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1.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 118: 241-250, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530078

RESUMO

Tools are required for quick and easy preliminary evaluation of functional feeds efficiency on fisheries. The analysis of skin mucus biomarkers is a recent alternative approach providing a faster feed-back from the laboratory which is characterized by being less invasive, more rapid and with reduced costs. The effect of replacing fishmeal and fish protein hydrolysates by means of two porcine by-products, the porcine spray-dried plasma (SDPP) and pig protein hydrolysate (PPH), in compound diets (50.4% crude protein, 16.2% crude protein, 22.1 MJ/kg feed) was evaluated in juvenile meagre (Argyrosomus regius) during a two-months period. To determine the impact of these dietary replacements, growth and food performance were measured together with digestive enzymes activities and filet proximal composition. Additionally, skin mucus was collected and characterized by determining main mucus biomarkers (protein, glucose, lactate, cortisol, and antioxidant capacity) and its antibacterial properties, measured by the quick in vitro co-culture challenges. In comparison to the control group, the inclusion of PPH and SDPP, in meagre diets reduced growth (7.4-8.8% in body weight), increased feed conversion ratios (9.0-10.0%), results that were attributed to a reduction in feed intake values (24.2-33.0%) (P < 0.05). Porcine blood by-products did not modify the activity of gastric and pancreatic digestive enzymes as well as those involved in nutrient absorption (alkaline phosphatase) nor liver oxidative stress condition (P > 0.05). In contrast, a reduction in fillet lipid content associated to an increase in fillet protein levels were found in fish fed SDPP and PPH diets (P < 0.05). As compared to the control diet, the dietary replacement did not alter the levels of the skin mucus biomarkers related to stress (cortisol and antioxidant capacity) or nutritional status (soluble protein, glucose and lactate) (P > 0.05). Interestingly, regardless of the worst performance in somatic growth, meagre fed diets containing both tested porcine by-products showed a significantly improved antibacterial capacity of their skin mucus. This enhancement was more prominent for fish fed with the PPH diet, which may be attributed to a higher content of immunomodulatory bioactive compounds in PPH. Further research will be necessary to provide insights on how the inclusion of SDPP and PPH, at the expense of dietary fishmeal and fish protein hydrolysates, affects feed intake and growth performance in meagre. However, the use of skin mucus biomarkers has been demonstrated to be an excellent methodology for a preliminary characterization of the functional feeds, in particular for their prophylactic properties by the study of mucus antibacterial activity.

2.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371878

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the aberrant processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau, both of which are accompanied by neuroinflammation. Dietary supplementation with spray-dried porcine plasma (SDP) has anti-inflammatory effects in inflammation models. We investigated whether dietary supplementation with SDP prevents the neuropathological features of AD. The experiments were performed in 2- and 6-month-old SAMP8 mice fed a control diet, or a diet supplemented with 8% SDP, for 4 months. AD brain molecular markers were determined by Western blot and real-time PCR. Senescent mice showed reduced levels of p-GSK3ß (Ser9) and an increase in p-CDK5, p-tau (Ser396), sAPPß, and the concentration of Aß40, (all p < 0.05). SDP prevented these effects of aging and reduced Bace1 levels (all p < 0.05). Senescence increased the expression of Mme1 and Ide1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines (Il-17 and Il-18; all p < 0.05); these changes were prevented by SDP supplementation. Moreover, SDP increased Tgf-ß expression (p < 0.05). Furthermore, in aged mice, the gene expression levels of the microglial activation markers Trem2, Ym1, and Arg1 were increased, and SDP prevented these increases (all p < 0.05). Thus, dietary SDP might delay AD onset by reducing its hallmarks in senescent mice.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/prevenção & controle , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Plasma , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Quinase 5 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , Microglia/patologia , Emaranhados Neurofibrilares/efeitos dos fármacos , Emaranhados Neurofibrilares/metabolismo , Emaranhados Neurofibrilares/patologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Transdução de Sinais , Secagem por Atomização , Sus scrofa , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
3.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(7)2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359250

