*Nano Lett ; 22(13): 5252-5259, 2022 Jul 13.*

##### RESUMO

To realize the applicative potential of 2D twistronic devices, scalable synthesis and assembly techniques need to meet stringent requirements in terms of interface cleanness and twist-angle homogeneity. Here, we show that small-angle twisted bilayer graphene assembled from separated CVD-grown graphene single-crystals can ensure high-quality transport properties, determined by a device-scale-uniform moiré potential. Via low-temperature dual-gated magnetotransport, we demonstrate the hallmarks of a 2.4°-twisted superlattice, including tunable regimes of interlayer coupling, reduced Fermi velocity, large interlayer capacitance, and density-independent Brown-Zak oscillations. The observation of these moiré-induced electrical transport features establishes CVD-based twisted bilayer graphene as an alternative to "tear-and-stack" exfoliated flakes for fundamental studies, while serving as a proof-of-concept for future large-scale assembly.

*ACS Nano ; 16(3): 3613-3624, 2022 Mar 22.*

##### RESUMO

The ability to tune the optical response of a material via electrostatic gating is crucial for optoelectronic applications, such as electro-optic modulators, saturable absorbers, optical limiters, photodetectors, and transparent electrodes. The band structure of single layer graphene (SLG), with zero-gap, linearly dispersive conduction and valence bands, enables an easy control of the Fermi energy, EF, and of the threshold for interband optical absorption. Here, we report the tunability of the SLG nonequilibrium optical response in the near-infrared (1000-1700 nm/0.729-1.240 eV), exploring a range of EF from -650 to 250 meV by ionic liquid gating. As EF increases from the Dirac point to the threshold for Pauli blocking of interband absorption, we observe a slow-down of the photobleaching relaxation dynamics, which we attribute to the quenching of optical phonon emission from photoexcited charge carriers. For EF exceeding the Pauli blocking threshold, photobleaching eventually turns into photoinduced absorption, because the hot electrons' excitation increases the SLG absorption. The ability to control both recovery time and sign of the nonequilibrium optical response by electrostatic gating makes SLG ideal for tunable saturable absorbers with controlled dynamics.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 125(23): 236402, 2020 Dec 04.*

##### RESUMO

The exactly solvable Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev (SYK) model has recently received considerable attention in both condensed matter and high energy physics because it describes quantum matter without quasiparticles, while being at the same time the holographic dual of a quantum black hole. In this Letter, we examine SYK-based charging protocols of quantum batteries with N quantum cells. Extensive numerical calculations based on exact diagonalization for N up to 16 strongly suggest that the optimal charging power of our SYK quantum batteries displays a superextensive scaling with N that stems from genuine quantum mechanical effects. While the complexity of the nonequilibrium SYK problem involved in the charging dynamics prevents us from an analytical proof, we believe that this Letter offers the first (to the best of our knowledge) strong numerical evidence of a quantum advantage occurring due to the maximally entangling underlying quantum dynamics.

*J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(18): 7595-7602, 2020 Sep 17.*

##### RESUMO

We demonstrate that the plasmonic properties of realistic graphene and graphene-based materials can effectively and accurately be modeled by a novel, fully atomistic, yet classical, approach, named ωFQ. Such a model is able to reproduce all plasmonic features of these materials and their dependence on shape, dimension, and fundamental physical parameters (Fermi energy, relaxation time, and two-dimensional electron density). Remarkably, ωFQ is able to accurately reproduce experimental data for realistic structures of hundreds of nanometers (â¼370k atoms), which cannot be afforded by any ab initio method. Also, the atomistic nature of ωFQ permits the investigation of complex shapes, which can hardly be dealt with by exploiting widespread continuum approaches.

*Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12071, 2020 Jul 16.*

##### RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

*Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6882, 2020 Apr 23.*

##### RESUMO

Metamaterials have recently established a new paradigm for enhanced light absorption in state-of-the-art photodetectors. Here, we demonstrate broadband, highly efficient, polarization-insensitive, and gate-tunable photodetection at room temperature in a novel metadevice based on gold/graphene Sierpinski carpet plasmonic fractals. We observed an unprecedented internal quantum efficiency up to 100% from the near-infrared to the visible range with an upper bound of optical detectivity of 1011 Jones and a gain up to 106, which is a fingerprint of multiple hot carriers photogenerated in graphene. Also, we show a 100-fold enhanced photodetection due to highly focused (up to a record factor of |E/E0| ≈ 20 for graphene) electromagnetic fields induced by electrically tunable multimodal plasmons, spatially localized in self-similar fashion on the metasurface. Our findings give direct insight into the physical processes governing graphene plasmonic fractal metamaterials. The proposed structure represents a promising route for the realization of a broadband, compact, and active platform for future optoelectronic devices including multiband bio/chemical and light sensors.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 122(1): 016601, 2019 Jan 11.*

