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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(2): 44-49, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945038

RESUMO

CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), state and local health departments, and public health and clinical stakeholders continue to investigate a nationwide outbreak of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) (1). EVALI patients in Illinois, Utah, and Wisconsin acquired tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-containing products primarily from informal sources (2,3). This report updates demographic characteristics and self-reported sources of THC- and nicotine-containing e-cigarette, or vaping, products derived from EVALI patient data reported to CDC by state health departments. As of January 7, 2020, among 1,979 (76%) patients with available data on substance use, a total of 1,620 (82%) reported using any THC-containing products, including 665 (34%) who reported exclusive THC-containing product use. Use of any nicotine-containing products was reported by 1,128 (57%) patients, including 264 (13%) who reported exclusive nicotine-containing product use. Among 809 (50%) patients reporting data on the source of THC-containing products, 131 (16%) reported acquiring their products from only commercial sources (i.e., recreational dispensaries, medical dispensaries, or both; vape or smoke shops; stores; and pop-up shops), 627 (78%) from only informal sources (i.e., friends, family, in-person or online dealers, or other sources), and 51 (6%) from both types of sources. Among 613 (54%) EVALI patients reporting nicotine-containing product use with available data on product source, 421 (69%) reported acquiring their products from only commercial sources, 103 (17%) from only informal sources, and 89 (15%) from both types of sources. Adolescents aged 13-17 years were more likely to acquire both THC- and nicotine-containing products from informal sources than were persons in older age groups. The high prevalence of acquisition of THC-containing products from informal sources by EVALI patients reinforces CDC's recommendation to not use e-cigarette, or vaping, products that contain THC, especially those acquired from informal sources. Although acquisition of nicotine-containing products through informal sources was not common overall, it was common among persons aged <18 years. While the investigation continues, CDC recommends that the best way for persons to ensure that they are not at risk is to consider refraining from the use of all e-cigarette, or vaping, products.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Lesão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dronabinol/efeitos adversos , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Feminino , Humanos , Lesão Pulmonar/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 64: 101653, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918179

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cancer recurrence is a meaningful patient outcome that is not captured in population-based cancer surveillance. This project supported National Program of Cancer Registries central cancer registries in five U.S. states to determine the disease course of all breast and colorectal cancer cases. The aims were to assess the feasibility of capturing disease-free (DF) status and subsequent cancer outcomes and to explore analytic approaches for future studies. METHODS: Data were obtained on 11,769 breast and 6033 colorectal cancer cancers diagnosed in 2011. Registry-trained abstractors reviewed medical records from multiple sources for up to 60 months to determine documented DF status, recurrence, progression and residual disease. We described the occurrence of these patient-centered outcomes along with analytic considerations when determining time-to-event outcomes and recurrence-free survival. RESULTS: Disease-free status was determined on all but 3.8 % of cancer cases. Among 14,458 cases that became DF, 6.1 % of breast and 13.0 % of colorectal cancer cases had a documented recurrence. Recurrence-free survival varied by stage; for stage II-III cancers at 48 months, 83.2 % of female breast and 69.2 % of colorectal cancer patients were alive without recurrence. The ability to distinguish between progression and residual disease among never disease-free patients limited our ability to examine progression as an outcome. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that population-based registries given intense support and resources can capture recurrence and offer a generalizable picture of cancer outcomes. Further work on refining definitions, sampling strategies, and novel approaches to capture recurrence could advance the ability of a national cancer surveillance system to contribute to patient-centered outcomes research.

