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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071171

RESUMO

Introduction: We evaluated the effectiveness of an individual, group and community intervention to improve the glycemic control of patients with diabetes mellitus aged 45-75 years with two or three unhealthy life habits. As secondary endpoints, we evaluated the inverventions' effectiveness on adhering to Mediterranean diet, physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, smoking and quality of life. Method: A randomized clinical cluster (health centers) trial with two parallel groups in Spain from January 2016 to December 2019 was used. Patients with diabetes mellitus aged 45-75 years with two unhealthy life habits or more (smoking, not adhering to Mediterranean diet or little physical activity) participated. Centers were randomly assigned. The sample size was estimated to be 420 people for the main outcome variable. Educational intervention was done to improve adherence to Mediterranean diet, physical activity and smoking cessation by individual, group and community interventions for 12 months. Controls received the usual health care. The outcome variables were: HbA1c (main), the Mediterranean diet adherence score (MEDAS), the international diet quality index (DQI-I), the international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ), sedentary lifestyle, smoking ≥1 cigarette/day and the EuroQuol questionnaire (EVA-EuroQol5D5L). Results: In total, 13 control centers (n = 356) and 12 intervention centers (n = 338) were included with similar baseline conditions. An analysis for intention-to-treat was done by applying multilevel mixed models fitted by basal values and the health center: the HbA1c adjusted mean difference = -0.09 (95% CI: -0.29-0.10), the DQI-I adjusted mean difference = 0.25 (95% CI: -0.32-0.82), the MEDAS adjusted mean difference = 0.45 (95% CI: 0.01-0.89), moderate/high physical activity OR = 1.09 (95% CI: 0.64-1.86), not living a sedentary lifestyle OR = 0.97 (95% CI: 0.55-1.73), no smoking OR = 0.61 (95% CI: 0.54-1.06), EVA adjusted mean difference = -1.26 (95% CI: -4.98-2.45). Conclusions: No statistically significant changes were found for either glycemic control or physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, smoking and quality of life. The multicomponent individual, group and community interventions only showed a statistically significant improvement in adhering to Mediterranean diet. Such innovative interventions need further research to demonstrate their effectiveness in patients with poor glycemic control.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Qualidade de Vida , Exercício Físico , Hábitos , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Fumar , Espanha/epidemiologia
2.
BMJ Open ; 9(3): e023872, 2019 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30904842

