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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(3)2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013235

RESUMO

In sepsis, platelets may become activated via toll-like receptors (TLRs), causing microvascular thrombosis. Megakaryocytes (MKs) also express these receptors; thus, severe infection may modulate thrombopoiesis. To explore the relevance of altered miRNAs in platelet activation upon sepsis, we first investigated sepsis-induced miRNA expression in platelets of septic patients. The effect of abnormal Dicer level on miRNA expression was also evaluated. miRNAs were profiled in septic vs. normal platelets using TaqMan Open Array. We validated platelet miR-26b with its target SELP (P-selectin) mRNA levels and correlated them with clinical outcomes. The impact of sepsis on MK transcriptome was analyzed in MEG-01 cells after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment by RNA-seq. Sepsis-reduced miR-26b was further studied using Dicer1 siRNA and calpain inhibition in MEG-01 cells. Out of 390 platelet miRNAs detected, there were 121 significantly decreased, and 61 upregulated in sepsis vs. controls. Septic platelets showed attenuated miR-26b, which were associated with disease severity and mortality. SELP mRNA level was elevated in sepsis, especially in platelets with increased mean platelet volume, causing higher P-selectin expression. Downregulation of Dicer1 generated lower miR-26b with higher SELP mRNA, while calpeptin restored miR-26b in MEG-01 cells. In conclusion, decreased miR-26b in MKs and platelets contributes to an increased level of platelet activation status in sepsis.

2.
Front Oncol ; 9: 1063, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709175

RESUMO

Background: Leukemic B-cell precursor (BCP) lymphoblasts were identified as a novel expression site for coagulation factor XIII subunit A (FXIII-A). Flow cytometry (FC) revealed three distinct expression patterns, i.e., FXIII-A negative, FXIII-A dim, and FXIII-A bright subgroups. The FXIII-A negative subgroup was significantly associated with the "B-other" genetic category and had an unfavorable disease outcome. Methods: RNA was extracted from bone marrow lymphoblasts of 42 pediatric patients with BCP-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). FXIII-A expression was determined by multiparameter FC. Genetic diagnosis was based on conventional cytogenetic method and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Affymetrix GeneChip Human Primeview array was used to analyze global expression pattern of 28,869 well-annotated genes. Microarray data were analyzed by Genespring GX14.9.1 software. Gene Ontology analysis was performed using Cytoscape 3.4.0 software with ClueGO application. Selected differentially expressed genes were validated by RT-Q-PCR. Results: We demonstrated, for the first time, the general expression of F13A1 gene in pediatric BCP-ALL samples. The intensity of F13A1 expression corresponded to the FXIII-A protein expression subgroups which defined three characteristic and distinct gene expression signatures detected by Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarrays. Relative gene expression intensity of ANGPTL2, EHMT1 FOXO1, HAP1, NUCKS1, NUP43, PIK3CG, RAPGEF5, SEMA6A, SPIN1, TRH, and WASF2 followed the pattern of change in the intensity of the expression of the F13A1 gene. Common enhancer elements of these genes revealed by in silico analysis suggest that common transcription factors may regulate the expression of these genes in a similar fashion. PLAC8 was downregulated in the FXIII-A bright subgroup. Gene expression signature of the FXIII-A negative subgroup showed an overlap with the signature of "B-other" samples. DFFA, GIGYF1, GIGYF2, and INTS3 were upregulated and CD3G was downregulated in the "B-other" subgroup. Validated genes proved biologically and clinically relevant. We described differential expression of genes not shown previously to be associated with pediatric BCP-ALL. Conclusions: Gene expression signature according to FXIII-A protein expression status defined three novel subgroups of pediatric BCP-ALL. Multiparameter FC appears to be an easy-to-use and affordable method to help in selecting FXIII-A negative patients who require a more elaborate and expensive molecular genetic investigation to design precision treatment.

