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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 66(8): 219-222, 2017 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28253231

RESUMO

Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause serious brain abnormalities, but the full range of adverse outcomes is unknown (1). To better understand the impact of birth defects resulting from Zika virus infection, the CDC surveillance case definition established in 2016 for birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection* (2) was retrospectively applied to population-based birth defects surveillance data collected during 2013-2014 in three areas before the introduction of Zika virus (the pre-Zika years) into the World Health Organization's Region of the Americas (Americas) (3). These data, from Massachusetts (2013), North Carolina (2013), and Atlanta, Georgia (2013-2014), included 747 infants and fetuses with one or more of the birth defects meeting the case definition (pre-Zika prevalence = 2.86 per 1,000 live births). Brain abnormalities or microcephaly were the most frequently recorded (1.50 per 1,000), followed by neural tube defects and other early brain malformations† (0.88), eye abnormalities without mention of a brain abnormality (0.31), and other consequences of central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction without mention of brain or eye abnormalities (0.17). During January 15-September 22, 2016, the U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry (USZPR) reported 26 infants and fetuses with these same defects among 442 completed pregnancies (58.8 per 1,000) born to mothers with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy (2). Although the ascertainment methods differed, this finding was approximately 20 times higher than the proportion of one or more of the same birth defects among pregnancies during the pre-Zika years. These data demonstrate the importance of population-based surveillance for interpreting data about birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Infecção por Zika virus/congênito , Adulto , Anormalidades Congênitas/virologia , Feminino , Georgia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 65(52): 1482-1488, 2017 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28056005

RESUMO

The introduction of Zika virus into the Region of the Americas (Americas) and the subsequent increase in cases of congenital microcephaly resulted in activation of CDC's Emergency Operations Center on January 22, 2016, to ensure a coordinated response and timely dissemination of information, and led the World Health Organization to declare a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on February 1, 2016. During the past year, public health agencies and researchers worldwide have collaborated to protect pregnant women, inform clinicians and the public, and advance knowledge about Zika virus (Figure 1). This report summarizes 10 important contributions toward addressing the threat posed by Zika virus in 2016. To protect pregnant women and their fetuses and infants from the effects of Zika virus infection during pregnancy, public health activities must focus on preventing mosquito-borne transmission through vector control and personal protective practices, preventing sexual transmission by advising abstention from sex or consistent and correct use of condoms, and preventing unintended pregnancies by reducing barriers to access to highly effective reversible contraception.


Assuntos
Prática de Saúde Pública , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle , Logro , Previsões , Prioridades em Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Estados Unidos
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 65(39): 1077-1081, 2016 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27711033

RESUMO

CDC has updated its interim guidance for persons with possible Zika virus exposure who are planning to conceive (1) and interim guidance to prevent transmission of Zika virus through sexual contact (2), now combined into a single document. Guidance for care for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure was previously published (3). Possible Zika virus exposure is defined as travel to or residence in an area of active Zika virus transmission (http://www.cdc.gov/zika/geo/index.html), or sex* without a condom† with a partner who traveled to or lived in an area of active transmission. Based on new though limited data, CDC now recommends that all men with possible Zika virus exposure who are considering attempting conception with their partner, regardless of symptom status,§ wait to conceive until at least 6 months after symptom onset (if symptomatic) or last possible Zika virus exposure (if asymptomatic). Recommendations for women planning to conceive remain unchanged: women with possible Zika virus exposure are recommended to wait to conceive until at least 8 weeks after symptom onset (if symptomatic) or last possible Zika virus exposure (if asymptomatic). Couples with possible Zika virus exposure, who are not pregnant and do not plan to become pregnant, who want to minimize their risk for sexual transmission of Zika virus should use a condom or abstain from sex for the same periods for men and women described above. Women of reproductive age who have had or anticipate future Zika virus exposure who do not want to become pregnant should use the most effective contraceptive method that can be used correctly and consistently. These recommendations will be further updated when additional data become available.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento , Guias como Assunto , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Doenças Virais Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Gravidez , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Abstinência Sexual , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão
4.
Obstet Gynecol ; 128(4): 724-30, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27479770