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the implementation and development of a complex intervention on health promotion and changes in health-promoting behaviours in primary healthcare according to healthcare attendees and health professionals. DESIGN: Descriptive qualitative evaluation research conducted with 94 informants. Data collection techniques consisted of 14 semistructured individual interviews, 9 discussion groups, 1 triangular group and 6 documents. Three analysts carried out a thematic content analysis with the support of Atlas.ti software. This evaluation was modelled on Proctor and colleagues' concept of outcomes for implementation research. SETTING: 7 primary care centres from seven Spanish regions: Andalusia, Aragon, Balearic Islands, Basque Country, Castilla-La Mancha, Castilla-Leon and Catalonia. PARTICIPANTS: The study population were healthcare attendees (theoretical sampling) and health professionals (opportunistic sampling) who had participated in the exploratory trial of the EIRA intervention (2015). RESULTS: Healthcare attendees and professionals had a positive perception of the study. Healthcare attendees even reported that they would recommend participation to family and friends. Health professionals became aware of the significance of the motivational interview, especially for health promotion, and emphasised social prescribing of physical activity. They also put forward recommendations to improve recruitment, screening and retention of participants. Healthcare attendees modified behaviours and health professionals modified working practices. To achieve sustainability, health professionals believe that it is crucial to adapt agendas and involve all the staff. CONCLUSIONS: The discourses of all stakeholders on the intervention must be taken into consideration for the successful, setting-specific implementation of adequate, acceptable, equitable and sustainable strategies aimed at health promotion and well-being.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Espanha
4.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 874, 2018 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30005705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health promotion is a key process of current health systems. Primary Health Care (PHC) is the ideal setting for health promotion but multifaceted barriers make its integration difficult in the usual care. The majority of the adult population engages two or more risk behaviours, that is why a multiple intervention might be more effective and efficient. The primary objectives are to evaluate the effectiveness, the cost-effectiveness and an implementation strategy of a complex multiple risk intervention to promote healthy behaviours in people between 45 to 75 years attended in PHC. METHODS: This study is a cluster randomised controlled hybrid type 2 trial with two parallel groups comparing a complex multiple risk behaviour intervention with usual care. It will be carried out in 26 PHC centres in Spain. The study focuses on people between 45 and 75 years who carry out two or more of the following unhealthy behaviours: tobacco use, low adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern or insufficient physical activity level. The intervention is based on the Transtheoretical Model and it will be made by physicians and nurses in the routine care of PHC practices according to the conceptual framework of the "5A's". It will have a maximum duration of 12 months and it will be carried out to three different levels (individual, group and community). Incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year gained measured by the tariffs of the EuroQol-5D questionnaire will be estimated. The implementation strategy is based on the "Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research", a set of discrete implementation strategies and an evaluation framework. DISCUSSION: EIRA study will determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a complex multiple risk intervention and will provide a better understanding of implementation processes of health promotion interventions in PHC setting. It may contribute to increase knowledge about the individual and structural barriers that affect implementation of these interventions and to quantify the contextual factors that moderate the effectiveness of implementation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT03136211 .Retrospectively registered on May 2, 2017.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Idoso , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/economia , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Projetos de Pesquisa , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
BMC Res Notes ; 10(1): 699, 2017 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29208052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence-based interventions are more likely to be adopted if practitioners collaborate with researchers to develop an implementation strategy. This paper describes the steps to plan and execute a strategy, including the development of structure and supports needed for implementing proven health promotion interventions in primary and community care. RESULTS: Between 10 and 13 discussion and consensus sessions were performed in four highly-motivated primary health care centers involving 80% of the primary care staff and 21 community-based organizations. All four centers chose to address physical activity, diet, and smoking. They selected the 5 A's evidence-based clinical intervention to be adapted to the context of the health centers. The planned implementation strategy worked at multiple levels: bottom-up primary care organizational change, top-down support from managers, community involvement, and the development of innovative e-health information and communication tools. Shared decision making and practice facilitation were perceived as the most positive aspects of the collaborative modeling process, which took more time than expected, especially the development of the new e-health tools integrated into electronic health records. CONCLUSIONS: Collaborative modeling of an implementation strategy for the integration of health promotion in primary and community care was feasible in motivated centers. However, it was difficult, being hindered by the heavy workload in primary care and generating uncertainty inherent to a bottom-up decision making processes. Lessons from this experience could be useful in diverse settings and for other clinical interventions. Two companion papers report the evaluation of its feasibility and assess quantitatively and qualitatively the implementation process.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Modelos Organizacionais , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências
6.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 31(5): 404-409, sept.-oct. 2017. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-166619

RESUMO

Objective: "Prescribe Vida Saludable" (PVS) is an organisational innovation designed to optimise the promotion of multiple healthy habits in primary healthcare. It aims to estimate the cost effectiveness and cost-utility of prescribing physical activity in the pilot phase of the PVS programme, compared to the routine clinical practice of promoting physical activity in primary healthcare. Methods: An economic evaluation of the quasi-experimental pilot phase of PVS was carried out. In the four control centres, a systematic sample was selected of 194 patients who visited the centre in a single year and who did not comply with physical activity recommendations. In the four intervention centres, 122 patients who received their first physical activity prescription were consecutively enrolled. The costs were evaluated from the perspective of the PVS programme using bottom-up methodology. The effectiveness (proportion of patients who changed their physical activity) as well as the utility were evaluated at baseline and after 3 months. The incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR) and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) were calculated and a sensitivity analysis was performed with bootstrapping and 1,000 replications. Results: Information was obtained from 35% of control cases and 62% of intervention cases. The ICUR was Euros1,234.66/Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALY) and the ICER was Euros4.12. In 98.3% of the simulations, the ICUR was below the Euros30,000/QALY threshold. Conclusions: The prescription of physical activity was demonstrably within acceptable cost-utility limits in the pilot PVS phase, even from a conservative perspective (AU)