##### RESUMO

Despite topological protection and the absence of magnetic impurities, two-dimensional topological insulators display quantized conductance only in surprisingly short channels, which can be as short as 100 nm for atomically thin materials. We show that the combined action of short-range nonmagnetic impurities located near the edges and on site electron-electron interactions effectively creates noncollinear magnetic scatterers, and, hence, results in strong backscattering. The mechanism causes deviations from quantization even at zero temperature and for a modest strength of electron-electron interactions. Our theory provides a straightforward conceptual framework to explain experimental results, especially those in atomically thin crystals, plagued with short-range edge disorder.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 122(4): 047702, 2019 Feb 01.*

##### RESUMO

We investigate a quantum battery made of N two-level systems, which is charged by an optical mode via an energy-conserving interaction. We quantify the fraction of energy stored in the battery that can be extracted in order to perform thermodynamic work. We first demonstrate that this quantity is highly reduced by the presence of correlations between the charger and the battery or between the subsystems composing the battery. We then show that the correlation-induced suppression of extractable energy, however, can be mitigated by preparing the charger in a coherent optical state. We conclude by proving that the charger-battery system is asymptotically free of such locking correlations in the Nâ∞ limit.

*Nat Commun ; 9(1): 5392, 2018 12 19.*

##### RESUMO

Plasmons, collective oscillations of electron systems, can efficiently couple light and electric current, and thus can be used to create sub-wavelength photodetectors, radiation mixers, and on-chip spectrometers. Despite considerable effort, it has proven challenging to implement plasmonic devices operating at terahertz frequencies. The material capable to meet this challenge is graphene as it supports long-lived electrically tunable plasmons. Here we demonstrate plasmon-assisted resonant detection of terahertz radiation by antenna-coupled graphene transistors that act as both plasmonic Fabry-Perot cavities and rectifying elements. By varying the plasmon velocity using gate voltage, we tune our detectors between multiple resonant modes and exploit this functionality to measure plasmon wavelength and lifetime in bilayer graphene as well as to probe collective modes in its moiré minibands. Our devices offer a convenient tool for further plasmonic research that is often exceedingly difficult under non-ambient conditions (e.g. cryogenic temperatures) and promise a viable route for various photonic applications.

*Sci Adv ; 4(5): eaar5313, 2018 05.*

##### RESUMO

For many of the envisioned optoelectronic applications of graphene, it is crucial to understand the subpicosecond carrier dynamics immediately following photoexcitation and the effect of photoexcitation on the electrical conductivity-the photoconductivity. Whereas these topics have been studied using various ultrafast experiments and theoretical approaches, controversial and incomplete explanations concerning the sign of the photoconductivity, the occurrence and significance of the creation of additional electron-hole pairs, and, in particular, how the relevant processes depend on Fermi energy have been put forward. We present a unified and intuitive physical picture of the ultrafast carrier dynamics and the photoconductivity, combining optical pump-terahertz probe measurements on a gate-tunable graphene device, with numerical calculations using the Boltzmann equation. We distinguish two types of ultrafast photo-induced carrier heating processes: At low (equilibrium) Fermi energy (EF â² 0.1 eV for our experiments), broadening of the carrier distribution involves interband transitions (interband heating). At higher Fermi energy (EF â³ 0.15 eV), broadening of the carrier distribution involves intraband transitions (intraband heating). Under certain conditions, additional electron-hole pairs can be created [carrier multiplication (CM)] for low EF, and hot carriers (hot-CM) for higher EF. The resultant photoconductivity is positive (negative) for low (high) EF, which in our physical picture, is explained using solely electronic effects: It follows from the effect of the heated carrier distributions on the screening of impurities, consistent with the DC conductivity being mostly due to impurity scattering. The importance of these insights is highlighted by a discussion of the implications for graphene photodetector applications.

