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1.
Environ Res ; 179(Pt B): 108829, 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677502

RESUMO

Some phthalates are known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC). They are widely present in the environment thus their impact on children's health is of particular scientific interest. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between phthalate exposure and neurodevelopmental outcomes, in particular behavioral, cognitive and psychomotor development, in 250 early school age children from the Polish Mother and Child Cohort (REPRO_PL). Urine samples were collected at the time of children's neurodevelopmental assessment and were analysed for 21 metabolites of 11 parent phthalates. Behavioral and emotional problems were assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) filled in by the mothers. To assess children's cognitive and psychomotor development, Polish adaptation of the Intelligence and Development Scales (IDS) was administered. The examination was performed by trained psychologists. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) were the two phthalates showing the highest statistically significant associations, with higher total difficulties scores (ß = 1.5, 95% CI 0.17; 2.7; ß = 1.5, 95% CI 0.25; 2.8, respectively) as well as emotional symptoms and hyperactivity/inattention problems for DnBP (ß = 0.46, 95% CI -0.024; 0.94; ß = 0.72, 95% CI 0.065; 1.4, respectively), and peer relationships problems for DMP (ß = 0.37, 95% CI -0.013; 0.76). In addition, DnBP and DMP have been found to be negatively associated with fluid IQ (ß = -0.14, 95% CI -0.29; 0.0041) and crystallized IQ (ß = -0.16, 95% CI -0.29; -0.025), respectively. In the case of mathematical skills, three phthalates, namely DMP (ß = -0.17, 95% CI -0.31; -0.033), DEP (ß = -0.16, 95% CI -0.29; -0.018) and DnBP (ß = -0.14, 95% CI -0.28; 0.0012), have also shown statistically significant associations. This study indicates that exposure to some phthalates seems to be associated with adverse effects on behavioral and cognitive development of early school age children. Further action including legislation, educational and interventional activities to protect this vulnerable population is still needed.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623178

RESUMO

Identification of the youth at risk of e-cigarette use is crucial for development of effective prevention strategies. The current study aims at evaluation of predictors of susceptibility to e-cigarette initiation and experimentation among adolescents. This cross-sectional study included 1693 students (non-current users of e-cigarettes) attending 21 schools in Piotrkowski district (a socially disadvantaged rural area in central Poland). The regression models were applied so as to study factors linked to susceptibility to e-cigarette use among never users (n = 1054) and ever users (n = 639) of e-cigarettes, with susceptibility defined as the absence of a firm decision not to use these products. A high proportion of the youth was susceptible to e-cigarette use (68% of never and 78% of ever e-cigarette users). The adjusted model confirmed the following risk factors: smoking parents and friends (never users: OR = 3.0; p < 0.001; OR = 2.0; p < 0.05; ever users: OR = 2.2; OR = 2.2; p < 0.01), alcohol consumption (never users: moderate drinking OR = 2.9; p < 0.001; binge drinking OR = 2.2; p < 0.01; ever users: moderate drinking OR = 4.2; p < 0.001), cigarette smoking (never users: OR = 14.1; ever users: OR = 11.3; p < 0.001), and perception that e-cigarettes are less harmful than traditional cigarettes (never users: OR = 1.8; p < 0.001). The youth whose mothers had a medium and high educational level (never users: OR = 2.7; p < 0.01; OR = 2.7; p < 0.05; ever users: OR = 5.4; OR = 4.4; p < 0.001), those who perceived girls who use e-cigarettes as more attractive (never users: OR = 4.1; p < 0.001; ever users: OR = 2.9; p < 0.01), and secondary school students (ever users: OR = 5.6; p < 0.001) had higher odds of susceptibility to e-cigarette use. The youth who had more money per month were less susceptible to e-cigarette experimentation (OR = 0.4; p < 0.001). A multi-level intervention approach, considering vulnerable populations, is required to prevent the youth from e-cigarette initiation and experimentation.