Objetivo: Prescribe Vida Saludable (PVS) es una innovación organizativa para optimizar la promoción de múltiples hábitos saludables en atención primaria. El objetivo es estimar el coste-efectividad y el coste-utilidad de la prescripción de actividad física en el pilotaje del programa PVS, respecto a la práctica clínica habitual de promoción de la actividad física en atención primaria. Métodos: Se llevó a cabo una evaluación económica del pilotaje cuasi experimental PVS. En los cuatro centros de control se seleccionó una muestra sistemática de 194 pacientes que visitaron el centro durante 1 año y que no cumplían las recomendaciones de actividad física. En los cuatro centros de intervención se captaron consecutivamente 122 pacientes que recibieron la primera prescripción de actividad física. Los costes se evaluaron desde la perspectiva del programa PVS con la metodología bottom-up. Tanto la efectividad (proporción de pacientes que modificaron su actividad física) como la utilidad fueron evaluadas basalmente y a los 3 meses. Se calcularon la razón de coste-utilidad incremental (RCUI) y la razón de coste-efectividad incremental (RCEI), y se realizó el análisis de sensibilidad con bootstrapping con 1000 repeticiones. Resultados: Se obtuvo información de un 35% de los casos control y de un 62% de los casos con intervención. La RCUI fue de 1234,66 Euros por año de vida ajustado por calidad (AVAC) y la RCEI fue de 4,12 Euros. En un 98,3% de las simulaciones el RCUI estuvo por debajo del umbral de 30.000 Euros/AVAC. Conclusiones: La prescripción de actividad física se muestra en unos límites aceptables de coste-utilidad en el pilotaje de PVS, incluso desde una perspectiva conservadora (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Programas Gente Saudável/organização & administração , Terapia por Exercício , Comportamento Alimentar , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/tendências , Avaliação de Eficácia-Efetividade de Intervenções , Análise Custo-Benefício
7.
Gac Sanit ; 31(5): 404-409, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28196752