3.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 873, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen which is responsible for widespread nosocomial infections. It encompasses a fungus specific serine/threonine protein phosphatase gene, CaPPZ1 that is involved in cation transport, cell wall integrity, oxidative stress response, morphological transition, and virulence according to the phenotypes of the cappz1 deletion mutant. RESULTS: We demonstrated that a short-term treatment with a sublethal concentration of tert-butyl hydroperoxide suppressed the growth of the fungal cells without affecting their viability, both in the cappz1 mutant and in the genetically matching QMY23 control strains. To reveal the gene expression changes behind the above observations we carried out a global transcriptome analysis. We used a pilot DNA microarray hybridization together with extensive RNA sequencing, and confirmed our results by quantitative RT-PCR. Novel functions of the CaPpz1 enzyme and oxidative stress mechanisms have been unraveled. The numbers of genes affected as well as the amplitudes of the transcript level changes indicated that the deletion of the phosphatase sensitized the response of C. albicans to oxidative stress conditions in important physiological functions like membrane transport, cell surface interactions, oxidation-reduction processes, translation and RNA metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that in the wild type C. albicans CaPPZ1 has a protective role against oxidative damage. We suggest that the specific inhibition of this phosphatase combined with mild oxidative treatment could be a feasible approach to topical antifungal therapy.

4.
EJIFCC ; 30(2): 237-245, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372109

RESUMO

MicroRNA (miRNA) research has intensively developed over the past decade. Characterization of dysregulated miRNA expression profiles could give a better understanding of the development of pathological conditions and clinical disorders, such as autoimmune diseases with polygenic etiology, including idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs). IIMs are a group of rare autoimmune disorders characterized by skeletal weakness and inflammation. Polymyositis (PM) is one of the conditions of autoimmune myopathies with proximal skeletal muscle weakness. A novel group of miRNAs, known as myomiRs are described as striated muscle-specific or muscle-enriched miRNAs. They are involved in myoblast proliferation/differentiation as well as muscle regeneration. To determine the role of myomiRs in the development and progression of PM, we performed an initial skeletal muscle miRNA profiling using microarray technique at diagnosis. The aim of the study was to examine myomiRs expression profile in patients with PM in order to remark the association between the dysregulated myomiRs' expression and the development of the disease. As a results of microarray investigation, most of the myomiRs showed altered expression patterns in the muscle samples of PM patients compared to controls. These results suggest that myomiRs, especially miR-1, miR-133a, miR-208b, miR-486, and miR-499 function in a network, and are associated with the development of PM.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31249813

RESUMO

Chlamydia trachomatis infections are the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections with potentially debilitating sequelae, such as infertility. Mouse models are generally used for vaccine development, to study the immune response and histopathology associated with Chlamydia infection. An important question regarding murine models is the in vivo identification of murine host genes responsible for the elimination of the murine and human Chlamydia strains. RNA sequencing of the Chlamydia muridarum infected BALB/c lung transcriptome revealed that several genes with direct antichlamydial functions were induced at the tissue level, including the already described and novel members of the murine interferon-inducible GTPase family, the CXCL chemokines CXCL9, CXCL11, immunoresponsive gene 1, nitric oxide synthase-2 (iNOS), and lipocalin-2. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1-2 (IDO1-2) previously described potent antichlamydial host enzymes were also highly expressed in the infected murine lungs. This finding was novel, since IDO was considered as a unique human antichlamydial defense gene. Besides a lower level of epithelial cell positivity, immunohistochemistry showed that IDO1-2 proteins were expressed prominently in macrophages. Detection of the tryptophan degradation product kynurenine and the impact of IDO inhibition on Chlamydia muridarum growth proved that the IDO1-2 proteins were functionally active. IDO1-2 activity also increased in Chlamydia muridarum infected C57BL/6 lung tissues, indicating that this phenomenon is not mouse strain specific. Our study shows that the murine antichlamydial response includes a variety of highly up-regulated defense genes in vivo. Among these genes the antichlamydial effectors IDO1-2 were identified. The potential impact of murine IDO1-2 expression on Chlamydia propagation needs further investigation.

