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1.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068051

RESUMO

The Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) has recently issued a position paper on the role of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in heart failure (HF). The present document provides an update of the position paper, based of new clinical trial evidence. Accordingly, the following recommendations are given: • Canagliflozin, dapagliflozin empagliflozin, or ertugliflozin have consistently demonstrated to be effective for the prevention of HF hospitalization in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and established cardiovascular disease or at high cardiovascular risk. The specifically listed agents are recommended. • Dapagliflozin or empagliflozin are recommended to reduce the combined risk of HF hospitalization and cardiovascular death in symptomatic patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction, already receiving guideline-directed medical therapy, regardless of the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

3.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(9): 1495-1503, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618086

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) is common and associated with a poor prognosis, despite advances in treatment. Over the last decade cardiovascular outcome trials with sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have demonstrated beneficial effects for three SGLT2 inhibitors (empagliflozin, canagliflozin and dapagliflozin) in reducing hospitalisations for HF. More recently, dapagliflozin reduced the risk of worsening HF or death from cardiovascular causes in patients with chronic HF with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus. A number of additional trials in HF patients with reduced and/or preserved left ventricular ejection fraction are ongoing and/or about to be reported. The present position paper summarises recent clinical trial evidence and discusses the role of SGLT2 inhibitors in the treatment of HF, pending the results of ongoing trials in different populations of patients with HF.

7.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(5): 763-774, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187429

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) is the major contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Given its rising prevalence, the costs of HF care can be expected to increase. Multidisciplinary management of HF can improve quality of care and survival. However, specialized HF programmes are not widely available in most European countries. These circumstances underlie the suggestion of the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) for the development of quality of care centres (QCCs). These are defined as health care institutions that provide multidisciplinary HF management at all levels of care (primary, secondary and tertiary), are accredited by the HFA/ESC and are implemented into existing health care systems. Their major goals are to unify and improve the quality of HF care, and to promote collaboration in education and research activities. Three types of QCC are suggested: community QCCs (primary care facilities able to provide non-invasive assessment and optimal therapy); specialized QCCs (district hospitals with intensive care units, able to provide cardiac catheterization and device implantation services), and advanced QCCs (national reference centres able to deliver advanced and innovative HF care and research). QCC accreditation will require compliance with general and specific HFA/ESC accreditation standards. General requirements include confirmation of the centre's existence, commitment to QCC implementation, and collaboration with other QCCs. Specific requirements include validation of the centre's level of care, service portfolio, facilities and equipment, management, human resources, process measures, quality indicators and outcome measures. Audit and recertification at 4-6-year intervals are also required. The implementation of QCCs will evolve gradually, following a pilot phase in selected countries. The present document summarizes the definition, major goals, development, classification and crucial aspects of the accreditation process of the HFA/ESC QCC Programme.

8.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(4): 638-645, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125085

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) constitutes the growing cardiovascular burden and the major public health issue, but comprehensive statistics on HF epidemiology and related management in Europe are missing. The Heart Failure Association (HFA) Atlas has been initiated in 2016 in order to close this gap, representing the continuity directly rooted in the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Atlas of Cardiology. The major aim of the HFA Atlas is to establish a contemporary dataset on HF epidemiology, resources and reimbursement policies for HF management, organization of the National Heart Failure Societies (NHFS) and their major activities, including education and HF awareness. These data are gathered in collaboration with the network of NHFS of the ESC member and ESC affiliated countries. The dataset will be continuously improved and advanced based on the experience and enhanced understanding of data collection in the forthcoming years. This will enable revealing trends, disparities and gaps in knowledge on epidemiology and management of HF. Such data are highly needed by the clinicians of different specialties (aside from cardiologists and cardiac surgeons), researchers, healthcare policy makers, as well as HF patients and their caregivers. It will also allow to map the snapshot of realities in HF care, as well as to provide insights for evidence-based health care policy in contemporary management of HF. Such data will support the ESC/HFA efforts to improve HF management ant outcomes through stronger recommendations and calls for action. This will likely influence the allocation of funds for the prevention, treatment, education and research in HF.

10.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(1): 113-125, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822042

RESUMO

AIMS: Impact of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on non-thromboembolic outcomes in atrial fibrillation (AF) is insufficiently explored. This prospective cohort study of AF patients aimed (i) to analyse the association between T2DM and heart failure (HF) events (including new-onset HF), and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, (ii) to assess the impact of baseline T2DM treatment on outcomes, and (iii) to explore characteristics of new-onset HF phenotypes in relation to T2DM status. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of 1803 AF patients (515/1288, with/without prior HF), 389 (22%) had T2DM at baseline. After 5 years of median follow-up, T2DM patients had an 85% greater risk of HF events [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.85; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.51-2.28; P < 0.001], including a 45% increased risk for new-onset HF (1.45; 1.17-2.28; P = 0.015). T2DM conferred a 56% higher all-cause (1.56, 1.22-2.01; P = 0.003) and a 48% higher cardiovascular mortality (1.48; 1.34-1.93; P = 0.007). Fine-Gray analysis, with mortality as a competing risk, confirmed greater HF risk among T2DM patients. All risks were highest among insulin-treated patients. The prevalence of new-onset HF phenotypes was as follows: 67% preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), 20% mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF) and 13% reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). On time-dependent Cox regression, adjusted for baseline characteristics and an interim acute coronary event, T2DM increased aHRs for new-onset HFpEF (2.38; 1.30-4.58; P <0.001) and the combined HFmrEF/HFrEF (1.77; 1.11-3.62; P = 0.017). CONCLUSIONS: Atrial fibrillation patients with T2DM have independently increased risk of new-onset/recurrent HF events, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, particularly when insulin-treated. The prevailing phenotype of new-onset HF was HFpEF; T2DM conferred higher risk of both HFpEF and HFmrEF/HFrEF.