RESUMO

The effects of porcine plasma protein hydrolysate (PPH) on growth, feed efficiency, and immune responses was evaluated in Sparus aurata. Fish were fed two isoproteic (48% protein), isolipidic (17% fat), and isoenergetic diets (21.7 MJ/kg) diets, one of them containing 5% PPH at the expense of fishmeal. Both diets were tested for 92 days. A significant increase in growth was observed in fish fed the PPH diet in comparison to the control group (182.2 ± 4.4 vs. 173.8 ± 4.1 g), as well as an increase in feed intake without worsening FCR values. An ex vivo assay, with splenocytes incubated with lipopolysaccharide, was conducted to evaluate the cellular immune competence of fish. Genes involved in humoral immunity (lys, IgM), pro- (tnf-α, il-1ß), and anti-inflammatory (tgf-ß1, il10) cytokines were upregulated in the PPH group in comparison to the control group. The inclusion of PPH in diets enhanced the antibacterial capacity of skin mucus, as the co-culture of selected bacteria (E. coli, V. anguillarum, and P. anguilliseptica) with skin mucus indicated. The present results showed that the PPH in low fishmeal diets (2%) promoted growth and feed efficiency, as well as enhancing the immune response, which indicates that this is a safe and functional ingredient for aquafeeds.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249935, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909651

RESUMO

Spray-dried animal plasma (SDAP) is widely used in diets of domestic animals to improve health status and increase growth and feed efficiency. Individual steps in the SDAP manufacturing process, including spray-drying, have been validated to inactivate potential pathogens. Manufacturing standards have established a minimum exit temperature of 80°C and a minimum post-drying storage period of 14 days at 20°C for production of SDAP. Also, UV-C irradiation has been evaluated as another inactivation step that could be included in the manufacturing process. The aim of this study was to assess the inactivation effectiveness of spray-drying on Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and African swine fever virus (ASFV) and the effect of UV-C inactivation on ASFV as redundant biosafety steps of the manufacturing process for producing spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP). This study demonstrated that UV-C treatment of liquid porcine plasma can inactivate more than 4 Log10 TCID50/mL of ASFV at 3000 J/L. Spray-drying effectively inactivated at least 4 Log10 TCID50/mL of both CSFV and ASFV. Incorporating UV-C technology within the SDAP manufacturing process can add another biosafety step to further enhance product safety.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Suína Africana/efeitos da radiação , Vírus da Febre Suína Clássica/efeitos da radiação , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos/métodos , Raios Ultravioleta , Inativação de Vírus/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Temperatura Alta , Modelos Teóricos , Secagem por Atomização , Suínos
5.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805697

RESUMO

Serum protein concentrates have been shown to exert in vivo anti-inflammatory effects. Specific effects on different cell types and their mechanism of action remain unraveled. We aimed to characterize the immunomodulatory effect of two porcine plasma protein concentrates, spray dried serum (SDS) and an immunoglobulin concentrate (IC), currently used as animal nutritional supplements with established in vivo immunomodulatory properties. Cytokine production by the intestinal epithelial cell line IEC18 and by primary cultures of rat splenocytes was studied. The molecular pathways involved were explored with specific inhibitors and gene knockdown. Our results indicate that both products induced GROα and MCP-1 production in IEC18 cells by a MyD88/NF-κB-dependent mechanism. Inhibition of TNF production was observed in rat primary splenocyte cultures. The immunoglobulin concentrate induced IL-10 expression in primary splenocytes and lymphocytes. The effect on TNF was independent of IL-10 production or the stimulation of NF-kB, MAPKs, AKT, or RAGE. In conclusion, SDS and IC directly regulate intestinal and systemic immune response in murine intestinal epithelial cells and in T lymphocytes and monocytes.