5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(3): 90-94, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971931

RESUMO

Since August 2019, CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), state and local health departments, and public health and clinical stakeholders have been investigating a nationwide outbreak of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) (1). This report updates patient demographic characteristics, self-reported substance use, and hospitalization dates for EVALI patients reported to CDC by states, as well as the distribution of emergency department (ED) visits related to e-cigarette, or vaping, products analyzed through the National Syndromic Surveillance Program (NSSP). As of January 14, 2020, a total of 2,668 hospitalized EVALI cases had been reported to CDC. Median patient age was 24 years, and 66% were male. Overall, 82% of EVALI patients reported using any tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-containing e-cigarette, or vaping, product (including 33% with exclusive THC-containing product use), and 57% of EVALI patients reported using any nicotine-containing product (including 14% with exclusive nicotine-containing product use). Syndromic surveillance indicates that ED visits related to e-cigarette, or vaping, products continue to decline after sharply increasing in August 2019 and peaking in September 2019. Clinicians and public health practitioners should remain vigilant for new EVALI cases. CDC recommends that persons not use THC-containing e-cigarette, or vaping, products, especially those acquired from informal sources such as friends, family members, or from in-person or online dealers. Vitamin E acetate is strongly linked to the EVALI outbreak and should not be added to any e-cigarette, or vaping, products (2). However, evidence is not sufficient to rule out the contribution of other chemicals of concern, including chemicals in either THC- or non-THC-containing products, in some reported EVALI cases.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Lesão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Dronabinol/toxicidade , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lesão Pulmonar/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vitamina E/toxicidade , Adulto Jovem
6.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(2): e27501, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30350913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brain and central nervous system (CNS) cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among children and adolescents in the United States. Data from earlier studies suggested racial and ethnic differences in survival among pediatric patients with brain tumor. This study examined racial/ethnic difference in survival using national data and considered the effects of demographic and clinical factors. METHODS: Using National Program of Cancer Registries data, 1-, 3-, and 5-year relative survival (cancer survival in the absence of other causes of death) was calculated for patients with brain and CNS cancer aged < 20 years diagnosed during 2001-2008 and followed up through 2013. Racial and ethnic differences in survival were measured by sex, age, economic status, stage, anatomic location, and histology. Adjusted racial and ethnic difference in 5-year cancer specific survival was estimated using multivariable Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: Using data from 11 302 patients, 5-year relative survival was 77.6% for non-Hispanic white patients, 69.8% for non-Hispanic black patients, and 72.9% for Hispanic patients. Differences in relative survival by race/ethnicity existed within all demographic groups. Based on multivariable analysis, non-Hispanic black patients had a higher risk of death at 5 years after diagnosis compared to non-Hispanic white patients (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.2, 95% confidence interval, 1.1-1.4). CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric brain and CNS cancer survival differed by race/ethnicity, with non-Hispanic black patients having a higher risk of death than non-Hispanic white patients. Future investigation of access to care, social and economic barriers, and host genetic factors might identify reasons for disparities in survival.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/etnologia , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/mortalidade , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 58: 1-7, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30415099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study aimed to examine racial/ethnic differences in chemotherapy utilization by breast cancer subtype. METHODS: Data on female non-Hispanic white (NHW), non-Hispanic black (NHB), and Hispanic stage I-III breast cancer patients diagnosed in 2011 were obtained from a project to enhance population-based National Program of Cancer Registry data for Comparative Effectiveness Research. Hormone receptor (HR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) were used to classify subtypes: HR+/HER2-; HR+/HER2+; HR-/HER2-; and HR-/HER2 + . We used multivariable logistic regression models to examine the association of race/ethnicity with three outcomes: chemotherapy (yes, no), neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (yes, no), and delayed chemotherapy (yes, no). Covariates included patient demographics, tumor characteristics, Charlson Comorbidity Index, other cancer treatment, and participating states/areas. RESULTS: The study included 25,535 patients (72.1% NHW, 13.7% NHB, and 14.2% Hispanics). NHB with HR+/HER2- (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.22, 95% CI 1.04-1.42) and Hispanics with HR-/HER2- (aOR 1.62, 95% CI 1.15-2.28) were more likely to receive chemotherapy than their NHW counterparts. Both NHB and Hispanics were more likely to receive delayed chemotherapy than NHW, and the pattern was consistent across each subtype. No racial/ethnic differences were found in the receipt of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to NHW with the same subtype, NHB with HR+/HER2- and Hispanics with HR-/HER2- have higher odds of using chemotherapy; however, they are more likely to receive delayed chemotherapy, regardless of subtype. Whether the increased chemotherapy use among NHB with HR+/HER2- indicates overtreatment needs further investigation. Interventions to improve the timely chemotherapy among NHB and Hispanics are warranted.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Receptor ErbB-2 , Sistema de Registros , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/classificação , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Cancer ; 124(11): 2381-2389, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29579317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco use data are important when the epidemiology and prognosis of tobacco-associated cancers are being defined. Central cancer registries in 10 National Program of Cancer Registries states pilot-tested the collection of standardized tobacco use variables. This study evaluated the capture of tobacco use data and examined smoking prevalence among cancer patients. METHODS: Participating registries collected data about the use of tobacco-cigarettes, other smoked tobacco, and smokeless tobacco-for cases diagnosed during 2011-2013. The percentage of cases with known tobacco variable values was calculated, and the prevalence of tobacco use was analyzed by the primary cancer site and state. RESULTS: Among 1,646,505 incident cancer cases, 51% had known cigarette use data: 18% were current users, 31% were former users, and 51% reported never using. The percentage of cases with a known status for both other smoked tobacco and smokeless tobacco was 43%, with 97% and 98% coded as never users, respectively. The percent known for cigarette use ranged from 27% to 81% by state and improved from 47% in 2011 to 59% in 2013 for all 10 states combined. The percent known for cigarette use and the prevalence of ever smoking cigarettes were highest for laryngeal cancer and tracheal, lung, and bronchus cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Cancer registrars ascertained cigarette use for slightly more than half of all new cancer cases, but other tobacco-related fields were less complete. Studies to evaluate the validity of specific tobacco-related variables and the ability of cancer registries to capture this information from the medical record are needed to gauge the usefulness of collecting these variables through cancer surveillance systems. Cancer 2018;124:2381-9. © 2018 American Cancer Society.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/etiologia , Prevalência , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 67(2): 179-185, 2018 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29409000