*Nat Nanotechnol ; 13(7): 583-588, 2018 07.*

##### RESUMO

Optical harmonic generation occurs when high intensity light (>1010 W m-2) interacts with a nonlinear material. Electrical control of the nonlinear optical response enables applications such as gate-tunable switches and frequency converters. Graphene displays exceptionally strong light-matter interaction and electrically and broadband tunable third-order nonlinear susceptibility. Here, we show that the third-harmonic generation efficiency in graphene can be increased by almost two orders of magnitude by controlling the Fermi energy and the incident photon energy. This enhancement is due to logarithmic resonances in the imaginary part of the nonlinear conductivity arising from resonant multiphoton transitions. Thanks to the linear dispersion of the massless Dirac fermions, gate controllable third-harmonic enhancement can be achieved over an ultrabroad bandwidth, paving the way for electrically tunable broadband frequency converters for applications in optical communications and signal processing.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 120(11): 117702, 2018 Mar 16.*

##### RESUMO

Quantum information theorems state that it is possible to exploit collective quantum resources to greatly enhance the charging power of quantum batteries (QBs) made of many identical elementary units. We here present and solve a model of a QB that can be engineered in solid-state architectures. It consists of N two-level systems coupled to a single photonic mode in a cavity. We contrast this collective model ("Dicke QB"), whereby entanglement is genuinely created by the common photonic mode, to the one in which each two-level system is coupled to its own separate cavity mode ("Rabi QB"). By employing exact diagonalization, we demonstrate the emergence of a quantum advantage in the charging power of Dicke QBs, which scales like sqrt[N] for Nâ«1.

*Nano Lett ; 18(1): 282-287, 2018 01 10.*

##### RESUMO

Graphene is known to possess strong optical nonlinearity which turned out to be suitable for creation of efficient saturable absorbers in mode locked fiber lasers. Nonlinear response of graphene can be further enhanced by the presence of graphene plasmons. Here, we report a novel nonlinear effect observed in nanostructured graphene which comes about due to excitation of graphene plasmons. We experimentally detect and theoretically explain enhanced mixing of near-infrared and mid-infrared light in arrays of graphene nanoribbons. Strong compression of light by graphene plasmons implies that the described effect of light mixing is nonlocal in nature and orders of magnitude larger than the conventional local graphene nonlinearity. Both second and third order nonlinear effects were observed in our experiments with the recalculated third-order nonlinearity coefficient reaching values of 4.5 × 10-6 esu. The suggested effect could be used in variety of applications including nonlinear light modulators, light multiplexers, light logic, and sensing devices.

*Nat Nanotechnol ; 13(1): 41-46, 2018 01.*

##### RESUMO

Van der Waals heterostructures have emerged as promising building blocks that offer access to new physics, novel device functionalities and superior electrical and optoelectronic properties 1-7 . Applications such as thermal management, photodetection, light emission, data communication, high-speed electronics and light harvesting 8-16 require a thorough understanding of (nanoscale) heat flow. Here, using time-resolved photocurrent measurements, we identify an efficient out-of-plane energy transfer channel, where charge carriers in graphene couple to hyperbolic phonon polaritons 17-19 in the encapsulating layered material. This hyperbolic cooling is particularly efficient, giving picosecond cooling times for hexagonal BN, where the high-momentum hyperbolic phonon polaritons enable efficient near-field energy transfer. We study this heat transfer mechanism using distinct control knobs to vary carrier density and lattice temperature, and find excellent agreement with theory without any adjustable parameters. These insights may lead to the ability to control heat flow in van der Waals heterostructures.

*Nat Commun ; 8(1): 893, 2017 10 12.*

##### RESUMO

Nonlinear optical processes, such as harmonic generation, are of great interest for various applications, e.g., microscopy, therapy, and frequency conversion. However, high-order harmonic conversion is typically much less efficient than low-order, due to the weak intrinsic response of the higher-order nonlinear processes. Here we report ultra-strong optical nonlinearities in monolayer MoS2 (1L-MoS2): the third harmonic is 30 times stronger than the second, and the fourth is comparable to the second. The third harmonic generation efficiency for 1L-MoS2 is approximately three times higher than that for graphene, which was reported to have a large χ (3). We explain this by calculating the nonlinear response functions of 1L-MoS2 with a continuum-model Hamiltonian and quantum mechanical diagrammatic perturbation theory, highlighting the role of trigonal warping. A similar effect is expected in all other transition-metal dichalcogenides. Our results pave the way for efficient harmonic generation based on layered materials for applications such as microscopy and imaging.Harmonic generation is a nonlinear optical process occurring in a variety of materials; the higher orders generation is generally less efficient than lower orders. Here, the authors report that the third-harmonic is thirty times stronger than the second-harmonic in monolayer MoS2.

