamniotic levothyroxine injections, whose long-term follow-up is described in detail, two novel NIS mutations were detected. Mutations of NIS were located in exon 1 (c.52G>A, p.G18R) and exon 13 (c.1546C>T, p.R516X), each mutation was inherited from parents, who are healthy carriers. The p.G18R mutation affecting the first transmembrane domain of the protein can be responsible for deficient iodide uptake. However, the second is a nonsense mutation leading probably to mRNA degradation. In addition, the patient has undergone a thyroidectomy and we have studied the thyroid tissue. The thyroid histology showed heterogeneity with large follicles, epithelial hyperplasia and many areas of fibrosis. Immunohistochemistry with NIS specific antibody showed NIS staining at the basolateral plasma membrane of the thyrocytes. Conclusions: We report the first case of fetal goitrous hypothyroidism due to two novel NIS mutations with access to thyroid tissue of the patient, specific histology studies and long-term follow-up. This case expands our knowledge and provides further insights on molecular causes of fetal goiter in humans.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo Congênito/genética , Bócio/genética , Mutação , Simportadores/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/tratamento farmacológico , Bócio/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Tiroxina/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
15.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 8(10): e1431, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with steroid 5α-reductase 2 deficiency (5α-RD) caused by SRD5A2 (OMIM #607306) variants present variable genotypes and phenotypes. The genotype-phenotype correlations remain unclear. METHODS: We investigated genotype-phenotype correlations of SRD5A2 variants in a large Chinese single-center cohort. Phenotypes were categorized using the external masculinization score (EMS), urethral meatus and gonad position, and penile length-standard deviation score. RESULTS: Of the 130 included patients, 113 had hypospadias, and 17 had a normal urethral meatus position. Testosterone/dihydrotestosterone (T/DHT) values were not significantly associated with phenotypic severity (p = 0.539-0.989). Of the 31 SRD5A2 variants, including 10 novel variants, p.R227Q was the most prevalent (39.62%), followed by p.Q6* (16.92%), p.R246Q (13.46%), and p.G203S (10.38%). Compared to biallelic missense mutations, biallelic nonsense mutations were associated with a lower EMS and urethral meatus score (p = 0.009 and p = 0.024, respectively). Patients homozygous for p.R227Q exhibited mild and variable phenotypes, while those homozygous for p.Q6*, p.R246Q, or p.G203S showed consistently severe phenotypes. The phenotypes were variable and milder in patients with compound heterozygosity for p.R227Q and these mutations. CONCLUSION: T/DHT does not predict phenotype severity. The most prevalent SRD5A2 variant in Han Chinese is p.R227Q, which is associated with milder phenotypes and greater phenotypic variability. SRD5A2 variants may significantly influence phenotypic variation.

16.
Front Pediatr ; 8: 300, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32637386

RESUMO

Aim: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most frequent monogenic disease worldwide; ~5-7% of the world population carry a hemoglobin disorder trait. In the US, one in every 1,941 newborns has SCD, whereas one in every 3,000 newborns in France is affected - resulting in 385 new cases and 5,883 newly identified carriers per year. The objective of the present study was to evaluate three different ways of providing information to parents at risk of having a child with SCD, with a view to increasing the parental screening rate and decreasing the number of new cases per year in France. Method: In a randomized study, we contacted 300 couples of parents after their child had been identified as a SCD carrier in the French national newborn screening programme: 100 couples received an information letter (the standard procedure in France: arm A), 100 couples received a letter and then a follow-up phone call (arm B), and 100 received a letter and then three follow-up text messages at 5-day intervals (arm C). The primary endpoint was the number of parents in each arm screened in the 120 days after the letter had been sent. In a modified intention-to-treat analysis, the screening rate was 17% in arm A, 35% in arm B, and 30% in arm C. Results: Telephone and text message follow-ups were associated with higher screening rates, compared with no follow-up. After being informed of their child's carrier status, some parents had consulted a healthcare professional but had not been referred for screening (16% in arm A, 19% in arm B, and 13% in arm C). Conclusion: A letter followed by a phone call or three text messages is more effective than a letter alone for informing parents at risk of having a child with SCD. The effective implementation of this follow-up programme probably requires better training of all the healthcare professionals involved.