RESUMO

Background: To provide a standardized, risk-adjusted method for summarizing antibiotic use (AU), enable hospitals to track their AU over time and compare their AU data to national benchmarks, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed the Standardized Antimicrobial Administration Ratio (SAAR). Methods: Hospitals reporting to the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) AU Option collect and submit aggregated AU data electronically as antimicrobial days of therapy per patient days present. SAARs were developed for specific NHSN adult and pediatric patient care locations and cover five antimicrobial agent categories: (1) broad-spectrum agents predominantly used for hospital-onset/multi-drug resistant bacteria; (2) broad-spectrum agents predominantly used for community-acquired infections; (3) anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus agents; (4) agents predominantly used for surgical site infection prophylaxis; and (5) all antibiotic agents. The SAAR is an observed-to-predicted use ratio where predicted use is estimated from a statistical model; a SAAR of 1 indicates that observed use and predicted use are equal. Results: Most location-level SAARs were statistically significantly different than 1: adult locations up to 52% lower than 1 and up to 41% higher than 1. Median SAARs in adult and pediatric ICUs had a range of 0.667-1.119. SAAR distributions serve as an external comparison to national SAARs. Conclusions: This is the first aggregate AU metric that uses point-of-care, antimicrobial administration data electronically reported to a national surveillance system to enable risk-adjusted, AU comparisons across multiple hospitals. Endorsed by the National Quality Forum, SAARs provide AU benchmarks that stewardship programs can use to help drive improvements.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Revisão de Uso de Medicamentos , Adulto , Benchmarking , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Hospitais , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Padrões de Referência , Risco Ajustado , Estados Unidos
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 66(36): 950-954, 2017 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28910269

