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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298894

RESUMO

(1) The high-fat diet (HFD) of western countries has dramatic effect on the health of several organs, including the digestive tract, leading to the accumulation of fats that can also trigger a chronic inflammatory process, such as that which occurs in non-alcohol steatohepatitis. The effects of a HFD on the small intestine, the organ involved in the absorption of this class of nutrients, are still poorly investigated. (2) To address this aspect, we administered a combined HFD with sucrose (HFD w/Suc, fat: 58% Kcal) regimen (18 months) to mice and investigated the morphological and molecular changes that occurred in the wall of proximal tract of the small intestine compared to the intestine of mice fed with a standard diet (SD) (fat: 18% Kcal). (3) We found an accumulation of lipid droplets in the mucosa of HFD w/Suc-fed mice that led to a disarrangement of mucosa architecture. Furthermore, we assessed the expression of several key players involved in lipid metabolism and inflammation, such as perilipin, leptin, leptin receptor, PI3K, p-mTOR, p-Akt, and TNF-α. All these molecules were increased in HFD mice compared to the SD group. We also evaluated anti-inflammatory molecules like adiponectin, adiponectin receptor, and PPAR-γ, and observed their significant reduction in the HFD w/Suc group compared to the control. Our data are in line with the knowledge that improper eating habits present a primary harmful assault on the bowel and the entire body's health. (4) These results represent a promising starting point for future studies, helping to better understand the complex and not fully elucidated spectrum of intestinal alterations induced by the overconsumption of fat.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Leptina/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Receptores para Leptina/metabolismo
2.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 610189, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33937276

RESUMO

The intestinal extracellular matrix (ECM) represents a complex network of proteins that not only forms a support structure for resident cells but also interacts closely with them by modulating their phenotypes and functions. More than 300 molecules have been identified, each of them with unique biochemical properties and exclusive biological functions. ECM components not only provide a scaffold for the tissue but also afford tensile strength and limit overstretch of the organ. The ECM holds water, ensures suitable hydration of the tissue, and participates in a selective barrier to the external environment. ECM-to-cells interaction is crucial for morphogenesis and cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. The ECM is a dynamic and multifunctional structure. The ECM is constantly renewed and remodeled by coordinated action among ECM-producing cells, degrading enzymes, and their specific inhibitors. During this process, several growth factors are released in the ECM, and they, in turn, modulate the deposition of new ECM. In this review, we describe the main components and functions of intestinal ECM and we discuss their role in maintaining the structure and function of the intestinal barrier. Achieving complete knowledge of the ECM world is an important goal to understand the mechanisms leading to the onset and the progression of several intestinal diseases related to alterations in ECM remodeling.

3.
Nutrition ; 75-76: 110782, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268264

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common liver disease globally. It is caused by a complex network of factors, including diet. The hallmark of NAFLD is the benign accumulation of triacylglycerols, however, this condition may worsen into non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a more severe form associated with inflammation and fibrosis. Currently, no therapies are available, and diet modifications are the only strategy. Although there is increasing evidence emerging about how an abuse of carbohydrates could be involved in the progression of liver injury, a comprehensive understanding of the damage induced by an enriched carbohydrate diet is still far from complete. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of a low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet (LF-HCD) with high-fat (HFD) and standard (SD) diets in a nutritional mouse model of NAFLD/NASH. METHODS: Histologic, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemical evaluations were performed. RESULTS: The results showed that the prolonged abuse of both LF-HCDs and HFDs induced a significant increase in hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis scores compared with SD. At the same time, both LF-HCDs and HFDs led to significant increases in the expression of the molecules involved in the progression of NAFLD that we assessed (perilipin, CD68, TGF-ß1, CTGF, leptin, leptin receptor, and α-SMA). CONCLUSIONS: The present study highlighted that the simple substitution of fats with carbohydrates is not a proper strategy to prevent or mitigate the progression of NAFLD/NASH. Further studies are required to define the best nutritional strategy to prevent NAFLD and its related metabolic syndrome.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Animais , Carboidratos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fígado , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia
4.
Eur J Histochem ; 64(1)2020 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988531

RESUMO

Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a persistent sinonasal mucosa inflammatory disease with still unclear pathophysiologic mechanisms that imply events of tissue repair and structural remodelling. Several cascades seem to have a considerable role in the onset and progression of mucosa hyperproliferation in nasal polyps including transforming growth factor ß/Small mother against decapentaplegic (TGFß/Smads), mitogenactivated protein kinases (MAPKs), advanced glycosylation end-products (AGEs) together with epithelial-tomesenchymal transition (EMT). Since many inflammatory mediators are reported to play important roles in the development of nasal polyps (NP) disease, this study aimed to analyse the correlation between the AGEs/receptor of advanced glycosylation end-products (RAGE)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signalling pathway and the main markers of EMT to better understand the influence that they exert on the remodelling of nasal mucous membranes in patients affected by CRSwNP vs normal controls. A total of 30 patients were enrolled in this study. Immunohistochemical analysis, using AGE, RAGE, p-ERK, MMP-3, TGF-ß1, Smad2/3, Collagen I-III, α-SMA, E-cadherin, IL-6 and Vimentin antibodies, was performed. AGE, RAGE, ERK, p-ERK and MMP3 were also evaluated using western blot analysis. We observed an overexpression of the AGE/RAGE/p-ERK and the main mesenchymal markers of EMT (Vimentin and IL-6) in CRSwNP vs controls whereas the TGF-ß/Smad3 pathway did not show any significant differences between the two groups of patients. These observations suggest a complex network of processes in the pathogenesis of NP, and the AGE/RAGE/ERK pathway and EMT might work together in promoting tissue remodelling in the formation of CRSwNP.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/fisiologia , Pólipos Nasais/etiologia , Sinusite/etiologia , Adulto , Doença Crônica , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Mucosa Nasal/patologia , Pólipos Nasais/patologia , Pólipos Nasais/fisiopatologia , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Sinusite/patologia , Sinusite/fisiopatologia , Vimentina/metabolismo
5.
Cells ; 9(1)2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877673