6.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 21(1): 94, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987671

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Impaired vascular pathophysiology and increased cardiovascular (CV) mortality are associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To date, no genomic analysis of RA- and RA treatment-related vascular pathophysiology has been published. In this pilot study, we performed gene expression profiling in association with vascular pathophysiology in RA patients. METHODS: Sixteen and 19 biologic-naïve RA patients were included in study 1 and study 2, respectively. In study 1, genetic signatures determined by microarray were related to flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), pulse-wave velocity (PWV), and common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) of patients. In study 2, clinical response (cR) vs non-response (cNR) to 1-year etanercept (ETN) or certolizumab pegol (CZP) treatment, as well as "vascular" response (vR) vs non-response (vNR) to biologics, were also associated with genomic profiles. Multiple testing could not be performed due to the relatively small number of patients; therefore, our pilot study may lack power. RESULTS: In study 1, multiple genes were up- or downregulated in patients with abnormal vs normal FMD, IMT, and PWV. In study 2, there were 13 cR and 6 cNR anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-treated patients. In addition, 10, 9, and 8 patients were FMD-20%, IMT-20%, and PWV-20% responders. Again, vascular responder status was associated with changes of the expression of various genes. The highest number of genes showing significant enrichment were involved in positive regulation of immune effector process, regulation of glucose transport, and Golgi vesicle budding. CONCLUSION: Differential expression of multiple genetic profiles may be associated with vascular pathophysiology associated with RA. Moreover, distinct genetic signatures may also be associated with clinical and vascular responses to 1-year anti-TNF treatment.

7.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 47(6): 2778-2792, 2019 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30799488

RESUMO

The concept of tissue-specific gene expression posits that lineage-determining transcription factors (LDTFs) determine the open chromatin profile of a cell via collaborative binding, providing molecular beacons to signal-dependent transcription factors (SDTFs). However, the guiding principles of LDTF binding, chromatin accessibility and enhancer activity have not yet been systematically evaluated. We sought to study these features of the macrophage genome by the combination of experimental (ChIP-seq, ATAC-seq and GRO-seq) and computational approaches. We show that Random Forest and Support Vector Regression machine learning methods can accurately predict chromatin accessibility using the binding patterns of the LDTF PU.1 and four other key TFs of macrophages (IRF8, JUNB, CEBPA and RUNX1). Any of these TFs alone were not sufficient to predict open chromatin, indicating that TF binding is widespread at closed or weakly opened chromatin regions. Analysis of the PU.1 cistrome revealed that two-thirds of PU.1 binding occurs at low accessible chromatin. We termed these sites labelled regulatory elements (LREs), which may represent a dormant state of a future enhancer and contribute to macrophage cellular plasticity. Collectively, our work demonstrates the existence of LREs occupied by various key TFs, regulating specific gene expression programs triggered by divergent macrophage polarizing stimuli.


Assuntos
Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/fisiologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Biologia Computacional , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Genoma , Aprendizado de Máquina , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ligação Proteica/fisiologia , Coloração e Rotulagem/métodos , Ativação Transcricional/fisiologia
8.
Immunity ; 49(4): 615-626.e6, 2018 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30332629

RESUMO

Macrophages polarize into distinct phenotypes in response to complex environmental cues. We found that the nuclear receptor PPARγ drove robust phenotypic changes in macrophages upon repeated stimulation with interleukin (IL)-4. The functions of PPARγ on macrophage polarization in this setting were independent of ligand binding. Ligand-insensitive PPARγ bound DNA and recruited the coactivator P300 and the architectural protein RAD21. This established a permissive chromatin environment that conferred transcriptional memory by facilitating the binding of the transcriptional regulator STAT6 and RNA polymerase II, leading to robust production of enhancer and mRNAs upon IL-4 re-stimulation. Ligand-insensitive PPARγ binding controlled the expression of an extracellular matrix remodeling-related gene network in macrophages. Expression of these genes increased during muscle regeneration in a mouse model of injury, and this increase coincided with the detection of IL-4 and PPARγ in the affected tissue. Thus, a predominantly ligand-insensitive PPARγ:RXR cistrome regulates progressive and/or reinforcing macrophage polarization.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética/imunologia , Epigenômica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Ativação de Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , PPAR gama/imunologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Interleucina-4/imunologia , Interleucina-4/farmacologia , Ligantes , Ativação de Macrófagos/genética , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Camundongos Knockout , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo
9.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0200840, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30021014