RESUMO

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most prevalent cancer among children and adolescents in the United States, representing 20% of all cancers diagnosed in persons aged <20 years, or >3,000 new cases each year (1). Past studies reported increasing trends of ALL overall and among Hispanics, but these represented ≤28% of the U.S. population and did not provide state-based estimates (1-3). To describe U.S. ALL incidence rates and trends among persons aged <20 years during 2001-2014, CDC analyzed rigorous data (based on established publication criteria) from the United States Cancer Statistics data set, which includes incidence data on approximately 15,000 new cases per year of all types of invasive cancer among children and adolescents aged <20 years (4). The data set represented 98% of the U.S. population during the study period. Overall incidence of pediatric ALL during 2001-2014 was 34.0 cases per 1 million persons and among all racial/ethnic groups was highest among Hispanics (42.9 per 1 million). Both overall and among Hispanics, pediatric ALL incidence increased during 2001-2008 and remained stable during 2008-2014. ALL incidence was higher in the West than in any other U.S. Census region. State-specific data indicated that the highest rates of pediatric ALL incidence were in California, New Mexico, and Vermont. These demographic and geographic ALL incidence data might better inform public health interventions targeting the following areas: exposures to recognized risk factors for leukemia; ALL treatment, including clinical trial enrollment; survivorship care planning; and studies designed to understand the factors affecting changes in pediatric cancer incidence.


Assuntos
Vigilância da População , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Am J Ind Med ; 60(8): 689-695, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28692191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although data on industry and occupation (I&O) are important for understanding cancer risks, obtaining standardized data is challenging. This study describes the capture of specific I&O text and the ability of a web-based tool to translate text into standardized codes. METHODS: Data on 62 525 cancers cases received from eight National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR) states were submitted to a web-based coding tool developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health for translation into standardized I&O codes. We determined the percentage of sufficiently analyzable codes generated by the tool. RESULTS: Using the web-based coding tool on data obtained from chart abstraction, the NPCR cancer registries achieved between 48% and 75% autocoding, but only 12-57% sufficiently analyzable codes. CONCLUSIONS: The ability to explore associations between work-related exposures and cancer is limited by current capture and coding of I&O data. Increased training of providers and registrars, as well as software enhancements, will improve the utility of I&O data.


Assuntos
Coleta de Dados/métodos , Neoplasias/classificação , Doenças Profissionais/classificação , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Software , Humanos , Sistema de Registros , Estados Unidos
12.
J Biomed Inform ; 71S: S22-S31, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27327529

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To understand clinicians' impressions of and decision-making processes regarding an informatics-supported antibiotic timeout program to re-evaluate the appropriateness of continuing vancomycin and piperacillin/tazobactam. METHODS: We implemented a multi-pronged informatics intervention, based on Dual Process Theory, to prompt discontinuation of unwarranted vancomycin and piperacillin/tazobactam on or after day three in a large Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Two workflow changes were introduced to facilitate cognitive deliberation about continuing antibiotics at day three: (1) teams completed an electronic template note, and (2) a paper summary of clinical and antibiotic-related information was provided to clinical teams. Shortly after starting the intervention, six focus groups were conducted with users or potential users. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. Iterative thematic analysis identified recurrent themes from feedback. RESULTS: Themes that emerged are represented by the following quotations: (1) captures and controls attention ("it reminds us to think about it"), (2) enhances informed and deliberative reasoning ("it makes you think twice"), (3) redirects decision direction ("…because [there was no indication] I just [discontinued] it without even trying"), (4) fosters autonomy and improves team empowerment ("the template… forces the team to really discuss it"), and (5) limits use of emotion-based heuristics ("my clinical concern is high enough I think they need more aggressive therapy…"). CONCLUSIONS: Requiring template completion to continue antibiotics nudged clinicians to re-assess the appropriateness of specified antibiotics. Antibiotic timeouts can encourage deliberation on overprescribed antibiotics without substantially curtailing autonomy. An effective nudge should take into account clinician's time, workflow, and thought processes.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Tomada de Decisões , Padrões de Prática Médica , Cognição , Hospitais de Veteranos , Humanos
13.
JAMA Intern Med ; 176(11): 1639-1648, 2016 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27653796