6.
Tog (A Coruña) ; 17(2): 214-224, nov. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-198818

RESUMO

OBJETIVOS: conocer la efectividad del modelo de atención centrada en la persona en la rehabilitación visual. MÉTODO: se seleccionaron artículos publicados entre 2010 y 2019, recogidos en PUBMED y Web of Science. Se incluyeron aquellos dedicados a la terapia ocupacional y rehabilitación visual de personas con discapacidad visual desde un enfoque de atención centrado en la persona. Finalmente se incluyeron 14 artículos para esta revisión. RESULTADOS: de la búsqueda en PubMed se obtuvieron un total de 490 artículos y de Web of science 40, alcanzando un total de 530 artículos. Después de realizar la lectura del título, se seleccionaron 126 artículos. Tras la lectura de los resúmenes y/o el contenido completo, se excluyeron 112 por no cumplir los objetivos del estudio; resultando elegidos 13 artículos. Las diferentes investigaciones recopiladas justifican que la rehabilitación visual y la terapia ocupacional basadas en el modelo de atención centrada en la persona contribuyen a mejorar la calidad de vida de las personas con baja visión y su autonomía personal. CONCLUSIÓN: son necesarias más investigaciones que evidencien cómo la terapia ocupacional desde una atención centrada en la persona produce resultados positivos en la rehabilitación de personas con baja visión


OBJECTIVE: To know the effectiveness of the person-centered care model in visual rehabilitation. METHOD: Articles published between 2010 and 2019, collected in PUBMED and Web of Science, were selected. Those dedicated to occupational therapy and visual rehabilitation of people with visual disabilities from a person-centered care approach were included. Finally 14 articles were included for this review. RESULTS: A total of 490 articles were obtained from the PubMed search and 40 from Web of science, reaching a total of 530 articles. After reading the title, 126 articles were selected. After reading the abstracts and / or the full content, 112 were excluded because they did not meet the study objectives; resulting in 13 articles chosen. The different studies collected justify that visual rehabilitation and occupational therapy based on the person-centered care model contribute to improving the quality of life of people with low vision and their personal autonomy. CONCLUSION: More research is needed to show how occupational therapy from a person-centered care produces positive results in the rehabilitation of people with low vision


Assuntos
Humanos , Autonomia Pessoal , Avaliação da Deficiência , Educação de Pessoas com Deficiência Visual/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/métodos , Transtornos da Visão/terapia , Serviços de Saúde para Pessoas com Deficiência , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/organização & administração , Qualidade de Vida , Transtornos da Visão/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Visão/reabilitação , Atividades Cotidianas
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(18)2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942624

RESUMO

Dietary supplementation with spray-dried porcine plasma (SDP) can modulate the immune response of gut-associated lymphoid tissue. SDP supplementation reduces acute mucosal inflammation, as well as chronic inflammation associated with aging. The aim of this study was to analyze if SDP supplementation could ameliorate colitis in a genetic mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Wild-type mice and Mdr1a knockout (KO) mice were administered a control diet or an SDP-supplemented diet from day 21 (weaning) until day 56. The histopathological index, epithelial barrier, and intestinal immune system were analyzed in the colonic mucosa. KO mice had higher epithelial permeability, increased Muc1 and Muc4 expression, and lower abundance of E-cadherin and Muc2 (all p < 0.001). SDP prevented these effects (all p < 0.05) and decreased the colonic inflammation observed in KO mice, reducing neutrophil and monocyte infiltration and activation and the percentage of activated T helper lymphocytes in the colonic mucosa (all p < 0.05). SDP also diminished proinflammatory cytokine expression and increased the anti-inflammatory IL-10 concentration in the colonic mucosa (all p < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary supplementation with SDP enhances colon barrier function and reduces mucosal inflammation in a mouse model of IBD.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/farmacologia , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Plasma/metabolismo , Suínos/metabolismo , Animais , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Colite/metabolismo , Colo/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Imunidade nas Mucosas/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout
8.
Porcine Health Manag ; 6: 16, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690994