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: "Prescribe Vida Saludable" (PVS) is an organisational innovation designed to optimise the promotion of multiple healthy habits in primary healthcare. It aims to estimate the cost effectiveness and cost-utility of prescribing physical activity in the pilot phase of the PVS programme, compared to the routine clinical practice of promoting physical activity in primary healthcare. METHODS: An economic evaluation of the quasi-experimental pilot phase of PVS was carried out. In the four control centres, a systematic sample was selected of 194 patients who visited the centre in a single year and who did not comply with physical activity recommendations. In the four intervention centres, 122 patients who received their first physical activity prescription were consecutively enrolled. The costs were evaluated from the perspective of the PVS programme using bottom-up methodology. The effectiveness (proportion of patients who changed their physical activity) as well as the utility were evaluated at baseline and after 3 months. The incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR) and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) were calculated and a sensitivity analysis was performed with bootstrapping and 1,000 replications. RESULTS: Information was obtained from 35% of control cases and 62% of intervention cases. The ICUR was €1,234.66/Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALY) and the ICER was €4.12. In 98.3% of the simulations, the ICUR was below the €30,000/QALY threshold. CONCLUSIONS: The prescription of physical activity was demonstrably within acceptable cost-utility limits in the pilot PVS phase, even from a conservative perspective.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Promoção da Saúde/economia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto
8.
BMC Fam Pract ; 18(1): 23, 2017 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28212606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of lifestyle on health is undeniable and effective healthy lifestyle promotion interventions do exist. However, this is not a fundamental part of routine primary care clinical practice. We describe factors that determine changes in performance of primary health care centers involved in piloting the health promotion innovation 'Prescribe Vida Saludable' (PVS) phase II. METHODS: We engaged four primary health care centers of the Basque Healthcare Service in an action research project aimed at changing preventive health practices. Prescribe Healthy Life (PVS from the Spanish "Prescribe Vida Saludable) is focused on designing, planning, implementing and evaluating innovative programs to promote multiple healthy habits, feasible to be performed in routine primary health care conditions. After 2 years of piloting, centers were categorized as having high, medium, or low implementation effectiveness. We completed qualitative inductive and deductive analysis of five focus groups with the staff of the centers. Themes generated through consensual grounded qualitative analysis were compared between centers to identify the dimensions that explain the variation in actual implementation of PVS, and retrospectively organized and assessed against the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). RESULTS: Of the 36 CFIR constructs, 11 were directly related to the level of implementation performance: intervention source, evidence strength and quality, adaptability, design quality and packaging, tension for change, learning climate, self-efficacy, planning, champions, executing, and reflecting and evaluating, with -organizational tracking added as a new sub-construct. Additionally, another seven constructs emerged in the participants' discourse but were not related to center performance: relative advantage, complexity, patients' needs and resources, external policy and incentives, structural characteristics, available resources, and formally appointed internal implementation leaders. Our findings indicate that the success of the implementation seems to be associated with the following components: the context, the implementation process, and the collaborative modelling. CONCLUSIONS: Identifying barriers and enablers is useful for designing implementation strategies for health promotion in primary health care centers that are essential for innovation success. An implementation model is proposed to highlight the relationships between the CFIR constructs in the context of health promotion in primary care.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prescrições/normas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Fam Pract ; 18(1): 24, 2017 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28212621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Process evaluation is recommended to improve the understanding of underlying mechanisms related to clinicians, patients, context and intervention delivery that may impact on trial or program results, feasibility and transferability to practice. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of the Prescribe Healthy Life (PVS from the Spanish "Prescribe Vida Saludable") implementation strategy for enhancing the adoption and implementation of an evidence-based health promotion intervention in primary health care. METHODS: A descriptive study of 2-year implementation indicators for the PVS clinical intervention was conducted in four primary health care centers. A multifaceted collaborative modeling implementation strategy was developed to enhance the integration of a clinical intervention to promote healthy lifestyles into clinical practice. Process indicators were assessed for intervention reach, adoption, implementation, sustainability and their variability at center, practice, and patient levels. RESULTS: Mean rates of adoption by means of active collaboration among the three main professional categories (family physicians, nurses and administrative personnel) were 75% in all centers. Just over half of the patients that attended (n = 11650; 51.9%) were reached in terms of having their lifestyle habits assessed, while more than a third (33.7%; n = 7433) and almost 10% (n = 2175) received advice or a printed prescription for at least one lifestyle change, respectively. Only 3.7% of the target population received a repeat prescription. These process indicators significantly (p < 0.001) varied by center, lifestyle habit and patient characteristics. Sustainability of intervention components changed thorough the implementation period within centers. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation strategy used showed moderate-to-good performance on process indicators related to adoption, reach, and implementation of the evidence-based healthy lifestyle promotion intervention in the context of routine primary care. Sources of heterogeneity and instability in these indicators may improve our understanding of factors required to attain adequate program adoption and implementation through improved implementation strategies.


Assuntos
Guias como Assunto , Promoção da Saúde/normas , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/normas , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Public Health ; 16(1): 1228, 2016 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27923356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Feasible and valid assessment of healthy behaviors is the first step for integrating health promotion in routine primary care. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the validity and reliability of the "prescribe healthy life" screening questionnaire, a brief tool for detecting physical activity levels, consumption of fruit and vegetables, tobacco use and patients' compliance with minimal recommendations. METHODS: An observational cross-sectional study to determine the reliability and validity of this questionnaire by means of mixed (qualitative and quantitative) methods. Thirteen healthcare professionals designed the questionnaire. One hundred and twenty-six patients from three primary care health centers within Osakidetza (Basque Health Service, Spain) filled in the "Prescribe Healthy Life" Screening Questionnaire and completed an accelerometry record, the PREDIMED Food Frequency Questionnaire and a co-oximetry as gold standards for physical activity, dietary intake and tobacco use, respectively. Correlations, sensitivities, specificities, likelihood ratios and test-retest reliability were calculated. Additionally, the feasibility and utility of the questionnaire were evaluated. RESULTS: Both reliability and concurrent validity for the consumption of fruit and vegetables (rspearman = 0.59, rspearman = 0.50) and tobacco use (rspearman = 0.76, r = 0.69) as their overall performance in the detection of unhealthy diet (accuracy = 76.8%, LR + = 3.1 and LR- = 0.31) and smokers (accuracy = 86.8%, LR + = 6.1 and LR- = 0.05) were good. Meanwhile, the reproducibility (0.38), the correlation between the minutes of physical activity (0.34) and LR+ (1.00) for detection of physical activity were low. On average the questionnaire was considered by patients easy to understand, easy to fill in, short (5-6 min) and useful. CONCLUSION: The "Prescribe Healthy Life" Screening Questionnaire, PVS-SQ, has proved to be a simple and practical tool for use in the actual context of primary care, with guarantees of validity and reliability for the diet and tobacco scales. However, the physical activity scale show unsatisfactory results, and alternative questions ought to be tested.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas/métodos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Projetos Piloto , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espanha
11.
Prev Med ; 76 Suppl: S76-93, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25572619