RESUMO

Importance: The rising threat of antibiotic resistance and other adverse consequences resulting from the misuse of antibiotics requires a better understanding of antibiotic use in hospitals in the United States. Objective: To use proprietary administrative data to estimate patterns of US inpatient antibiotic use in recent years. Design, Setting, and Participants: For this retrospective analysis, adult and pediatric in-patient antibiotic use data was obtained from the Truven Health MarketScan Hospital Drug Database (HDD) from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2012. Data from adult and pediatric patients admitted to 1 of approximately 300 participating acute care hospitals provided antibiotic use data for over 34 million discharges representing 166 million patient-days. Main Outcomes and Measures: We retrospectively estimated the days of therapy (DOT) per 1000 patient-days and the proportion of hospital discharges in which a patient received at least 1 dose of an antibiotic during the hospital stay. We calculated measures of antibiotic usage stratified by antibiotic class, year, and other patient and facility characteristics. We used data submitted to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Healthcare Cost Report Information System to generate estimated weights to apply to the HDD data to create national estimates of antibiotic usage. A multivariate general estimating equation model to account for interhospital covariance was used to assess potential trends in antibiotic DOT over time. Results: During the years 2006 to 2012, 300 to 383 hospitals per year contributed antibiotic data to the HDD. Across all years, 55.1% of patients received at least 1 dose of antibiotics during their hospital visit. The overall national DOT was 755 per 1000 patient-days. Overall antibiotic use did not change significantly over time. The multivariable trend analysis of data from participating hospitals did not show a statistically significant change in overall use (total DOT increase, 5.6; 95% CI, -18.9 to 30.1; P = .65). However, the mean change (95% CI) for the following antibiotic classes increased significantly: third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, 10.3 (3.1-17.5); macrolides, 4.8 (2.0-7.6); glycopeptides, 22.4 (17.5-27.3); ß-lactam/ß-lactamase inhibitor combinations, 18.0 (13.3-22.6); carbapenems, 7.4 (4.6-10.2); and tetracyclines, 3.3 (2.0-4.7). Conclusions and Relevance: Overall DOT of all antibiotics among hospitalized patients in US hospitals has not changed significantly in recent years. Use of some antibiotics, especially broad spectrum agents, however, has increased significantly. This trend is worrisome in light of the rising challenge of antibiotic resistance. Our findings can help inform national efforts to improve antibiotic use by suggesting key targets for improvement interventions.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Pacientes Internados , Tempo de Internação/tendências , Medicaid , Medicare , Alta do Paciente/tendências , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/tendências , Adulto , Criança , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Hospitais Pediátricos/tendências , Hospitais Públicos/tendências , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicaid/tendências , Medicare/tendências , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
14.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 37(10): 1201-11, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27418168