3.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408965

RESUMO

There are over 1,000,000 publications on diet and health and over 480,000 references on inflammation in the National Library of Medicine database. In addition, there have now been over 30,000 peer-reviewed articles published on the relationship between diet, inflammation, and health outcomes. Based on this voluminous literature, it is now recognized that low-grade, chronic systemic inflammation is associated with most non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, cancers, respiratory and musculoskeletal disorders, as well as impaired neurodevelopment and adverse mental health outcomes. Dietary components modulate inflammatory status. In recent years, the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®), a literature-derived dietary index, was developed to characterize the inflammatory potential of habitual diet. Subsequently, a large and rapidly growing body of research investigating associations between dietary inflammatory potential, determined by the DII, and risk of a wide range of NCDs has emerged. In this narrative review, we examine the current state of the science regarding relationships between the DII and cancer, cardiometabolic, respiratory and musculoskeletal diseases, neurodevelopment, and adverse mental health outcomes. We synthesize the findings from recent studies, discuss potential underlying mechanisms, and look to the future regarding novel applications of the adult and children's DII (C-DII) scores and new avenues of investigation in this field of nutritional research.

4.
Environ Res ; 177: 108626, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419718

RESUMO

Phthalates are among the most frequently investigated environmental chemicals influencing children's health and particularly their neuropsychological development. However, the reported effects of these compounds on child behavior, cognitive and psychomotor outcomes are not fully consistent. The aim of this study is to evaluate the associations between prenatal and early postnatal phthalate exposures and child neurodevelopment at age of 7 years. A total of 134 mother-child pairs from Polish Mother and Child Cohort (REPRO_PL) constitute the basis for current analysis. Eleven phthalate metabolites were measured in urine samples collected from mothers in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy and from children at the age of 2 years. Child neuropsychological development at early school age (7 years) was assessed by both the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) filled by mothers and the Polish adaptation of the Intelligence and Development Scales (IDS) performed by psychologists. Mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) concentration during pregnancy was significantly associated with increased risk of peer relationship problems in SDQ (OR = 2.7, p = 0.03). The results of the IDS analyses focused on child's cognitive and psychomotor development are not fully conclusive. Negative associations were evident between some phthalates in early childhood period and fluid intelligence and cognition (MEP: ß = -5.2; p = 0.006; ß = -4.2; p = 0.006; mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP): ß = -4.9; p = 0.03; ß = -4.0; p = 0.03; respectively), while positive associations have been found in the prenatal period (mono-2-ethyl-5-oxo-hexyl phthalate (oxo-MEHP): ß = 3.6; p = 0.03 for fluid intelligence; ß = 2.9; p = 0.03 for cognition). Further studies are required in order to elucidate which are the most critical periods of phthalate exposure on children's neurodevelopmental outcomes.

5.
Environ Int ; 131: 104927, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between air pollution exposure and emotional and behavioural problems in children is unclear. We aimed to assess prenatal and postnatal exposure to several air pollutants and child's depressive and anxiety symptoms, and aggressive symptoms in children of 7-11 years. METHODS: We analysed data of 13182 children from 8 European population-based birth cohorts. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM) with diameters of ≤10 µm (PM10), ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5), and between 10 and 2.5 µm (PMcoarse), the absorbance of PM2.5 filters (PM2.5abs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were estimated at residential addresses of each participant. Depressive and anxiety symptoms and aggressive symptoms were assessed at 7-11 years of age using parent reported tests. Children were classified in borderline/clinical range or clinical range using validated cut offs. Region specific models were adjusted for various socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics and then combined using random effect meta-analysis. Multiple imputation and inverse probability weighting methods were applied to correct for potential attrition bias. RESULTS: A total of 1896 (14.4%) children were classified as having depressive and anxiety symptoms in the borderline/clinical range, and 1778 (13.4%) as having aggressive symptoms in the borderline/clinical range. Overall, 1108 (8.4%) and 870 (6.6%) children were classified as having depressive and anxiety symptoms, and aggressive symptoms in the clinical range, respectively. Prenatal exposure to air pollution was not associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms in the borderline/clinical range (e.g. OR 1.02 [95%CI 0.95 to 1.10] per 10 µg/m3 higher NO2) nor with aggressive symptoms in the borderline/clinical range (e.g. OR 1.04 [95%CI 0.96 to 1.12] per 10 µg/m3 higher NO2). Similar results were observed for the symptoms in the clinical range, and for postnatal exposures to air pollution. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our results suggest that prenatal and postnatal exposure to air pollution is not associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms or aggressive symptoms in children of 7 to 11 years old.