11.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(2): 196-213, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816162

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is common in patients with heart failure (HF) and associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Significant advances have recently occurred in the treatment of T2DM, with evidence of several new glucose-lowering medications showing either neutral or beneficial cardiovascular effects. However, some of these agents have safety characteristics with strong practical implications in HF [i.e. dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA), and sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors]. Regarding safety of DPP-4 inhibitors, saxagliptin is not recommended in HF because of a greater risk of HF hospitalisation. There is no compelling evidence of excess HF risk with the other DPP-4 inhibitors. GLP-1 RAs have an overall neutral effect on HF outcomes. However, a signal of harm suggested in two small trials of liraglutide in patients with reduced ejection fraction indicates that their role remains to be defined in established HF. SGLT-2 inhibitors (empagliflozin, canagliflozin and dapagliflozin) have shown a consistent reduction in the risk of HF hospitalisation regardless of baseline cardiovascular risk or history of HF. Accordingly, SGLT-2 inhibitors could be recommended to prevent HF hospitalisation in patients with T2DM and established cardiovascular disease or with multiple risk factors. The recently completed trial with dapagliflozin has shown a significant reduction in cardiovascular mortality and HF events in patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction, with or without T2DM. Several ongoing trials will assess whether the results observed with dapagliflozin could be extended to other SGLT-2 inhibitors in the treatment of HF, with either preserved or reduced ejection fraction, regardless of the presence of T2DM. This position paper aims to summarise relevant clinical trial evidence concerning the role and safety of new glucose-lowering therapies in patients with HF.

12.
Heart Fail Rev ; 25(1): 85-91, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197562

RESUMO

Right ventricular function has long been neglected by heart failure specialists. We have now learnt that it is strongly associated with morbidity and mortality in all patients with heart failure, regardless of the degree of left ventricular dysfunction. Importantly, right ventricular function is tightly linked with pulmonary hypertension, and only a thorough understanding of how the right ventricle couples with the pulmonary circulation can provide an improved knowledge of the pathophysiology and possibly a more efficient treatment and a better prognosis in patients with heart failure.

13.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(1): 92-102, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863522

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to assess age- and sex-related differences in management and 1-year risk for all-cause mortality and hospitalization in chronic heart failure (HF) patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of 16 354 patients included in the European Society of Cardiology Heart Failure Long-Term Registry, 9428 chronic HF patients were analysed [median age: 66 years; 28.5% women; mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 37%]. Rates of use of guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) were high (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, beta-blockers and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists: 85.7%, 88.7% and 58.8%, respectively). Crude GDMT utilization rates were lower in women than in men (all differences: P ≤ 0.001), and GDMT use became lower with ageing in both sexes, at baseline and at 1-year follow-up. Sex was not an independent predictor of GDMT prescription; however, age >75 years was a significant predictor of GDMT underutilization. Rates of all-cause mortality were lower in women than in men (7.1% vs. 8.7%; P = 0.015), as were rates of all-cause hospitalization (21.9% vs. 27.3%; P < 0.001) and there were no differences in causes of death. All-cause mortality and all-cause hospitalization increased with greater age in both sexes. Sex was not an independent predictor of 1-year all-cause mortality (restricted to patients with LVEF ≤45%). Mortality risk was significantly lower in patients of younger age, compared to patients aged >75 years. CONCLUSIONS: There was a decline in GDMT use with advanced age in both sexes. Sex was not an independent predictor of GDMT or adverse outcomes. However, age >75 years independently predicted lower GDMT use and higher all-cause mortality in patients with LVEF ≤45%.

17.
19.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(5): 553-576, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989768

RESUMO

Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of heart muscle diseases and an important cause of heart failure (HF). Current knowledge on incidence, pathophysiology and natural history of HF in cardiomyopathies is limited, and distinct features of their therapeutic responses have not been systematically addressed. Therefore, this position paper focuses on epidemiology, pathophysiology, natural history and latest developments in treatment of HF in patients with dilated (DCM), hypertrophic (HCM) and restrictive (RCM) cardiomyopathies. In DCM, HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) has high incidence and prevalence and represents the most frequent cause of death, despite improvements in treatment. In addition, advanced HF in DCM is one of the leading indications for heart transplantation. In HCM, HF with preserved ejection (HFpEF) affects most patients with obstructive, and ∼10% of patients with non-obstructive HCM. A timely treatment is important, since development of advanced HF, although rare in HCM, portends a poor prognosis. In RCM, HFpEF is common, while HFrEF occurs later and more frequently in amyloidosis or iron overload/haemochromatosis. Irrespective of RCM aetiology, HF is a harbinger of a poor outcome. Recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of HF in cardiomyopathies have significant implications for therapeutic decision-making. In addition, new aetiology-specific treatment options (e.g. enzyme replacement therapy, transthyretin stabilizers, immunoadsorption, immunotherapy, etc.) have shown a potential to improve outcomes. Still, causative therapies of many cardiomyopathies are lacking, highlighting the need for the development of effective strategies to prevent and treat HF in cardiomyopathies.

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