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Zika virus infection during pregnancy is a cause of microcephaly and other fetal brain abnormalities. Reports indicate that the duration of detectable viral RNA in serum after symptom onset is brief. In a recent case report involving a severely affected fetus, Zika virus RNA was detected in maternal serum 10 weeks after symptom onset, longer than the duration of RNA detection in serum previously reported. This report summarizes the clinical and laboratory characteristics of pregnant women with prolonged detection of Zika virus RNA in serum that were reported to the U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry. METHODS: Data were obtained from the U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry, an enhanced surveillance system of pregnant women with laboratory evidence of confirmed or possible Zika virus infection. For this case series, we defined prolonged detection of Zika virus RNA as Zika virus RNA detection in serum by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) 14 or more days after symptom onset or, for women not reporting signs or symptoms consistent with Zika virus disease (asymptomatic), 21 or more days after last possible exposure to Zika virus. RESULTS: Prolonged Zika virus RNA detection in serum was identified in four symptomatic pregnant women up to 46 days after symptom onset and in one asymptomatic pregnant woman 53 days postexposure. Among the five pregnancies, one pregnancy had evidence of fetal Zika virus infection confirmed by histopathologic examination of fetal tissue, three pregnancies resulted in live births of apparently healthy neonates with no reported abnormalities, and one pregnancy is ongoing. CONCLUSION: Zika virus RNA was detected in the serum of five pregnant women beyond the previously estimated timeframe. Additional real-time RT-PCR testing of pregnant women might provide more data about prolonged detection of Zika virus RNA and the possible diagnostic, epidemiologic, and clinical implications for pregnant women.


Assuntos
Doenças Fetais/virologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , RNA Viral/sangue , Infecção por Zika virus/sangue , Zika virus/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Infecções Assintomáticas , Feminino , Doenças Fetais/sangue , Doenças Fetais/patologia , Humanos , Nascimento Vivo , Gravidez , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 65(29): 739-44, 2016 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27467820

RESUMO

CDC has updated its interim guidance for U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure, to include the emerging data indicating that Zika virus RNA can be detected for prolonged periods in some pregnant women. To increase the proportion of pregnant women with Zika virus infection who receive a definitive diagnosis, CDC recommends expanding real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) testing. Possible exposures to Zika virus include travel to or residence in an area with active Zika virus transmission, or sex* with a partner who has traveled to or resides in an area with active Zika virus transmission without using condoms or other barrier methods to prevent infection.(†) Testing recommendations for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure who report clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease(§) (symptomatic pregnant women) are the same, regardless of their level of exposure (i.e., women with ongoing risk for possible exposure, including residence in or frequent travel to an area with active Zika virus transmission, as well as women living in areas without Zika virus transmission who travel to an area with active Zika virus transmission, or have unprotected sex with a partner who traveled to or resides in an area with active Zika virus transmission). Symptomatic pregnant women who are evaluated <2 weeks after symptom onset should receive serum and urine Zika virus rRT-PCR testing. Symptomatic pregnant women who are evaluated 2-12 weeks after symptom onset should first receive a Zika virus immunoglobulin (IgM) antibody test; if the IgM antibody test result is positive or equivocal, serum and urine rRT-PCR testing should be performed. Testing recommendations for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure who do not report clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease (asymptomatic pregnant women) differ based on the circumstances of possible exposure. For asymptomatic pregnant women who live in areas without active Zika virus transmission and who are evaluated <2 weeks after last possible exposure, rRT-PCR testing should be performed. If the rRT-PCR result is negative, a Zika virus IgM antibody test should be performed 2-12 weeks after the exposure. Asymptomatic pregnant women who do not live in an area with active Zika virus transmission, who are first evaluated 2-12 weeks after their last possible exposure should first receive a Zika virus IgM antibody test; if the IgM antibody test result is positive or equivocal, serum and urine rRT-PCR should be performed. Asymptomatic pregnant women with ongoing risk for exposure to Zika virus should receive Zika virus IgM antibody testing as part of routine obstetric care during the first and second trimesters; immediate rRT-PCR testing should be performed when IgM antibody test results are positive or equivocal. This guidance also provides updated recommendations for the clinical management of pregnant women with confirmed or possible Zika virus infection. These recommendations will be updated when additional data become available.