RESUMO

Cholesteatoma is an epidermal cyst with still unknown pathomechanism. The aim of the current study was to investigate molecular differences in the background of the hyperproliferative property and aggressive behavior typical of the cholesteatoma epithelium. The expression of three cytokeratin genes (KRT1, KRT10 and KRT19), the matrix metalloproteinase 9 gene (MMP9) and the tumor suppressor TP53 gene was measured by qRT-PCR in surgical samples of pediatric and adult cholesteatoma cases and their expression level was compared to that of normal skin samples from the retroauricular region of control individuals. Cholesteatoma samples were stratified according to the age of onset and recurrence for more detailed analysis. Our results showed identical expression pattern for KRT1 and KRT10, their expression was higher in pediatric cases than in adults, especially in pediatric recurrent samples. The expression level of KRT19 was inversely proportional to that of KRT1/KRT10, it was lower in the more invasive recurrent cases both in our pediatric and adult groups. As it was expected from the bone destructive behavior of cholesteatoma, a significantly elevated expression of MMP9 was measured in cholesteatoma samples, the highest level was found in adult recurrent cases. Low expression levels characterize the TP53 gene without significant differences in our samples. These findings demonstrate that cytokeratin expression distinguishes between pediatric/adult, nonrecurrent/recurrent cases, suggesting that distinct differentiation state and cell division potential characterize these cholesteatoma cases. KRT19 with a tumor suppressor potential might restrict the recurrence of cholesteatoma. The differences observed in gene expression profiles between cholesteatoma and control samples support the notion that cholesteatoma is a cystic lesion with tumor-like behavior because it is characterized by invasive, destructive growth and high tendency for recurrence.


Assuntos
Colesteatoma/metabolismo , Queratina-10/metabolismo , Queratina-19/metabolismo , Queratina-1/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colesteatoma/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Queratina-1/genética , Queratina-10/genética , Queratina-19/genética , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0198323, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29927962

RESUMO

Toll-like receptors (TLR) 2 and 4 are active in sebaceous glands and play a central role in the development of acne. Still, there is only limited knowledge on their effect on sebocytes. In this work we performed global gene expression profile analysis with functional clustering of the differentially regulated genes of TLR1/2 (PAM3CSK4)- and TLR4 (lipopolysaccharide [LPS])-activated SZ95 sebocytes. Both TLR1/2- and 4-activation promoted inflammation in a similar manner already at an early time-point (6 hours), regulating genes involved in inflammation, wound healing and chemotaxis reflecting a more complex cytokine and chemokine regulation than previously known. Importantly, lipid metabolism, the primary feature of sebocytes, was affected at the level of gene expression only at a later time point (24 hours) indicating that sebocytes prioritize to exert a pro-inflammatory phenotype when confronted with a danger signal. Supporting the biological relevance of our results, a meta-analysis revealed that the genes showing the strongest up-regulation were also found up-regulated in acne. Of these genes, serum amyloid A 1/2 (SAA1/2) was confirmed to be a suitable protein marker for in vivo activated sebocytes, underlining their immune-competence, which is structurally defined within sebaceous glands of acne and rosacea skin samples. Altogether our findings demonstrate that sebocytes are not only positioned at the end point of inflammation but are actively involved in shaping the inflammatory response with putative diagnostic and therapeutic relevance.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopeptídeos/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Glândulas Sebáceas/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica/genética , Acne Vulgar/genética , Linhagem Celular , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândulas Sebáceas/citologia , Glândulas Sebáceas/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Receptor 1 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
11.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0197890, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29889836