RESUMO

Spray dried plasma (SDP) is a functional protein source obtained from blood of healthy animals, approved by the veterinary authorities from animals declared to be fit for slaughter for human consumption. Blood of these animals is collected at the slaughterhouse, treated with an anticoagulant, chilled and transported to industrial facilities in which blood is centrifuged to separate the red blood cells from the plasma fraction. Plasma is then concentrated, and spray dried at high temperatures (80 °C throughout its substance) to convert it in a powder. Such method preserves the biological activity of its proteins, mainly albumins and globulins. SDP is mainly used in pig feed diets to significantly improve daily gain, feed intake, production efficiency, and to reduce post-weaning lag caused by the appearance of post-weaning diarrhea. Although SDP is considered a safe product and its manufacturing process consists of several biosafety steps, the security of the SDP is often questioned due to its nature as raw blood by-product, especially when emergent or re-emergent pathogens appear. This review provides an evaluation and validation of the different safety steps present in the manufacturing process of SDP, with special focus on a new redundant pathogen inactivation step, the UV-C irradiation, that may be implemented in the manufacturing process of the SDP. Overall results showed that the manufacturing process of SDP is safe and the UV-C radiation was effective in inactivating a wide range of bacteria and viruses spiked and naturally present in commercially collected liquid animal plasma and it can be implemented as a redundant biosafety step in the manufacturing process of the SDP.

9.
Front Plant Sci ; 11: 953, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32714352

RESUMO

Biostimulants may be particularly interesting for application in agricultural and horticultural crops since they can exert a growth-promoting effect on roots. This may be important for promoting longitudinal and lateral root growth and therefore increasing belowground vegetative growth, which may in turn lead to improved aboveground vegetative growth and increased yields. Here, we examined the effects and mechanism of action of an enzymatically hydrolyzed animal protein-based biostimulant (Pepton) on the root growth of tomato plants, with an emphasis on its possible role on chorismate-derived hormones (auxin, salicylic acid, and melatonin). Tomato plants growing in hydroponic systems were exposed to either nutrient stress conditions (experiment 1) or suboptimal temperatures (experiment 2) in a greenhouse, and the concentration of auxin, salicylic acid, and melatonin in roots were measured just prior and after the application of the biostimulant. Results showed that the application of Pepton exerted a growth-promoting effect on roots in plants growing under suboptimal conditions, which might be associated with enhanced salicylic acid levels in roots. The extent of effects of this enzymatically hydrolyzed animal protein-based biostimulant might strongly depend on the growth conditions and stage of root system development. It is concluded that an enzymatically hydrolyzed animal protein-based biostimulant (Pepton) may exert a positive effect enhancing primary and lateral root growth of tomato plants growing under suboptimal conditions, by stimulating the biosynthesis of specific hormonal pathways, such as salicylic acid under stress.

10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235895, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697784

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine if commercially collected liquid porcine plasma contaminated with African swine fever virus (ASFV) and fed for 14 consecutive days would infect pigs. Commercially collected liquid porcine plasma was mixed with the serum from an ASFV experimentally infected pig. To simulate the potential of pigs slaughtered being ASFV viremic but asymptomatic and passing antemortem inspection, the ratio of liquid plasma from healthy animals to serum from an ASFV infected pig used in this study represented 0.4% or 2.0% of the pigs slaughtered being viremic (Studies 1 or 2, respectively). The contaminated liquid plasma was mixed on commercial feed and pigs were fed for 14 consecutive days providing to each pig 104.3 or 105.0 TCID50 ASFV daily (Studies 1 or 2, respectively). Pigs were observed for an additional 5 or 9 days (Studies 1 or 2, respectively). In both experiments, the pigs did not become infected with ASFV during the 14d feeding period or during the subsequent observation period. In these experiments, unprocessed liquid plasma contaminated with ASFV mixed on commercial feed and fed for 14 consecutive days did not infect pigs. From our results we can conclude that the infectious dose of ASFV on feed is much higher than that previously reported, at least with ASFV-spiked raw plasma.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Suína Africana/patogenicidade , Febre Suína Africana/transmissão , Ração Animal/virologia , Plasma/virologia , Febre Suína Africana/virologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Suínos
12.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(3): 1101-1112, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995852