6.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health ; 32(4): 527-536, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241624

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study was to assess the perceived treatment effectiveness and beliefs with respect to the best advisor who could conduct smoking cessation treatment or counseling among socially disadvantaged light and heavy smokers. This could be crucial for implementation of a successful smoking cessation intervention among this vulnerable population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The current assessments were based on the data collected during the second wave of a cross-sectional study performed in the Piotrkowski District among 1668 adults aged 18-59, entitled to social aid from welfare institutions. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to collect the relevant data. RESULTS: The current daily smoking status was declared by 31% of the participants. About 23% of the study sample (74% of daily smokers) admitted to being heavy smokers with a meaningful difference between men and women (p < 0.05). About 29% of the daily smokers indicated that medications/pharmacotherapy could be a good method for giving up the habit. Fifteen percent of the participants shared the opinion that a smoking cessation specialist is the best advisor for counseling, and only about 7% would choose a general practitioner or pharmacist, and even fewer a nurse, as a person who could provide help to smokers. There were no statistically significant differences in any of the evaluated perceptions between the light and heavy smokers (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: A high share of heavy smokers among socially disadvantaged people, and their perception that medications/pharmacotherapy would be a good solution to quit smoking, underline the need for stronger support for this method, including relevant financing resources and training. However, this method should be applied along with behavioral counseling. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2019;32(4):527-36.

7.
JAMA ; 321(17): 1702-1715, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063572

RESUMO

Importance: Both low and high gestational weight gain have been associated with adverse maternal and infant outcomes, but optimal gestational weight gain remains uncertain and not well defined for all prepregnancy weight ranges. Objectives: To examine the association of ranges of gestational weight gain with risk of adverse maternal and infant outcomes and estimate optimal gestational weight gain ranges across prepregnancy body mass index categories. Design, Setting, and Participants: Individual participant-level meta-analysis using data from 196 670 participants within 25 cohort studies from Europe and North America (main study sample). Optimal gestational weight gain ranges were estimated for each prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) category by selecting the range of gestational weight gain that was associated with lower risk for any adverse outcome. Individual participant-level data from 3505 participants within 4 separate hospital-based cohorts were used as a validation sample. Data were collected between 1989 and 2015. The final date of follow-up was December 2015. Exposures: Gestational weight gain. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome termed any adverse outcome was defined as the presence of 1 or more of the following outcomes: preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, cesarean delivery, preterm birth, and small or large size for gestational age at birth. Results: Of the 196 670 women (median age, 30.0 years [quartile 1 and 3, 27.0 and 33.0 years] and 40 937 were white) included in the main sample, 7809 (4.0%) were categorized at baseline as underweight (BMI <18.5); 133 788 (68.0%), normal weight (BMI, 18.5-24.9); 38 828 (19.7%), overweight (BMI, 25.0-29.9); 11 992 (6.1%), obesity grade 1 (BMI, 30.0-34.9); 3284 (1.7%), obesity grade 2 (BMI, 35.0-39.9); and 969 (0.5%), obesity grade 3 (BMI, ≥40.0). Overall, any adverse outcome occurred in 37.2% (n = 73 161) of women, ranging from 34.7% (2706 of 7809) among women categorized as underweight to 61.1% (592 of 969) among women categorized as obesity grade 3. Optimal gestational weight gain ranges were 14.0 kg to less than 16.0 kg for women categorized as underweight; 10.0 kg to less than 18.0 kg for normal weight; 2.0 kg to less than 16.0 kg for overweight; 2.0 kg to less than 6.0 kg for obesity grade 1; weight loss or gain of 0 kg to less than 4.0 kg for obesity grade 2; and weight gain of 0 kg to less than 6.0 kg for obesity grade 3. These gestational weight gain ranges were associated with low to moderate discrimination between those with and those without adverse outcomes (range for area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.55-0.76). Results for discriminative performance in the validation sample were similar to the corresponding results in the main study sample (range for area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.51-0.79). Conclusions and Relevance: In this meta-analysis of pooled individual participant data from 25 cohort studies, the risk for adverse maternal and infant outcomes varied by gestational weight gain and across the range of prepregnancy weights. The estimates of optimal gestational weight gain may inform prenatal counseling; however, the optimal gestational weight gain ranges had limited predictive value for the outcomes assessed.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Complicações na Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Gestacional , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Obesidade , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro
8.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health ; 32(3): 363-377, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063158