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of health promotion interventions based on theoretical models of behavioral change to modify the main lifestyle factors (physical activity, diet, alcohol and tobacco) in adults receiving primary health care (PHC). METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from January 2000 to December 2012. Two reviewers independently performed the first screening of titles and abstracts, the methodological quality assessment using the lecturacritica.com tool, and the extraction of necessary data to systematize the available information. RESULTS: Only few studies met the inclusion criteria (17 studies from 30 articles). Thirteen were randomized controlled trials, three systematic reviews, and one observational study. The transtheoretical model was the most frequent (13 studies), and obtained strong evidence of its effectiveness for dietary interventions in the short-term and for smoking cessation interventions in the long-term as compared to usual PHC practice. Limited evidence was found for smoking cessation interventions based in the social cognitive theory. CONCLUSION: There are few studies that explicitly link intervention strategies and theories of behavioral change. A rigorous evaluation of the theoretical principles could help researchers and practitioners to understand how and why interventions succeed or fail.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Estilo de Vida , Modelos Teóricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar
12.
Death Stud ; 37(4): 287-310, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24520889

RESUMO

Thirty-one family physicians, from 19 primary care teams in Biscay (Spain), were randomly assigned to intervention or control group. The 75 intervention family physicians, after training in primary bereavement care, saw 43 widows for 7 sessions, from the 4th to 13th month after their loss. The 16 control family physicians, without primary bereavement care training, saw 44 widows for 7 ordinary appointments, with the same schedule. Outcome measures were collected at 4, 10, 16, and 24 months after the loss. A linear mixed model was used. No significant differences were found in favor of the intervention group on grief and indeed control group widows experienced more improvement in somatisation, general health, and general emotional outcomes.


Assuntos
Luto , Aconselhamento , Medicina Geral , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Viuvez , Adulto , Aconselhamento/educação , Feminino , Medicina Geral/educação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 9: 103, 2009 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19534832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The adoption of a healthy lifestyle, including physical activity, a balanced diet, a moderate alcohol consumption and abstinence from smoking, are associated with large decreases in the incidence and mortality rates for the most common chronic diseases. That is why primary health care (PHC) services are trying, so far with less success than desirable, to promote healthy lifestyles among patients. The objective of this study is to design and model, under a participative collaboration framework between clinicians and researchers, interventions that are feasible and sustainable for the promotion of healthy lifestyles in PHC. METHODS AND DESIGN: Phase I formative research and a quasi-experimental evaluation of the modelling and planning process will be undertaken in eight primary care centres (PCCs) of the Basque Health Service--OSAKIDETZA, of which four centres will be assigned for convenience to the Intervention Group (the others being Controls). Twelve structured study, discussion and consensus sessions supported by reviews of the literature and relevant documents, will be undertaken throughout 12 months. The first four sessions, including a descriptive strategic needs assessment, will lead to the prioritisation of a health promotion aim in each centre. In the remaining eight sessions, collaborative design of intervention strategies, on the basis of a planning process and pilot trials, will be carried out. The impact of the formative process on the practice of healthy lifestyle promotion, attitude towards health promotion and other factors associated with the optimisation of preventive clinical practice will be assessed, through pre- and post-programme evaluations and comparisons of the indicators measured in professionals from the centres assigned to the Intervention or Control Groups. DISCUSSION: There are four necessary factors for the outcome to be successful and result in important changes: (1) the commitment of professional and community partners who are involved; (2) their competence for change; (3) the active cooperation and participation of the interdisciplinary partners involved throughout the process of change; and (4) the availability of resources necessary to facilitate the change.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Centros Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Comportamento Cooperativo , Planejamento em Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Inovação Organizacional , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Seleção de Pacientes , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Projetos de Pesquisa , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Espanha
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