RESUMO

The introduction and spread of porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) in North America resulted in significant death loss in the swine industry. As the industry learned how to manage this disease, many new risks were identified, including the potential for feed and feed ingredients to become contaminated and spread PEDV. In addition, biosecurity practices were reevaluated and strengthened throughout the industry. At the time of the outbreak epidemiologists did not understand, as well as they are understood today, all the risk factors that contribute to the spread of PEDV. As a result, the epidemiological investigations into the 2014 PEDV outbreak in eastern Canada may not have investigated all risk factors as thoroughly as they would be investigated today. In retrospect, many of the Bradford Hill criteria used to determine causation were not fulfilled. This review identifies risk factors that were not included in the 2014 epidemiology. If these risk factors were included in the epidemiology, the conclusions and determination of causation may have been different.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/fisiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Canadá/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Geografia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
13.
J Nutr ; 150(2): 303-311, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aging is characterized by chronic, low-grade inflammation that correlates with cognitive decline. Dietary supplementation with spray-dried porcine plasma (SDP) reduces immune activation in rodent models of inflammation and aging. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether the anti-inflammatory properties of SDP could ameliorate age-related cognitive deterioration and preserve brain homeostasis in an aging mouse model of senescence. METHODS: Male senescence-accelerated prone 8 (SAMP8) mice were used. In Experiment 1, cognitive performance (n  = 10-14 mice/group) was analyzed by the novel object recognition test in 2-mo-old mice (2M group) and in mice fed a control diet or a diet supplemented with 8% SDP for 2 (4M-CTL and 4M-SDP groups) and 4 mo (6M-CTL and 6M-SDP groups). In Experiment 2, the permeability of the blood-brain barrier and junctional proteins in brain tissue was assessed, as well as synaptic density, oxidative stress markers, and inflammatory genes and proteins in mice from the 2M, 6M-CTL, and 6M-SDP groups ( n = 5-11). Statistical analyses included one-factor ANOVA followed by Fisher's posthoc test. RESULTS: 6M-SDP mice had better cognitive performance than 6M-CTL mice in both short-term (P = 0.024) and long-term (P = 0.017) memory tests. In brain tissue, 6M-SDP mice showed reduced brain capillary permeability (P = 0.034) and increased ZO1 and E-cadherin expression (both P <0.04) compared with 6M-CTL mice. SDP also prevented the NFκB activation observed in 6M-CTL mice (P = 0.002) and reduced Il6 expression and hydrogen peroxide concentration (both P <0.03) observed in 6M-CTL mice. SDP also increased the concentration of IL10 (P = 0.027), an anti-inflammatory cytokine correlated with memory preservation. CONCLUSIONS: In senescent SAMP8 mice, dietary supplementation with SDP attenuated cognitive decline and prevented changes in brain markers of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/prevenção & controle , Encefalite/prevenção & controle , Estresse Oxidativo , Plasma , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Suínos
15.
Front Immunol ; 11: 613824, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33613538

RESUMO

From a general structural perspective, a mucosal tissue is constituted by two main matrices: the tissue and the secreted mucus. Jointly, they fulfill a wide range of functions including the protection of the epithelial layer. In this study, we simultaneously analyzed the epithelial tissue and the secreted mucus response using a holistic interactome-based multi-omics approach. The effect of the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) skin mucosa to a dietary inclusion of spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) was evaluated. The epithelial skin microarrays-based transcriptome data showed 194 differentially expressed genes, meanwhile the exuded mucus proteome analysis 35 differentially synthesized proteins. Separately, the skin transcripteractome revealed an expression profile that favored biological mechanisms associated to gene expression, biogenesis, vesicle function, protein transport and localization to the membrane. Mucus proteome showed an enhanced protective role with putatively higher antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The integrated skin mucosa multi-interactome analysis evidenced the interrelationship and synergy between the metabolism and the exuded mucus functions improving specifically the tissue development, innate defenses, and environment recognition. Histologically, the skin increased in thickness and in number of mucous cells. A positive impact on animal performance, growth and feed efficiency was also registered. Collectively, the results suggest an intimate crosstalk between skin tissue and its exuded mucus in response to the nutritional stimulus (SDPP supplementation) that favors the stimulation of cell protein turnover and the activation of the exudation machinery in the skin mucosa. Thus, the multi-omics-based interactome analysis provides a comprehensive understanding of the biological context of response that takes place in a mucosal tissue. In perspective, this strategy is applicable for evaluating the effect of any experimental variable on any mucosal tissue functionality, including the benefits this assessment may provide on the study of the mammalian mucosa.