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at assessment of the perceived barriers and motivators to smoking cessation among socially-disadvantaged populations in Poland. It is hypothesized that different factors can be considered depending on the level of smoking addiction. Therefore, a comparison between light and heavy smokers was performed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data collected during the second wave of a cross-sectional study carried out in the Piotrkowski District in October 2016 - February 2017 among 1668 socio-economically disadvantaged persons constituted the source of information for the present study. Barriers and motivators to smoking cessation among daily smokers were identified via face-to face interviews. RESULTS: About one-third of the studied population admitted to being current daily smokers, almost 75% of whom were heavy smokers. The most common barriers to quitting smoking were related to difficulties in quitting (62%), the lack of willingness to quit (56%), as well as addiction and withdrawal symptoms (craving cigarettes [65%], habit [56%], stress and mood swings [55%]). A significantly higher proportion of such barriers was noted among heavy smokers compared to light smokers (p < 0.05). The following motivations to quit were pointed out by the respondents: available pharmacotherapy (47%), access to a free-of-charge cessation clinic (40%), and encouragement and support provided by their doctor (30%), with no differences between various levels of smoking addiction (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Developing effective interventions targeted at unique deprived populations requires understanding the barriers and motivators to quitting smoking. Social support and financial issues, including free-of-charge pharmacotherapy and cessation clinics, as well as doctor's encouragement and support, are crucial for successful smoking cessation in this vulnerable population. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2019;32(3):363-77.

9.
Environ Int ; 127: 742-753, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003057

RESUMO

Phthalates are a group of widely used chemicals and humans are exposed to them in their daily life. Some phthalates may affect the hormonal balance in both children and adults. The aim of this study was to assess the phthalate exposure and its determinants among children at age of 7 years from the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study (REPRO_PL). 250 urine samples collected in 2014-2015 were analysed for 21 metabolites of 11 parent phthalates using on-line high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). This represents the most extensive set of phthalate metabolites ever determined for Poland. Ten metabolites were quantifiable in 100% of the samples, another eight in >90%. The highest median concentrations were found for the primary monoester metabolites of di-iso-butyl (MiBP, 72.4 µg/l), di-n-butyl (MnBP, 56.3 µg/l) and diethyl (MEP, 42.0 µg/l) phthalate, followed by the sum of di-2-ethylhexyl (ΣDEHP, 89.3 µg/l) and di-iso-nonyl (ΣDiNP, 21.9 µg/l) phthalate metabolites. Metabolite concentrations were higher in children at 7 years than in the same children at age 2 or in their mothers during pregnancy. Generally, phthalate exposures in this study were much higher than exposures reported in other European populations. Multivariate regression models showed that body mass index, place of residence, breastfeeding duration, socio-economic status and parental education were associated with the metabolite levels in the 7-year old children. Daily intake and hazard index calculations revealed that a small percentage of children (around 3-10%) exceeded the tolerable daily intakes established by international institutions such as EFSA and U.S. EPA indicating that these children might be at risk of anti-androgenic effects from the individual and cumulative exposure to phthalates. Thus, further monitoring of this population, by educational programs and follow-up interventions, is required.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Adulto , Antagonistas de Androgênios , Índice de Massa Corporal , Aleitamento Materno , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Estudos de Coortes , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado , Pais , Polônia , Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Classe Social , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832307