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES To develop common indicators, relevant to both EU member states and the United States, that characterize and allow for meaningful comparison of antimicrobial stewardship programs among different countries and healthcare systems. DESIGN Modified Delphi process. PARTICIPANTS A multinational panel of 20 experts in antimicrobial stewardship. METHODS Potential indicators were rated on the perceived feasibility to implement and measure each indicator and clinical importance for optimizing appropriate antimicrobial prescribing. RESULTS The outcome was a set of 33 indicators developed to characterize the infrastructure and activities of hospital antimicrobial stewardship programs. Among them 17 indicators were considered essential to characterize an antimicrobial stewardship program and therefore were included in a core set of indicators. The remaining 16 indicators were considered optional indicators and included in a supplemental set. CONCLUSIONS The integration of these indicators in public health surveillance and special studies will lead to a better understanding of best practices in antimicrobial stewardship. Additionally, future studies can explore the association of hospital antimicrobial stewardship programs to antimicrobial use and resistance. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016:1-11.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Consenso , Uso de Medicamentos , Relações Interprofissionais , Antibacterianos , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/métodos , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/normas , Técnica Delfos , União Europeia , Hospitais , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 63(4): 443-9, 2016 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27199462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The National Action Plan to Combat Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria calls for all US hospitals to improve antibiotic prescribing as a key prevention strategy for resistance and Clostridium difficile Antibiotic stewardship programs (ASPs) will be important in this effort but implementation is not well understood. METHODS: We analyzed the 2014 National Healthcare Safety Network Annual Hospital Survey to describe ASPs in US acute care hospitals as defined by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Core Elements for Hospital ASPs. Univariate analyses were used to assess stewardship infrastructure and practices by facility characteristics and a multivariate model determined factors associated with meeting all ASP core elements. RESULTS: Among 4184 US hospitals, 39% reported having an ASP that met all 7 core elements. Although hospitals with greater than 200 beds (59%) were more likely to have ASPs, 1 in 4 (25%) of hospitals with less than 50 beds reported achieving all 7 CDC-defined core elements of a comprehensive ASP. The percent of hospitals in each state that reported all seven elements ranged from 7% to 58%. In the multivariate model, written support (adjusted relative risk [RR] 7.2 [95% confidence interval [CI], 6.2-8.4]; P < .0001) or salary support (adjusted RR 1.5 [95% CI, 1.4-1.6]; P < .0001) were significantly associated with having a comprehensive ASP. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that ASP implementation varies across the United States and provide a baseline to monitor progress toward national goals. Comprehensive ASPs can be established in facilities of any size and hospital leadership support for antibiotic stewardship appears to drive the establishment of ASPs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Clostridium difficile/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Hospitais , Humanos , Estados Unidos
16.
J Cancer Res Ther (Manch) ; 5(2): 7-13, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28626587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2011, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) recommended KRAS testing for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. Our study assessed KRAS testing prevalence and its association with socio-demographic and clinical factors and examined first-line treatment. METHODS: Ten state population-based registries supported by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR) collected detailed cancer information on mCRC cases diagnosed in 2011, including KRAS biomarker testing and first-line treatment from ten central cancer registries. Data were analyzed with Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Of the 3,608 mCRC cases, 27% (n = 992) had a documented KRAS test. Increased age at diagnosis (p < 0.0001), racial/ethnic minorities (p = 0.0155), public insurance (p = 0.0018), and lower census tract education (p = 0.0023) were associated with less KRAS testing. Significant geographic variation in KRAS testing (p < 0.0001) ranged from 46% in New Hampshire to 18% in California. After adjusting for all covariates, age and residence at diagnosis (both p < 0.0001) remained predictors of KRAS testing. Non-Hispanic Blacks had less KRAS testing than non-Hispanic Whites (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.61-0.97). Among those tested and found to have normal (wild-type) KRAS, 7% received anti-EGFR treatment; none received such treatment among those with KRAS mutated gene. CONCLUSIONS: Despite NCCN guideline recommendations, 73% of mCRC cases diagnosed in 2011 had no documented KRAS test. Disparities in KRAS testing existed based on age, race, and residence at diagnosis. IMPACT: These findings show the capacity of monitoring KRAS testing in the US using cancer registry data and suggest the need to understand the low uptake of KRAS testing, and associated treatment choices during the first year since diagnosis.