RESUMO

We previously found higher level of endothelial cell (EC) activation in patients who suffered from in-stent restenosis after bare-metal stenting compared to subjects who underwent drug-eluting stenting (DES) showing no complications. Here we investigated the potential transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms by which everolimus attenuated EC activation after DES. We studied the effect of everolimus on E-selectin (SELE) and VCAM1 mRNA levels when human coronary artery (HCAECs) and human umbilical vein ECs were challenged with recombinant TNF-α (100 ng/mL) for 1-24 hours in the presence or absence of everolimus using 0.5 µM concentration locally maintained by DES. EC activation was evaluated via the levels of IL-1ß and IL-6 mRNAs with miR-155 expression by RT-qPCR as well as the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB) detected by fluorescence microscopy. To investigate the transcriptional regulation of E-selectin and VCAM-1, TNF-α-induced enhancer RNA (eRNA) expression at p65-bound enhancers in the neighboring genomic regions of SELE and VCAM1 genes, including SELE_-11Kb and VCAM1_-10Kb, were measured in HCAECs. Mature and precursor levels of E-selectin and VCAM-1 repressor miR-181b were quantified to analyze the post-transcriptional regulation of these genes in HCAECs. Circulating miR-181b was analyzed in plasma samples of stented subjects by stem-loop RT-qPCR. TNF-α highly elevated E-selectin and VCAM-1 expression at transcriptional level in ECs. Levels of mature, pre- and pri-miR-181b were repressed in ECs by TNF-α, while everolimus acted as a negative regulator of EC activation via inhibited translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit into cell nuclei, lowered eRNA expression at SELE and VCAM1 genes-associated enhancers and modulated expression of their post-transcriptional repressor miR-181b. Significant negative correlation was observed between plasma miR-181b and soluble E-selectin and VCAM-1 in patients. In conclusion, everolimus attenuates EC activation via reduced NF-κB p65 translocation causing decreased E-selectin and VCAM-1 expression at transcriptional and post-transcriptional level after DES.


Assuntos
Vasos Coronários/citologia , Stents Farmacológicos , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Everolimo/farmacologia , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Selectina E/sangue , Selectina E/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/sangue , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/genética
12.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 46(9): 4425-4439, 2018 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29506156

RESUMO

Retinoid X receptor (RXR) is an obligate heterodimeric partner of several nuclear receptors (NRs), and as such a central component of NR signaling regulating the immune and metabolic phenotype of macrophages. Importantly, the binding motifs of RXR heterodimers are enriched in the tissue-selective open chromatin regions of resident macrophages, suggesting roles in subtype specification. Recent genome-wide studies revealed that RXR binds to thousands of sites in the genome, but the mechanistic details how the cistrome is established and serves ligand-induced transcriptional activity remained elusive. Here we show that IL-4-mediated macrophage plasticity results in a greatly extended RXR cistrome via both direct and indirect actions of the transcription factor STAT6. Activation of STAT6 leads to chromatin remodeling and RXR recruitment to de novo enhancers. In addition, STAT6 triggers a secondary transcription factor wave, including PPARγ. PPARγ appears to be indispensable for the development of RXR-bound de novo enhancers, whose activities can be modulated by the ligands of the PPARγ:RXR heterodimer conferring ligand selective cellular responses. Collectively, these data reveal the mechanisms leading to the dynamic extension of the RXR cistrome and identify the lipid-sensing enhancer sets responsible for the appearance of ligand-preferred gene signatures in alternatively polarized macrophages.