RESUMO

Background: Characterization of dietary patterns represents a valid and meaningful measure of overall diet quality and nutrient intake. The study aims at evaluating the sociodemographic, lifestyle, environmental, and pregnancy-related determinants of maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy. Methods: The analysis was conducted on a group of pregnant women from the Polish Mother and Child Cohort (REPRO_PL). During the second trimester of pregnancy, 1306 women filled in a modified version of the validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Dietary patterns were estimated using an exploratory factor analysis. Potential dietary determinants were assessed via a questionnaire or biomarker measurements (saliva cotinine level). Results: Two dietary patterns were identified. The Prudent dietary pattern was characterized by high consumption of fruit, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, poultry, and low-fat dairy products, while the Western dietary pattern included high intake of refined grains, processed meat, potatoes, and very low intake of whole grains. Clear sociodemographic, environmental, lifestyle, and pregnancy-related determinants of diet quality were established. Older age (ß = 0.2; p < 0.01), higher educational level (ß = 0.3; p < 0.01), and socioeconomic status (SES) (ß = 0.2; p < 0.01), overweight/obesity before (ß = 0.3; p < 0.01), as well as physical activity during pregnancy (ß = 0.2; p = 0.01) were positive determinants of a healthier diet (increasing Prudent⁻Western difference in dietary pattern scores). On the other hand, parity (ß = -0.2; p = 0.04) and living in small cities (ß = -0.3; p = 0.02) were significantly related to a rather Western dietary pattern. Conclusions: The current study presents evidence on specific factors influencing dietary patterns. They need to be accounted for in educational programs and interventions focused on healthy diet recommendations during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Dieta Ocidental , Ingestão de Energia , Exercício , Comportamento Alimentar , Dieta Saudável , Estilo de Vida , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Polônia , Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health ; 32(2): 175-184, 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30829342

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between breastfeeding duration and child neurodevelopment based on the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The current analysis included 501 mother-child pairs. The analysis evaluating the association between the length of breastfeeding and child neurodevelopment considered the following variables: maternal age and body mass index, weight gain during pregnancy, parental level of education, marital status, socioeconomic status, child gender, birthweight, type of delivery, preterm delivery, pre- and postnatal exposure to tobacco constituents and child day care attendance. Psychomotor development was assessed in 1-year-olds on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. RESULTS: The length of breastfeeding correlated positively with maternal age at delivery (ρ = 0.13), maternal and paternal level of education (ρ = 0.2 and ρ = 0.14 respectively), birthweight (ρ = 0.1) and marital status (ρ = 0.16) (p < 0.05). A negative correlation between the length of breastfeeding and maternal smoking status during the first year after delivery (ρ = -0.19) and weight gain during pregnancy (r = -0.1) was observed (p < 0.05). The association between the duration of breastfeeding and child development was not statistically significant in the model with the inclusion of confounding variables. A significant association between language development and maternal level of education (p = 0.004), gender of the child (p = 0.0007) and maternal weight gain during pregnancy (p = 0.01) was found. A negative association between cognitive development and maternal salivary cotinine during pregnancy (p = 0.03) and a negative association between motor development and maternal smoking status during the first year after delivery (p = 0.007) were also found. CONCLUSIONS: This study found no significant association between the duration of breastfeeding and child development after adjustment for confounders. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2019;32(2):175-84.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Polônia , Gravidez
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30332762

RESUMO

The impact of exposure to lead on child neurodevelopment has been well established. However, sex differences in vulnerability are still not fully explained. We aimed at evaluating the effect of a low-level lead exposure, as measured between 20 to 24 weeks of pregnancy and in cord blood, on developmental scores up to 24 months of age in 402 children from the Polish Mother and Child Cohort (REPRO_PL). Additionally, sex-dependent susceptibility to lead at this very early stage of psychomotor development was assessed. The blood lead levels were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In order to estimate the children's neurodevelopment, the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development was applied. The geometric mean (GM) for blood lead level during 20⁻24 weeks of pregnancy was 0.99 ± 0.15 µg/dL and, in the cord blood, it was 0.96 ± 0.16 µg/dL. There was no statistically significant impact of lead exposure during prenatal period on the girls' psychomotor abilities. Among the boys, we observed lower scores for cognitive functions, along with increasing cord blood lead levels (ß = -2.07; p = 0.04), whereas the results for the language and motor abilities were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Our findings show that fetal exposure to very low lead levels might affect early cognitive domain, with boys being more susceptible than girls. Education on health, higher public awareness, as well as intervention programs, along with relevant regulations, are still needed to reduce risks for the vulnerable population subgroups.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30322112