Assuntos
Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/normas , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Gravidez , RNA Viral/sangue , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 65(12): 311-4, 2016 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27031817

RESUMO

Zika virus is a flavivirus transmitted primarily by Aedes species mosquitoes. Increasing evidence links Zika virus infection during pregnancy to adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes, including pregnancy loss, intrauterine growth restriction, eye defects, congenital brain abnormalities, and other fetal abnormalities. The virus has also been determined to be sexually transmitted. Because of the potential risks associated with Zika virus infection during pregnancy, CDC has recommended that health care providers discuss prevention of unintended pregnancy with women and couples who reside in areas of active Zika virus transmission and do not want to become pregnant. However, limitations in access to contraception in some of these areas might affect the ability to prevent an unintended pregnancy. As of March 16, 2016, the highest number of Zika virus disease cases in the United States and U.S. territories were reported from Puerto Rico. The number of cases will likely rise with increasing mosquito activity in affected areas, resulting in increased risk for transmission to pregnant women. High rates of unintended and adolescent pregnancies in Puerto Rico suggest that, in the context of this outbreak, access to contraception might need to be improved. CDC estimates that 138,000 women of reproductive age (aged 15-44 years) in Puerto Rico do not desire pregnancy and are not using one of the most effective or moderately effective contraceptive methods, and therefore might experience an unintended pregnancy. CDC and other federal and local partners are seeking to expand access to contraception for these persons. Such efforts have the potential to increase contraceptive access and use, reduce unintended pregnancies, and lead to fewer adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes associated with Zika virus infection during pregnancy. The assessment of challenges and resources related to contraceptive access in Puerto Rico might be a useful model for other areas with active transmission of Zika virus.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Porto Rico/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 65(12): 315-22, 2016 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27031943

RESUMO

CDC has updated its interim guidance for U.S. health care providers caring for women of reproductive age with possible Zika virus exposure to include recommendations on counseling women and men with possible Zika virus exposure who are interested in conceiving. This guidance is based on limited available data on persistence of Zika virus RNA in blood and semen. Women who have Zika virus disease should wait at least 8 weeks after symptom onset to attempt conception, and men with Zika virus disease should wait at least 6 months after symptom onset to attempt conception. Women and men with possible exposure to Zika virus but without clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease should wait at least 8 weeks after exposure to attempt conception. Possible exposure to Zika virus is defined as travel to or residence in an area of active Zika virus transmission ( http://www.cdc.gov/zika/geo/active-countries.html), or sex (vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse, or fellatio) without a condom with a man who traveled to or resided in an area of active transmission. Women and men who reside in areas of active Zika virus transmission should talk with their health care provider about attempting conception. This guidance also provides updated recommendations on testing of pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure. These recommendations will be updated when additional data become available.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/normas , Aconselhamento Diretivo/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/terapia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Cuidado Pré-Concepcional/normas , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 65(11): 290-2, 2016 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27010422