Assuntos
Interleucina-4/fisiologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Receptores X Retinoide/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT6/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Cromatina/metabolismo , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Ligantes , Macrófagos/enzimologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , RNA Polimerase II/metabolismo , Receptores X Retinoide/genética , Transdução de Sinais
13.
Front Immunol ; 9: 424, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29556238

RESUMO

The immunological barrier of the healthy skin is considered to be unified on the whole body surface-however, recent indirect findings have challenged this dogma since microbial and chemical milieu (e.g., sebum, sweat, and pH) exhibit remarkable differences on topographically distinct skin areas. Therefore, in the present study, we performed whole transcriptomic and subsequent pathway analyses to assess differences between sebaceous gland rich (SGR) and sebaceous gland poor (SGP) regions. Here, we provide the first evidence that different skin regions exhibit a characteristic innate and adaptive immune and barrier milieu as we could detect significantly increased chemokine (CCL2, 3, 19, 20, 23, 24) and antimicrobial peptide (S100A7, A8, A9, lipocalin, ß-defensin-2) expression, altered barrier (keratin 17, 79) functions, and a non-inflammatory Th17/IL-17 dominance in SGR skin compared to SGP. Regarding pro-inflammatory molecules (IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-33, TNF-α), similarly low levels were detected in both regions. Our data may explain the characteristic topographical localization of some immune-mediated and autoimmune skin disorders and we also propose that the term "healthy skin control sample," widely used in experimental Dermatology, should only be accepted if researchers carefully specify the exact region of the healthy skin (along with the site of the diseased sample).


Assuntos
Glândulas Sebáceas/fisiologia , Pele/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/genética , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/metabolismo , Quimiocinas/genética , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Queratina-17/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Transdução de Sinais , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
14.
Immunity ; 48(1): 75-90.e6, 2018 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29343442

RESUMO

The molecular basis of signal-dependent transcriptional activation has been extensively studied in macrophage polarization, but our understanding remains limited regarding the molecular determinants of repression. Here we show that IL-4-activated STAT6 transcription factor is required for the direct transcriptional repression of a large number of genes during in vitro and in vivo alternative macrophage polarization. Repression results in decreased lineage-determining transcription factor, p300, and RNA polymerase II binding followed by reduced enhancer RNA expression, H3K27 acetylation, and chromatin accessibility. The repressor function of STAT6 is HDAC3 dependent on a subset of IL-4-repressed genes. In addition, STAT6-repressed enhancers show extensive overlap with the NF-κB p65 cistrome and exhibit decreased responsiveness to lipopolysaccharide after IL-4 stimulus on a subset of genes. As a consequence, macrophages exhibit diminished inflammasome activation, decreased IL-1ß production, and pyroptosis. Thus, the IL-4-STAT6 signaling pathway establishes an alternative polarization-specific epigenenomic signature resulting in dampened macrophage responsiveness to inflammatory stimuli.


Assuntos
Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT6/metabolismo , Animais , Western Blotting , Linhagem Celular , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Citometria de Fluxo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Citometria de Varredura a Laser , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Piroptose/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
15.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 1765, 2018 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29379077

RESUMO

Serotonin is a monoamine neurotransmitter that signals through a wide array of receptors (5-HT1-7) many of which are also involved in immune processes. Dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial players in immune defense by bridging innate and adaptive immune responses via their vast repertoire of pattern recognition receptors and antigen-presenting capability. Although serotonin is known to influence immunity at many levels, cell type-specific expression and function of its receptors remains poorly understood. Here we aimed to study 5-HT1-7 expression and function in CD1a- and CD1a+ human monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs). We found that the 5-HT2B receptor-subtype is solely expressed by the inflammatory CD1a+ moDC subset. Specific 5-HT2B activation potently inhibited TLR2, TLR3, and TLR7/8-induced proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, IP-10, IL-12) but not type I interferon-ß responses. 5-HT2B agonism also interfered with the polarization of CD1a+ moDC-primed CD4+ T cells towards inflammatory Th1 and Th17 effector lymphocytes. Here we report the subset-specific expression and immunomodulatory function of 5-HT2B in human moDCs. Our results expand the biological role of 5-HT2B which may act not only as a neurotransmitter receptor, but also as an important modulator of both innate and adaptive immune responses.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Fatores Imunológicos/imunologia , Receptor 5-HT2B de Serotonina/imunologia , Antígenos CD1/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , Monócitos/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia
16.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech ; 1861(1): 14-28, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29133016