RESUMO

The goal of this cross-sectional survey was to assess the level of knowledge on harmful effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and active smoking among socially-disadvantaged people in Poland. The study was conducted among 1817 respondents aged 18⁻59 years, who used aid services from local social care institutions in Piotrkowski district. Majority of the participants were aware of the fact that smoking may cause serious diseases and lung cancer (92%). However, those percentages were lower for awareness of ETS and health risk (69.4%) and for awareness of smoking/ETS-associated risk of stroke and heart attack (57%, 68%). The male respondents and smokers had much higher odds of lacking knowledge that smoking causes serious diseases and lung cancer compared to the females (OR = 1.47 and OR = 1.86; p < 0.05) and non-smokers (OR = 2.35 and OR = 2.31; p < 0.001). In addition, those with temporary jobs and the unemployed had a higher risk of lack of knowledge on smoking and lung cancer risk (OR = 2.14 and OR = 1.66; p < 0.05) as well as ETS and the risk of stroke (OR = 1.52 and OR = 1.51; p < 0.05) as compared to those with permanent jobs. The smokers who were aware of four health consequences of smoking indicated an intention to quit smoking within the next month more frequently when compared to those who did not have the knowledge on all of the analyzed harmful effects of tobacco use (19.7% vs. 13.1%; p < 0.05). There is a need to improve knowledge on the dangers associated with active and passive smoking among socially disadvantaged populations.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29895780

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies have suggested an association between maternal antioxidant levels during pregnancy and development of allergic diseases in their offspring. The aim of the study was to determine plasma vitamins A and E concentration in the 1st trimester of pregnancy, at delivery and in cord blood and to search for a relationship with allergy in up to 2-year-old children who were prenatally exposed or not exposed to tobacco smoke. The study participants included 252 mother-child pairs from Polish Mother and Child Cohort. Vitamin concentrations were measured using the HPLC-UV method, smoking status—as saliva cotinine level using the HPLC-MS/MS technique. Children’s health status was assessed using a questionnaire and pediatricians/allergists examination. Cord plasma vitamin concentrations were significantly lower than their levels in maternal plasma in the 1sttrimester and at delivery (p < 0.001). Significantly higher concentrations of vitamin E have been shown to occur during the 1st trimester of pregnancy in plasma of the women who have actively/passively smoked cigarettes compared to the non-smokers (p < 0.02). Multivariate analysis with inclusion of a variety of confounding factors have not indicated any statistically significant associations between β-carotene, vitamins A and E and the risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis and wheezing in their children up to 2 years of age. The interaction between smoking during pregnancy and vitamins levels on the risk of allergy was not statistically significant (p < 0.4). The relationship between plasma concentration of vitamins A and E, and the risk of allergy in their young children has not been demonstrated.

15.
Environ Res ; 164: 597-624, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29626821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The European Union's 7th Framework Programme (EU's FP7) project HEALS - Health and Environment-wide Associations based on Large Population Surveys - aims a refinement of the methodology to elucidate the human exposome. Human biomonitoring (HBM) provides a valuable tool for understanding the magnitude of human exposure from all pathways and sources. However, availability of specific biomarkers of exposure (BoE) is limited. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to summarize the availability of BoEs for a broad range of environmental stressors and exposure determinants and corresponding reference and exposure limit values and biomonitoring equivalents useful for unraveling the exposome using the framework of environment-wide association studies (EWAS). METHODS: In a face-to-face group discussion, scope, content, and structure of the HEALS deliverable "Guidelines for appropriate BoE selection for EWAS studies" were determined. An expert-driven, distributed, narrative review process involving around 30 individuals of the HEALS consortium made it possible to include extensive information targeted towards the specific characteristics of various environmental stressors and exposure determinants. From the resulting 265 page report, targeted information about BoE, corresponding reference values (e.g., 95th percentile or measures of central tendency), exposure limit values (e.g., the German HBM I and II values) and biomonitoring equivalents (BEs) were summarized and updated. RESULTS: 64 individual biological, chemical, physical, psychological and social environmental stressors or exposure determinants were included to fulfil the requirements of EWAS. The list of available BoEs is extensive with a number of 135; however, 12 of the stressors and exposure determinants considered do not leave any measurable specific substance in accessible body specimens. Opportunities to estimate the internal exposure stressors not (yet) detectable in human specimens were discussed. CONCLUSIONS: Data about internal exposures are useful to decode the exposome. The paper provides extensive information for EWAS. Information included serves as a guideline - snapshot in time without any claim to comprehensiveness - to interpret HBM data and offers opportunities to collect information about the internal exposure of stressors if no specific BoE is available.