Assuntos
Peixes/imunologia , Membrana Mucosa/imunologia , Muco/imunologia , Proteoma/imunologia , Pele/imunologia , Animais , Dieta , Epitélio/imunologia , Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Suínos
16.
Microorganisms ; 7(8)2019 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357672

RESUMO

Spray-dried plasma (SDP) is a functional ingredient commonly utilized in swine production and calf milk replacers to improve performance, feed efficiency, and health. The improvements noted with SDP in animal production are more pronounced under commercial production conditions compared to cleaner research settings. Multiple modes of action of SDP have been proposed, including either directly influencing the immune inflammatory response locally or systemically, and/or through the indirect modification of beneficial microbial populations. Spray-dried plasma included at various dietary levels and duration of feeding in broilers has been evaluated in different production and challenging conditions with beneficial effects on broiler performance, as noted in other animals. The purpose of this review is to discuss research related to the modes of action of SDP on immunomodulation and improved intestinal health and specifically discuss research conducted utilizing SDP in feed for poultry. Collectively, the data available indicates that SDP improves early intestinal health and supports an efficient immune system response both locally at the intestine and systemically, thereby benefiting growth, feed efficiency, and survival of broilers in conventional commercial production and under challenging conditions such as disease or environmental stressors.

17.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 758, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31249580

RESUMO

Biostimulants may promote growth or alleviate the negative effects of abiotic stress on plant growth eventually resulting in enhanced yields. We examined the mechanism of action of an enzymatically hydrolyzed animal protein-based biostimulant (Pepton), which has previously been shown to benefit growth and yield in several horticultural crops, particularly under stressful conditions. Tomato plants were exposed to well-watered and water-stressed conditions in a greenhouse and the hormonal profiling of leaves was measured during and after the application of Pepton. Results showed that the Pepton application benefited antioxidant protection and exerted a major hormonal effect in leaves of water-stressed tomatoes by increasing the endogenous content of indole-3-acetic acid (auxin), trans-zeatin (cytokinin), and jasmonic acid. The enhanced jasmonic acid content may have contributed to an increased production of tocochromanols because plastochromanol-8 concentration per unit of chlorophyll was higher in Pepton-treated plants compared to controls. In conclusion, the tested Pepton application may exert a positive effect on hormonal balance and the antioxidant system of plants under water stress in an economically important crop, such as tomato plants.

18.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212332, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789926

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the SurePure Turbulator ultraviolet-C (UV-C, 254 nm wavelength) irradiation equipment on inactivation of different enveloped and non-enveloped viruses in commercially collected liquid animal plasma. Specifically, Pseudorabies virus (PRV), Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), Swine influenza virus (SIV) as enveloped viruses and Porcine parvovirus (PPV), Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) and Senecavirus A (SVA) as non-enveloped viruses, were inoculated in bovine or porcine plasma and subjected to different UV-C irradiation doses (0, 750, 1500, 3000, 6000 and 9000 J/L) using an UV-C device developed for opaque liquid working under turbulent flow. The enveloped viruses tested were inactivated at < 3000 J/L of UV-C, being the dose needed to inactivate 4 log TCID50 (4D) of 1612 J/L for PRV,1004 J/L for PRRSV, 1953 J/L for PEDV, 1639 J/L for SIV, 1641 J/L for CSFV and 1943 J/L for BVDV. The non-enveloped viruses tended to have higher 4D values: 2161 J/L for PPV, 3223 J/L for SVA and 3708 J/L for SVDV. Because the initial viral concentration was <4.0 Log for PCV-2, it was not possible to calculate the 4D value for this virus. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that the SurePure Turbulator UV-C treatment system is capable of inactivating significant levels of swine viruses inoculated in commercially collected porcine or bovine plasma. It was concluded that irradiation with UV-C can provide an additional redundant biosafety feature in the manufacturing process of spray-dried animal plasma.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Plasma/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Bovinos , Plasma/virologia , Suínos , Viroses/radioterapia , Viroses/virologia
19.
World Neurosurg ; 2019 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30611949