RESUMO

Zika virus transmission was detected in the Region of the Americas (Americas) in Brazil in May 2015, and as of March 21, 2016, local mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus had been reported in 32 countries and territories in the Americas, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.* Most persons infected with Zika virus have a mild illness or are asymptomatic. However, increasing evidence supports a link between Zika virus infection during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes (1), and a possible association between recent Zika virus infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome has been reported (2). Although Zika virus is primarily transmitted through the bite of Aedes species of mosquitoes, sexual transmission also has been documented (3). Zika virus RNA has been detected in a number of body fluids, including blood, urine, saliva, and amniotic fluid (3-5), and whereas transmission associated with occupational exposure to these body fluids is theoretically possible, it has not been documented. Although there are no reports of transmission of Zika virus from infected patients to health care personnel or other patients, minimizing exposures to body fluids is important to reduce the possibility of such transmission. CDC recommends Standard Precautions in all health care settings to protect both health care personnel and patients from infection with Zika virus as well as from blood-borne pathogens (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] and hepatitis C virus [HCV]) (6). Because of the potential for exposure to large volumes of body fluids during the labor and delivery process and the sometimes unpredictable and fast-paced nature of obstetrical care, the use of Standard Precautions in these settings is essential to prevent possible transmission of Zika virus from patients to health care personnel.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico , Pessoal de Saúde , Controle de Infecções/normas , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle , Assistência à Saúde/normas , Educação Médica Continuada , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Ensino , Estados Unidos , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão
9.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 25(1): 35-44, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26541372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: When making decisions about medication use in pregnancy, women consult many information sources, including the Internet. The aim of this study was to assess the content of publicly accessible YouTube videos that discuss medication use in pregnancy. METHODS: Using 2023 distinct combinations of search terms related to medications and pregnancy, we extracted metadata from YouTube videos using a YouTube video Application Programming Interface. Relevant videos were defined as those with a medication search term and a pregnancy-related search term in either the video title or description. We viewed relevant videos and abstracted content from each video into a database. We documented whether videos implied each medication to be "safe" or "unsafe" in pregnancy and compared that assessment with the medication's Teratogen Information System (TERIS) rating. RESULTS: After viewing 651 videos, 314 videos with information about medication use in pregnancy were available for the final analyses. The majority of videos were from law firms (67%), television segments (10%), or physicians (8%). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) were the most common medication class named (225 videos, 72%), and 88% of videos about SSRIs indicated that they were unsafe for use in pregnancy. However, the TERIS ratings for medication products in this class range from "unlikely" to "minimal" teratogenic risk. CONCLUSION: For the majority of medications, current YouTube video content does not adequately reflect what is known about the safety of their use in pregnancy and should be interpreted cautiously. However, YouTube could serve as a platform for communicating evidence-based medication safety information.


Assuntos
Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Mídias Sociais , Gravação em Vídeo , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/classificação , Gravidez , Teratogênios/classificação , Teratogênios/toxicidade
10.
Matern Child Health J ; 19(1): 144-54, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24825031

RESUMO

Smoking during pregnancy is causally associated with many adverse health outcomes. Quitting smoking, even late in pregnancy, improves some outcomes. Among adults in general and reproductive-aged women, we sought to understand knowledge and attitudes towards prenatal smoking and its effects on pregnancy outcomes. Using data from the 2008 HealthStyles© survey, we assessed knowledge and attitudes about prenatal smoking and smoking cessation. We classified respondents as having high knowledge if they gave ≥ 5 correct responses to six knowledge questions regarding the health effects of prenatal smoking. We calculated frequencies of correct responses to assess knowledge about prenatal smoking and estimated relative risk to examine knowledge by demographic and lifestyle factors. Only 15 % of all respondents and 23 % of reproductive-aged women had high knowledge of the adverse effects of prenatal smoking on pregnancy outcomes. Preterm birth and low birth weight were most often recognized as adverse outcomes associated with prenatal smoking. Nearly 70 % of reproductive-aged women smokers reported they would quit smoking if they became pregnant without any specific reasons from their doctor. Few respondents recognized the benefits of quitting smoking after the first trimester of pregnancy. Our results suggest that many women lack knowledge regarding the increased risks for adverse outcomes associated with prenatal smoking. Healthcare providers should follow the recommendations provided by the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, which include educating women about the health risks of prenatal smoking and the benefits of quitting. Healthcare providers should emphasize quitting smoking even after the first trimester of pregnancy.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Gestantes/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Fumar/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Médico-Paciente , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez/psicologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol ; 100(11): 852-62, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25074828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has been observed in several studies that infants with anotia/microtia are more common among Hispanics compared with other racial/ethnic groups. We examined the association between selected Hispanic ethnicity and acculturation factors and anotia/microtia in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. METHODS: We examined data from mothers of 351 infants with isolated anotia/microtia and 8435 unaffected infants from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study with an expected delivery date from 1997 to 2007. Sociodemographic, maternal, and acculturation factors (e.g., age, maternal education, household income, body mass index, gestational diabetes, folic acid, smoking, alcohol intake, study center, parental birthplace, and years lived in the United States, maternal language) were assessed as overall risk factors and also as risk factors among subgroups of Hispanics (United States- and foreign-born) versus non-Hispanic whites. RESULTS: Compared with non-Hispanic whites, both United States- and foreign-born Hispanic mothers demonstrated substantially higher odds of delivering infants with anotia/microtia across nearly all strata of sociodemographic and other maternal factors (adjusted odds ratios range: 2.1-11.9). The odds of anotia/microtia was particularly elevated among Hispanic mothers who emigrated from Mexico after age five (adjusted odds ratios = 4.88; 95% confidence interval = 2.93-8.11) or who conducted the interview in Spanish (adjusted odds ratios = 4.97; 95% confidence interval = 3.00-8.24). CONCLUSION: We observed that certain sociodemographic and acculturation factors are associated with higher risks of anotia/microtia among offspring of Hispanic mothers.