16.
Respir Care ; 63(1): 70-76, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29042485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many recent studies indicate that prenatal maternal distress increases the risk of allergic diseases in children. The mechanisms that favor it are still unclear. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the association between exposure to different kinds of prenatal stress and the occurrence of atopic dermatitis, food allergy, wheezing, and recurrent respiratory tract infections in children. METHODS: The study population consisted of 370 mother-child pairs from a Polish Mother and Child Cohort (REPRO_PL). The analysis was restricted to the women who worked at least one month during the pregnancy period. Maternal psychological stress during pregnancy was assessed based on the Subjective Work Characteristics Questionnaire, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Social Readjustment Rating Scale. The presence of atopic dermatitis, food allergy, wheezing, and recurrent respiratory tract infections in children was evaluated by doctors at 12 months of age. RESULTS: In a univariate model, we showed significant association between maternal life stress (according to the Perceived Stress Scale) and stressful life events (according to the Social Readjustment Rating Scale) and infant wheezing (at least 1 episode of wheezing during the first year of life). A multivariate model of logistic regression analysis revealed that maternal stress during pregnancy, described by the Social Readjustment Rating Scale, increased the risk of wheezing in children (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.01-1.02) independently from other predictors of wheezing previously determined in this cohort, such as the number of infections and maternal smoking. We observed also significant positive association between maternal life stress during pregnancy measured by the Perceived Stress Scale and the risk of recurrent respiratory tract infections in the first year of life, however it was not significant after adjustment for confounding variables. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal stress during pregnancy increases the risk of childhood wheezing. The effects of stress during pregnancy on the onset of allergic diseases in children should be developed and translated into early prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Imediata/psicologia , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/psicologia , Infecções Respiratórias/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Dermatite Atópica/psicologia , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/etiologia , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade Imediata/epidemiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Polônia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Sons Respiratórios/etiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28880223

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to examine how social care beneficiaries rate the relative harmfulness of tobacco/nicotine-containing products compared to traditional cigarettes. This information is crucial for the development of effective tobacco control strategies targeting disadvantaged populations. The cross-sectional study covered 1817 respondents who were taking advantage of social aid services offered by the local social care institutions in the Piotrkowski district, via face-to-face interviews. The linear regression analysis indicated that relative to women, men consider slim cigarettes, smokeless tobacco and e-cigarettes to be more harmful than traditional cigarettes (p < 0.05). The smokers of traditional cigarettes reported menthol cigarettes to be less harmful than traditional cigarettes, relative to the non-smokers (p = 0.05). The current results demonstrate that social care beneficiaries are not aware of the fact that some products are less harmful than others. Education concerning tobacco/nicotine products should include advice on how to reduce the adverse health effects of smoking (e.g., avoiding inhalation of combusted products), while driving the awareness that no nicotine-containing products are safe.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Nicotina/efeitos adversos , Assistência Pública , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Produtos do Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia , Populações Vulneráveis
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28934143