*Science ; 357(6347): 187-191, 2017 07 14.*

##### RESUMO

The response of electron systems to electrodynamic fields that change rapidly in space is endowed by unique features, including an exquisite spatial nonlocality. This can reveal much about the materials' electronic structure that is invisible in standard probes that use gradually varying fields. Here, we use graphene plasmons, propagating at extremely slow velocities close to the electron Fermi velocity, to probe the nonlocal response of the graphene electron liquid. The near-field imaging experiments reveal a parameter-free match with the full quantum description of the massless Dirac electron gas, which involves three types of nonlocal quantum effects: single-particle velocity matching, interaction-enhanced Fermi velocity, and interaction-reduced compressibility. Our experimental approach can determine the full spatiotemporal response of an electron system.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 118(12): 126804, 2017 Mar 24.*

##### RESUMO

Radiative heat transfer (RHT) between macroscopic bodies at separations that are much smaller than the thermal wavelength is ruled by evanescent electromagnetic modes and can be orders of magnitude more efficient than its far-field counterpart, which is described by the Stefan-Boltzmann law. In this Letter, we present a microscopic theory of RHT in van der Waals stacks comprising graphene and a natural hyperbolic material, i.e., hexagonal boron nitride (hBN). We demonstrate that RHT between hot carriers in graphene and hyperbolic phonon polaritons in hBN is extremely efficient at room temperature, leading to picosecond time scales for the carrier cooling dynamics.

*Nat Nanotechnol ; 12(1): 31-35, 2017 01.*

##### RESUMO

Terahertz (THz) fields are widely used for sensing, communication and quality control. In future applications, they could be efficiently confined, enhanced and manipulated well below the classical diffraction limit through the excitation of graphene plasmons (GPs). These possibilities emerge from the strongly reduced GP wavelength, λp, compared with the photon wavelength, λ0, which can be controlled by modulating the carrier density of graphene via electrical gating. Recently, GPs in a graphene/insulator/metal configuration have been predicted to exhibit a linear dispersion (thus called acoustic plasmons) and a further reduced wavelength, implying an improved field confinement, analogous to plasmons in two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) near conductive substrates. Although infrared GPs have been visualized by scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM), the real-space imaging of strongly confined THz plasmons in graphene and 2DEGs has been elusive so far-only GPs with nearly free-space wavelengths have been observed. Here we demonstrate real-space imaging of acoustic THz plasmons in a graphene photodetector with split-gate architecture. To that end, we introduce nanoscale-resolved THz photocurrent near-field microscopy, where near-field excited GPs are detected thermoelectrically rather than optically. This on-chip detection simplifies GP imaging as sophisticated s-SNOM detection schemes can be avoided. The photocurrent images reveal strongly reduced GP wavelengths (λp ≈ λ0/66), a linear dispersion resulting from the coupling of GPs with the metal gate below the graphene, and that plasmon damping at positive carrier densities is dominated by Coulomb impurity scattering.

*Nat Commun ; 7: 13355, 2016 11 14.*

##### RESUMO

There is a growing experimental interest in coupling cavity photons to the cyclotron resonance excitations of electron liquids in high-mobility semiconductor quantum wells or graphene sheets. These media offer unique platforms to carry out fundamental studies of exciton-polariton condensation and cavity quantum electrodynamics in a regime, in which electron-electron interactions are expected to play a pivotal role. Here, focusing on graphene, we present a theoretical study of the impact of electron-electron interactions on a quantum Hall polariton fluid, that is a fluid of magneto-excitons resonantly coupled to cavity photons. We show that electron-electron interactions are responsible for an instability of graphene integer quantum Hall polariton fluids towards a modulated phase. We demonstrate that this phase can be detected by measuring the collective excitation spectra, which is often at a characteristic wave vector of the order of the inverse magnetic length.

*Nano Lett ; 16(9): 5688-93, 2016 09 14.*

##### RESUMO

We demonstrate localization and field-effect spatial control of the plasmon resonance in semiconductor nanostructures, using scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy in the mid-infrared region. We adopt InAs nanowires embedding a graded doping profile to modulate the free carrier density along the axial direction. Our near-field measurements have a spatial resolution of 20 nm and demonstrate the presence of a local resonant feature whose position can be controlled by a back-gate bias voltage. In the present implementation, field-effect induces a modulation of the free carrier density profile yielding a spatial shift of the plasmon resonance of the order of 100 nm. We discuss the relevance of our electrically tunable nanoplasmonic architectures in view of innovative optoelectronic devices concepts.