Assuntos
Microtia Congênita/economia , Microtia Congênita/epidemiologia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispano-Americanos , Aculturação , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Microtia Congênita/etnologia , Microtia Congênita/patologia , Pavilhão Auricular/anormalidades , Escolaridade , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mães , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Risco , Classe Social , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Am J Health Behav ; 38(5): 755-64, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24933145

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore women's knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about adverse outcomes associated with smoking during pregnancy and which outcomes might motivate cessation; to explore reactions to graphic warnings depicting 2 adverse outcomes. METHODS: Twelve focus groups were conducted with women of childbearing age who were current smokers. RESULTS: Participants had low to moderate awareness of many outcomes and believed it was acceptable to smoke in the first trimester before knowledge of pregnancy. Perceived susceptibility to outcomes was low. Motivators included risk-focused information, especially serious risks to the baby (eg, stillbirth, SIDS). Graphic warnings produced strong reactions, especially the warning with a real photo. CONCLUSIONS: Despite barriers to reducing rates of smoking during pregnancy, educational information and photos depicting babies' risks could motivate women to quit.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Motivação , Gestantes/psicologia , Rotulagem de Produtos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Saúde da Mulher
13.
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol ; 97(1): 28-35, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23281074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few epidemiologic studies have investigated the use of venlafaxine (Effexor XR capsules, Product Monograph, Wyeth, Montreal, Canada), an antidepressant used to treat major depression and anxiety disorders in adults, during pregnancy. Our objective was to determine whether use of venlafaxine during pregnancy is associated with specific birth defects. METHODS: We used data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), a population-based, case-control study in the United States. Our analysis included mothers with pregnancies affected by one of 30 selected birth defects (cases) and babies without birth defects (controls) with estimated dates of delivery between 1997 and 2007. Exposure was any reported use of venlafaxine from 1 month preconception through the third month of pregnancy. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% Fisher Exact confidence intervals (CIs) for 24 birth defect groups for which at least 400 case mothers were interviewed. Our adjusted analyses controlled for maternal age and race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Among the 27,045 NBDPS participants who met inclusion criteria, 0.17% (14/8002) of control mothers and 0.40% (77/19,043) of case mothers reported any use of venlafaxine from 1 month preconception through the third month of pregnancy. Statistically significant associations were found for anencephaly, atrial septal defect (ASD) secundum, or ASD not otherwise specified, coarctation of the aorta, cleft palate, and gastroschisis. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest associations between periconceptional use of venlafaxine and some birth defects. However, sample sizes were small, CIs were wide, and additional studies are needed to confirm these results.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos/etiologia , Antidepressivos de Segunda Geração/efeitos adversos , Cicloexanóis/efeitos adversos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Adulto , Anencefalia/epidemiologia , Anencefalia/etiologia , Coartação Aórtica/epidemiologia , Coartação Aórtica/etiologia , Fissura Palatina/epidemiologia , Fissura Palatina/etiologia , Feminino , Gastrosquise/epidemiologia , Gastrosquise/etiologia , Comunicação Interatrial/epidemiologia , Comunicação Interatrial/etiologia , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Cloridrato de Venlafaxina
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