RESUMO

MicroRNAs are important components of the post-transcriptional fine-tuning of macrophage gene expression in physiological and pathological conditions. However, the mechanistic underpinnings and the cis-acting genomic factors of how macrophage polarizing signals induce miRNA expression changes are not well characterized. Therefore, we systematically evaluated the transcriptional basis underlying the inflammation-mediated regulation of macrophage microRNome using the combination of different next generation sequencing datasets. We investigated the LPS-induced expression changes at mature miRNA and pri-miRNA levels in mouse macrophages utilizing a small RNA-seq method and publicly available GRO-seq dataset, respectively. Next, we identified an enhancer set associated with LPS-responsive pri-miRNAs based on publicly available H3K4 mono-methylation-specific ChIP-seq and GRO-seq datasets. This enhancer set was further characterized by the combination of publicly available ChIP and ATAC-seq datasets. Finally, direct interactions between the miR-155-coding genomic region and its distal regulatory elements were identified using a 3C-seq approach. Our analysis revealed 15 robustly LPS-regulated miRNAs at the transcriptional level. In addition, we found that these miRNA genes are associated with an inflammation-responsive enhancer network. Based on NFκB-p65 and JunB transcription factor binding, we showed two distinct enhancer subsets associated with LPS-activated miRNAs that possess distinct epigenetic characteristics and LPS-responsiveness. Finally, our 3C-seq analysis revealed the LPS-induced extensive reorganization of the pri-miR-155-associated functional chromatin domain as well as chromatin loop formation between LPS-responsive enhancers and the promoter region. Our genomic approach successfully combines various genome-wide datasets and allows the identification of the putative regulatory elements controlling miRNA expression in classically activated macrophages.


Assuntos
Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Inflamação/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Transcrição Genética , Animais , Cromatina/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatina/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/patologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Camundongos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Fator de Transcrição RelA/genética
17.
PeerJ ; 5: e4047, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29201562

RESUMO

Hormones play an important role in the regulation of physiological, developmental and behavioural processes. Many of these mechanisms in insects, however, are still not well understood. One way to investigate hormonal regulation is to analyse gene expression patterns of hormones and their receptors by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). This method, however, requires stably expressed reference genes for normalisation. In the present study, we evaluated 11 candidate housekeeping genes as reference genes in samples of Lethrus apterus, an earth-boring beetle with biparental care, collected from a natural population. For identifying the most stable genes we used the following computational methods: geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, comparative delta Ct method and RefFinder. Based on our results, the two body regions sampled (head and thorax) differ in which genes are most stably expressed. We identified two candidate reference genes for each region investigated: ribosomal protein L7A and RP18 in samples extracted from the head, and ribosomal protein L7A and RP4 extracted from the muscles of the thorax. Additionally, L7A and RP18 appear to be the best reference genes for normalisation in all samples irrespective of body region. These reference genes can be used to study the hormonal regulation of reproduction and parental care in Lethrus apterus in the future.

18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(40): 10725-10730, 2017 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28923935