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Placing of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) is one of the most common procedures performed by neurosurgeons. Surgical revision of VPS is a significant cause of patient morbidity and mortality. This study was aimed to provide an analysis of factors related to VPS failures in the first 30 postoperative days in a pediatric cohort. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 83 pediatric patients (<18 years old), shunted for the first time at a referral care center, between January 2012 and December 2016. Univariate analysis was used to detect potential predictors of VPS failures within the first 30 postoperative days and in the first 6 months of follow-up. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to examine the occurrence of VPS failures over time. RESULTS: During the first 30 postoperative days, VPS failures occurred in 21 patients (25.3%). Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) (odds ratio [OR], 4.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.44-13.48), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) alterations (OR, 5.11; 95% CI, 1.37-19.1), and previous external ventricular drain (EVD) (OR, 7.05; 95% CI, 1.18-41.8) were significantly associated with shunt failure during the first postoperative month. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed decreased shunt survival for patients with IVH, both during the first 30 days after surgery (P = 0.005, log-rank), and during the 6 months after surgery (P = 0.005, log-rank). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that in pediatric patients, IVH was associated with VPS failure within the first 30 postoperative days and decreased shunt survival over time. Further larger prospective randomized studies are needed to better understand these results.

20.
Transl Anim Sci ; 3(2): 654-661, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289112

RESUMO

Experimental objectives of this study were to determine effects of formaldehyde treatment on the chemical composition of spray-dried plasma (SDP) and to test the hypothesis that growth performance of pigs fed formaldehyde-treated diets containing SDP or diets containing formaldehyde-treated SDP is not reduced compared with pigs fed untreated control diets. Sal CURB ASF liquid antimicrobial and CURB RM Extra liquid mold inhibitor (Kemin Industries, Des Moines, IA) were applied on SDP at 0.1% or 0.3% to determine effects of the products on chemical and functional properties of SDP. Regardless of product, there were no changes in SDP for analyzed protein, ash, pH, or moisture concentration, but IgG concentration in SDP was decreased 8% and 24%, respectively, for 0.1% and 0.3% inclusion of Sal CURB or CURB RM. Two feeding studies using weaned pigs were conducted to determine effects of formaldehyde applied at 0.3% to SDP (experiment 1) or 0.3% to a complete diet containing 5% SDP (experiment 2). Experiment 1 pigs (n = 265) were weaned at 20 ± 2 d of age and allotted to five treatment groups. Experiment 2 pigs (n = 135) were weaned in two groups at 20 ± 2 d of age and allotted to three treatments groups. In experiment 1, the untreated control diet contained soy protein concentrate (SPC) and test diets contained 2.5% or 5.0% SDP without or with formaldehyde treatment. In experiment 2, formaldehyde was applied to a diet containing 5% SDP and an untreated SPC control diet and an untreated diet containing 5% SDP were also included in the experiment. In experiment 1, linear increases (P < 0.05) in average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and gain-to-feed ratio (G:F) were observed as SDP was included in the diets and the relative bioavailability of formaldehyde-treated SDP was 62% (P = 0.018) if calculations were based on ADG and 15% (P = 0.031) if calculations were based on ADFI. In experiment 2, pigs fed the SDP diet untreated or treated with formaldehyde had increased (P < 0.05) final body weight, ADG, ADFI, and G:F compared with pigs fed the control diet. However, formaldehyde treatment of the plasma-containing diet did not affect pig growth performance compared with pigs fed the untreated SDP diet. In conclusion, formaldehyde treatment applied directly on SDP affects analyzed concentrations of IgG and reduces growth rate of pigs. Treating a complete diet containing 5% SDP with formaldehyde did not affect pig growth performance, and pigs fed diets containing SDP had improved growth performance than those fed the control diet without SDP.

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