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to examine involuntary smoking among young people, their awareness of its harmfulness and the factors associated with attitudes towards smoking in the presence of non-smokers. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 3552 students from a socially disadvantaged rural area in central Poland. Almost 40% of the participants were exposed to involuntary smoking at home and 60% outside of home on a daily or almost daily basis. More than 80% of the students felt that smoking should be banned around children at home, 59% thought it should be banned in vehicles, and 41% in the presence of non-smokers. The majority of the students were aware of the health consequences of active smoking, and 69% understood the threats of passive smoking. Females, never-smokers and current non-smokers, as well as those without smoking parents were more likely to claim that smoking should be banned at home and in vehicles (p < 0.05). Those aware of the fact that smoking was harmful to health, who discussed those issues with their parents and teachers, and who saw school tobacco control policies, were more likely to maintain that passive smoking should be banned (p < 0.05). The study results highlight the need for programs and policies to eliminate involuntary smoking among young people.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Pais/psicologia , Fumantes/psicologia , Fumar/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polônia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fumar Tabaco , Adulto Jovem
19.
Environ Res ; 158: 583-589, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28715787

RESUMO

Studies on the impact of micronutrient levels during different pregnancy periods on child psychomotor functions are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between maternal plasma concentrations of selected micronutrients, such as: copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), and child neuropsychological development. The study population consisted of 539 mother-child pairs from Polish Mother and Child Cohort (REPRO_PL). The micronutrient levels were measured in each trimester of pregnancy, at delivery and in the cord blood. Psychomotor development was assessed in children at the age of 1 and 2 years using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. The mean plasma Zn, Cu and Se concentrations in the 1st trimester of pregnancy were 0.91±0.27mg/l, 1.98±0.57mg/l and 48.35±10.54µg/l, respectively. There were no statistically significant associations between Cu levels and any of the analyzed domains of child development. A positive association was observed between Se level in the 1st trimester of pregnancy and child language and motor skills (ß=0.18, p=0.03 and ß=0.25, p=0.005, respectively) at one year of age. Motor score among one-year-old children decreased along with increasing Zn levels in the 1st trimester of pregnancy and in the cord blood (ß=-12.07, p=0.003 and ß=-6.51, p=0.03, respectively). A similar pattern was observed for the association between Zn level in the 1st trimester of pregnancy and language abilities at one year of age (ß=-7.37, p=0.05). Prenatal Zn and Se status was associated with lower and higher child psychomotor abilities, respectively, within the first year of life. Further epidemiological and preclinical studies are necessary to confirm the associations between micronutrient levels and child development as well as to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of their effects.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Micronutrientes/sangue , Micronutrientes/farmacologia , Selênio/sangue , Selênio/farmacologia , Zinco/sangue , Zinco/farmacologia , Pré-Escolar , Cobre/sangue , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/química , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Exposição Materna , Polônia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Desempenho Psicomotor
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28714930

RESUMO

The developing fetus is especially vulnerable to environmental toxicants, including tobacco constituents. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during pregnancy on child neurodevelopment within the first two years of life. The study population consisted of 461 non-smoking pregnant women (saliva cotinine level <10 ng/mL). Maternal passive smoking was assessed based on the cotinine level in saliva analyzed by the use of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI + MS/MS) and by questionnaire data. The cotinine cut-off value for passive smoking was established at 1.5 ng/mL (sensitivity 63%, specificity 71%). Psychomotor development was assessed in children at the age of one- and two-years using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. Approximately 30% of the women were exposed to ETS during pregnancy. The multivariate linear regression model indicated that ETS exposure in the 1st and the 2nd trimesters of pregnancy were associated with decreasing child language functions at the age of one (ß = -3.0, p = 0.03, and ß = -4.1, p = 0.008, respectively), and two years (ß = -3.8, p = 0.05, and ß = -6.3, p = 0.005, respectively). A negative association was found for cotinine level ≥1.5 ng/mL in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy and child cognition at the age of 2 (ß = -4.6, p = 0.05), as well as cotinine levels ≥1.5 ng/mL in all trimesters of pregnancy and child motor abilities at two years of age (ß = -3.9, p = 0.06, ß = -5.3, p = 0.02, and ß = -4.2, p = 0.05, for the 1st, the 2nd, and the 3rd trimester of pregnancy, respectively; for the 1st trimester the effect was of borderline statistical significance). This study confirmed that ETS exposure during pregnancy can have a negative impact on child psychomotor development within the first two years of life and underscore the importance of public health interventions aiming at reducing this exposure.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cotinina/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Gravidez , Trimestres da Gravidez , Saliva/química , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
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