RESUMO

Retinoid X receptor (RXR) regulates several key functions in myeloid cells, including inflammatory responses, phagocytosis, chemokine secretion, and proangiogenic activity. Its importance, however, in tumor-associated myeloid cells is unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that deletion of RXR in myeloid cells enhances lung metastasis formation while not affecting primary tumor growth. We show that RXR deficiency leads to transcriptomic changes in the lung myeloid compartment characterized by increased expression of prometastatic genes, including important determinants of premetastatic niche formation. Accordingly, RXR-deficient myeloid cells are more efficient in promoting cancer cell migration and invasion. Our results suggest that the repressive activity of RXR on prometastatic genes is mediated primarily through direct DNA binding of the receptor along with nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR) and silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptor (SMRT) corepressors and is largely unresponsive to ligand activation. In addition, we found that expression and transcriptional activity of RXRα is down-modulated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with lung cancer, particularly in advanced and metastatic disease. Overall, our results identify RXR as a regulator in the myeloid cell-assisted metastatic process and establish lipid-sensing nuclear receptors in the microenvironmental regulation of tumor progression.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Melanoma Experimental/patologia , Células Mieloides/patologia , Receptores X Retinoide/fisiologia , Transcrição Genética , Animais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/patologia , Ligantes , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Melanoma Experimental/genética , Melanoma Experimental/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo
19.
Zoolog Sci ; 34(4): 318-325, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28770685

RESUMO

Insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) is thought to be a central mediator of life history traits, but the generality of its role is not clear. Here, we investigated mRNA expression levels of three insulin-like peptide genes, the insulin-like receptor htk7, as well as several antioxidant genes, and the heat-shock protein hsp70 in the freshwater cnidarian Hydra vulgaris. Hydra polyps were exposed to a combination of different levels of food and perceived population density to manipulate life history traits (asexual reproduction and oxidative stress tolerance). We found that stress tolerance and the rate of asexual reproduction increased with food, and that these two effects were in significant interaction. Exposing animals to high perceived density resulted in increased stress tolerance or reduced reproduction only on lower food levels, but not on high food. The insulin-like receptor htk7 and the antioxidant gene catalase were significantly upregulated in the high density treatments. However, the expression level of insulin-like peptide genes, most antioxidant genes, and hsp70 were not affected by the experimental treatments. The higher expression level of htk7 may suggest that animals maintain a higher level of preparedness for insulin-like ligands at high population densities. However, the lack of difference between food levels suggests that IIS is not involved in regulating asexual reproduction and stress tolerance in hydra, or that its role is more subtle than a simple model of life history regulation would suggest.


Assuntos
Hydra/fisiologia , Insulina/fisiologia , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Peptídeos/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico
20.
PLoS One ; 12(3): e0174585, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28339495

RESUMO

The discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) and their critical role in genetic control opened new avenues in understanding of various biological processes including immune cell lineage commitment, differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. However, a given miRNA may have hundreds of different mRNA targets and a target might be regulated by multiple miRNAs, thus the characterisation of dysregulated miRNA expression profiles could give a better insight into the development of immunological disturbances in autoimmune diseases. The aim of our study was to examine the changes in miRNA expression profiles in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Eight SLE patients, 8 pSS patients and 7 healthy subjects were enrolled in the investigation. MiRNAs were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and expression patterns were determined with Illumina next-generation sequencing technology. Since the immunopathogenesis of pSS and SLE encompasses pronounced B cell hyperactivity along with specific autoantibody production, we paid a special attention on the association between miRNA expression levels and altered peripheral B cell distribution. In SLE patients 135, while in pSS patients 26 miRNAs showed altered expression. Interestingly, the 25 miRNAs including miR-146a, miR-16 and miR-21, which were over-expressed in pSS patients, were found to be elevated in SLE group, as well. On the contrary, we observed the down-regulation of miR-150-5p, which is a novel and unique finding in pSS. Levels of several miRNAs over-expressed in SLE, were not changed in pSS, such as miR-148a-3p, miR-152, miR-155, miR-223, miR-224, miR-326 and miR-342. Expression levels of miR-223-5p, miR-150-5p, miR-155-5p and miR-342-3p, which miRNAs are potentially linked to B cell functions, showed associations with the B cell proportions within peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The observed differences in miRNA expression profiles and the better understanding of immune regulatory mechanisms of miRNAs may help to elucidate the pathogenesis of SLE and pSS.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Síndrome de Sjogren/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome de Sjogren/metabolismo
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