17.
Am J Infect Control ; 44(2): 138-45, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26601705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated an increase in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) among pediatric oncology patients. METHODS: CDI cases were defined as first C difficile positive stool tests between December 1, 2010, and September 6, 2012, in pediatric oncology patients receiving inpatient or outpatient care at a single hospital. A case-control study was performed to identify CDI risk factors, infection prevention and antimicrobial prescribing practices were assessed, and environmental sampling was conducted. Available isolates were strain-typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. RESULTS: An increase in hospital-onset CDI cases was observed from June-August 2012. Independent risk factors for CDI included hospitalization in the bone marrow transplant ward and exposure to computerized tomography scanning or cefepime in the prior 12 weeks. Cefepime use increased beginning in late 2011, reflecting a practice change for patients with neutropenic fever. There were 13 distinct strain types among 22 available isolates. Hospital-onset CDI rates decreased to near-baseline levels with enhanced infection prevention measures, including environmental cleaning and prolonged contact isolation. CONCLUSION: C difficile strain diversity associated with a cluster of CDI among pediatric oncology patients suggests a need for greater understanding of modes and sources of transmission and strategies to reduce patient susceptibility to CDI. Further research is needed on the risk of CDI with cefepime and its use as primary empirical treatment for neutropenic fever.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Clostridium/epidemiologia , Clostridium difficile/isolamento & purificação , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Controle de Infecções , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cefepima , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Clostridium/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Clostridium difficile/classificação , Clostridium difficile/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Oncologia , Pediatria , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
Am J Infect Control ; 43(11): 1244-5, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26277570

RESUMO

Public health activities to identify and monitor persons at risk for Ebola virus disease in the United States include directing persons at risk to assessment facilities that are prepared to safely evaluate for Ebola virus disease. Although it is unlikely that a person with Ebola virus disease will unexpectedly present to a nonemergency ambulatory care facility, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have provided guidance for this setting that can be summarized as identify, isolate, and inform.


Assuntos
Defesa Civil/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Notificação de Doenças , Ebolavirus/isolamento & purificação , Política de Saúde , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/diagnóstico , Assistência Ambulatorial , Humanos , Estados Unidos
19.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 64(32): 871-3, 2015 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26292205

RESUMO

Each year in the United States, approximately two million persons become infected with antibiotic-resistant bacteria, at least 23,000 persons die as a direct result of these infections, and many more die from conditions complicated by a resistant infection. Antibiotic-resistant infections contribute to poor health outcomes, higher health care costs, and use of more toxic treatments. Although emerging resistance mechanisms are being identified and resistant infections are on the rise, new antibiotic development has slowed considerably.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Competência Clínica , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Previsões , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estados Unidos
20.
Oncol Nurs Forum ; 42(3): 233-40, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25901375

RESUMO

PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To explore the impact of health professionals' recommendations for medical follow-up among colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Mailed surveys and telephone interviews with CRC survivors in California. SAMPLE: 593 adults diagnosed with a primary CRC six to seven years before the time of the study. METHODS: Participants were identified through California Cancer Registry records and invited to take part in a survey delivered via mail or through telephone interview. MAIN RESEARCH VARIABLES: The survey assessed cancer history, current preventive health practices, health status, demographics, and other cancer-related experiences. FINDINGS: More than 70% of CRC survivors received recommendations for routine checkups, surveillance colonoscopy, or other cancer screenings after completing CRC treatment, and 18%-22% received no such recommendations. Recommendations were sometimes given in writing. Receiving a recommendation for a specific type of follow-up was associated with greater adherence to corresponding guidelines for routine checkups, colonoscopy, mammography, and Papanicolaou testing. Receiving written (versus unwritten) recommendations led to greater adherence only for colonoscopy. CONCLUSIONS: Most CRC survivors reported receiving recommendations for long-term medical follow-up and largely adhered to guidelines for follow-up. Receiving a health professional's recommendation for follow-up was consistently associated with patient adherence, and limited evidence showed that recommendations in written form led to greater adherence than unwritten recommendations. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING: Given the increasingly important role of the oncology nurse in survivorship care, nurses can be instrumental in ensuring appropriate surveillance and follow-up care among CRC survivors. Conveying recommendations in written form, as is done in survivorship care plans, may be particularly effective.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Enfermagem Oncológica/métodos , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , California , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição Aleatória , Adulto Jovem
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