17.
Diabetologia ; 63(9): 1808-1821, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607749

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Low-dose IL-2 (ld-IL2) selectively activates and expands regulatory T cells (Tregs) and thus has the potential to skew the regulatory/effector T (Treg/Teff) cell balance towards improved regulation. We investigated which low doses of IL-2 would more effectively and safely activate Tregs during a 1 year treatment in children with recently diagnosed type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Dose Finding Study of IL-2 at Ultra-low Dose in Children With Recently Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes (DF-IL2-Child) was a multicentre, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, dose-finding Phase I/II clinical trial conducted in four centres at university hospitals in France: 24 children (7-14 years old) with type 1 diabetes diagnosed within the previous 3 months were randomly assigned 1:1:1:1 to treatment by a centralised randomisation system, leading to a 7/5/6/6 patient distribution of placebo or IL-2 at doses of 0.125, 0.250 or 0.500 million international units (MIU)/m2, given daily for a 5 day course and then fortnightly for 1 year. A study number was attributed to patients by an investigator unaware of the randomisation list and all participants as well as investigators and staff involved in the study conduct and analyses were blinded to treatments. The primary outcome was change in Tregs, expressed as a percentage of CD4+ T cells at day 5. It pre-specified that a ≥60% increase in Tregs from baseline would identify Treg high responders. RESULTS: There were no serious adverse events. Non-serious adverse events (NSAEs) were transient and mild to moderate. In treated patients vs placebo, the commonest NSAE was injection site reaction (37.9% vs 3.4%), whereas other NSAEs were at the same level (23.3% vs 19.2%). ld-IL2 induced a dose-dependent increase in the mean proportion of Tregs, from 23.9% (95% CI -11.8, 59.6) at the lowest to 77.2% (44.7, 109.8) at the highest dose, which was significantly different from placebo for all dose groups. However, the individual Treg responses to IL-2 were variable and fluctuated over time. Seven patients, all among those treated with the 0.250 and 0.500 MIU m-2 day-1 doses, were Treg high responders. At baseline, they had lower Treg proportions in CD4+ cells than Treg low responders, and serum soluble IL-2 receptor α (sIL-2RA) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) levels predicted the Treg response after the 5 day course. There was no significant change in glycaemic control in any of the dose groups compared with placebo. However, there was an improved maintenance of induced C-peptide production at 1 year in the seven Treg high responders as compared with low responders. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The safety profile at all doses, the dose-dependent effects on Tregs and the observed variability of the Treg response to ld-IL2 in children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes call for use of the highest dose in future developments. The better preservation of insulin production in Treg high responders supports the potential of Tregs in regulating autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes, and warrants pursuing the investigation of ld-IL2 for its treatment and prevention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01862120. FUNDING: Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Investissements d'Avenir programme (ANR-11-IDEX-0004-02, LabEx Transimmunom and ANR-16-RHUS-0001, RHU iMAP) and European Research Council Advanced Grant (FP7-IDEAS-ERC-322856, TRiPoD).

18.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 21(6): 932-941, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418263

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A precision medicine approach is used to improve treatment of patients with monogenic diabetes. Herein, we searched SU efficiency according to the genotype-phenotype correlation, dosage used, and side effects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Systematic review conducted according the PRISMA control criteria identifying relevant studies evaluating the in vivo and in vitro sensitivity of ATP-dependent potassium channels according to the characteristics of genetic mutation. RESULTS: Hundred and three selected articles with complete data in 502 cases in whom 413 (82.3%) had mutations in KCNJ11 (#64) and 89 in ABCC8 (# 56). Successful transfer from insulin to SU was achieved in 91% and 86.5% patients, respectively, at a mean age of 36.5 months (0-63 years). Among patients with KCNJ11 and ABCC8 mutations 64 and 46 were associated with constant success, 5 and 5 to constant failure, and 10 and 4 to variable degrees of reported success rate, respectively. The glibenclamide dosage required for each genotype ranged from 0.017 to 2.8 mg/kg/day. Comparing both the in vivo and in vitro susceptibility results, some mutations appear more sensitive than others to sulfonylurea treatment. Side effects were reported in 17/103 of the included articles: mild gastrointestinal symptoms and hypoglycaemia were the most common. One premature patient had an ulcerative necrotizing enterocolitis which association with SU is difficult to ascertain. CONCLUSIONS: Sulfonylureas are an effective treatment for monogenic diabetes due to KCNJ11 and ABCC8 genes mutations. The success of the treatment is conditioned by differences in pharmacogenetics, younger age, pharmacokinetics, compliance, and maximal dose used.

19.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 510: 110834, 2020 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360566

RESUMO

Terminal thyroid gland differentiation - the last developmental step needed to enable thyroid hormone (T4) synthesis - involves profound structural and biochemical changes in the thyroid follicular cells (TFCs). We aimed to develop an ex vivo thyroid model of embryonic mouse thyroid that would replicate the in vivo TFC differentiation program. E13.5 thyroid explants were cultured ex vivo in chemically defined medium for 7 days. Immunostaining and qPCR of thyroid explants showed thyroglobulin production onset, follicle formation, and T4 synthesis onset in 1-, 3-, and 5-day-old cultures, respectively. Differentiation was maintained and follicular growth continued throughout the 7-day culture period. Pharmacological approaches to culture inhibition were performed successfully in the ex vivo thyroids. Our robust and well described ex vivo thyroid culture model replicates the sequence of thyroid differentiation to T4 synthesis seen in vivo. This model can be used to test the effects of pharmacological inhibitors on thyroid hormone production.

20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(6): 859-871, 2020 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470375

RESUMO

Congenital cone-rod synaptic disorder (CRSD), also known as incomplete congenital stationary night blindness (iCSNB), is a non-progressive inherited retinal disease (IRD) characterized by night blindness, photophobia, and nystagmus, and distinctive electroretinographic features. Here, we report bi-allelic RIMS2 variants in seven CRSD-affected individuals from four unrelated families. Apart from CRSD, neurodevelopmental disease was observed in all affected individuals, and abnormal glucose homeostasis was observed in the eldest affected individual. RIMS2 regulates synaptic membrane exocytosis. Data mining of human adult bulk and single-cell retinal transcriptional datasets revealed predominant expression in rod photoreceptors, and immunostaining demonstrated RIMS2 localization in the human retinal outer plexiform layer, Purkinje cells, and pancreatic islets. Additionally, nonsense variants were shown to result in truncated RIMS2 and decreased insulin secretion in mammalian cells. The identification of a syndromic stationary congenital IRD has a major impact on the differential diagnosis of syndromic congenital IRD, which has previously been exclusively linked with degenerative IRD.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias Hereditárias/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função , Miopia/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Cegueira Noturna/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Processamento Alternativo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Saúde da Família , Feminino , França , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/química , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Secreção de Insulina , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/química , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Linhagem , Retina/metabolismo , Arábia Saudita , Senegal
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