RESUMO

Metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) relapses due to acquired resistance to docetaxel-based chemotherapy and remains a major threat to patient survival. In this report, we tested the effectiveness of a dual CXCR4/E-selectin antagonist, GM-I1359, in vitro and in vivo, as a single agent or in combination with docetaxel (DTX). This agent was compared to the single CXCR4 antagonist, CTCE-9908, and E-selectin antagonist, GMI-1271. Here we demonstrate that CXCR4 antagonism reduced growth and enhanced DTX treatment in PCa cell lines as well as restored DTX effectiveness in DTX-resistant cell models. The efficacy of dual antagonist was higher respect to those observed for single CXCR4 antagonism. GM1359 impacted bone marrow colonization and growth in intraventricular and intratibial cell injection models. The anti-proliferative effects of GMI-1359 and DTX correlated with decreased size, osteolysis and serum levels of both mTRAP and type I collagen fragment (CTX) in intra-osseous tumours suggesting that the dual CXCR4/E-selectin antagonist was a docetaxel-sensitizing agent for bone metastatic growth. Single agent CXCR4 (CTCE-9908) and E-selectin (GMI-1271) antagonists resulted in lower sensitizing effects compared to GMI-1359. These data provide a biologic rationale for the use of a dual E-selectin/CXCR4 inhibitor as an adjuvant to taxane-based chemotherapy in men with mCRPC to prevent and reduce bone metastases.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Docetaxel/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Neoplasias Ósseas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Docetaxel/farmacologia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Selectina E/antagonistas & inibidores , Glicolipídeos/administração & dosagem , Glicolipídeos/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Células PC-3 , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/metabolismo , Receptores CXCR4/antagonistas & inibidores , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
7.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(10)2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640252

RESUMO

Background. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a devastating disease showing a very poor prognosis. New therapeutic approaches are needed to improve survival and quality of life. GBM is a highly vascularized tumor and as such, chemotherapy and anti-angiogenic drugs have been combined for treatment. However, as treatment-induced resistance often develops, our goal was to identify and treat pathways involved in resistance to treatment to optimize the treatment strategies. Anti-angiogenetic compounds tested in preclinical and clinical settings demonstrated recurrence associated to secondary activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mTOR pathway. Aims. Here, we determined the sensitizing effects of the small molecule and oral available dual TORC1/TORC2 dissociative inhibitor, RES529, alone or in combination with the anti-VEGF blocking antibody, bevacizumab, or the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, sunitinib, in human GBM models. Results. We observed that RES529 effectively inhibited dose-dependently the growth of GBM cells in vitro counteracting the insurgence of recurrence after bevacizumab or sunitinib administration in vivo. Combination strategies were associated with reduced tumor progression as indicated by the analysis of Time to Tumor Progression (TTP) and disease-free survival (DSF) as well as increased overall survival (OS) of tumor bearing mice. RES529 was able to reduce the in vitro migration of tumor cells and tubule formation from both brain-derived endothelial cells (angiogenesis) and tumor cells (vasculogenic mimicry). Conclusions. In summary, RES529, the first dual TORC1/TORC2 dissociative inhibitor, lacking affinity for ABCB1/ABCG2 and having good brain penetration, was active in GBM preclinical/murine models giving credence to its use in clinical trial for patients with GBM treated in association with anti-angiogenetic compounds.

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(16)2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434263

RESUMO

One of the main mechanisms carried out by the cells to counteract several forms of stress is the activation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) signaling. Nrf2 signaling controls the expression of many genes through the binding of a specific cis-acting element known as the antioxidant response element (ARE). Activation of Nrf2/ARE signaling can mitigate several pathologic mechanisms associated with an autoimmune response, digestive and metabolic disorders, as well as respiratory, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases. Indeed, several studies have demonstrated that Nrf2 pathway plays a key role in inflammation and in cancer development in many organs, including the intestine. Nrf2 appears to be involved in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), an immune-mediated chronic and disabling disease, with a high risk of developing intestinal fibrotic strictures and cancer. Currently, drugs able to increase cytoprotective Nrf2 function are in clinical trials or already being used in clinical practice to reduce the progression of some degenerative conditions. The role of Nrf2 in cancer development and progression is controversial, and drugs able to inhibit abnormal levels of Nrf2 are also under investigation. The goal of this review is to analyze and discuss Nrf2-dependent signals in the initiation and progression of intestinal fibrosis and cancers occurring in IBD.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Animais , Fibrose/metabolismo , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
9.
Radiol Med ; 124(9): 795-803, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903605

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The characterization of atherosclerotic carotid plaque plays a key role in the identification of patients at risk. The aim of our work was to evaluate the potentialities of carotid computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in assessing composition of atherosclerotic plaque. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 29 patients (7 women and 22 men, age range 54-81; mean age 69) who underwent carotid endarterectomy. All patients underwent pre-surgical CCTA using a 320-slice scanner. Post-processing reconstructions and analysis were performed using a specific software. Percentage of three different components of the atherosclerotic plaque (adipose, fibrotic and calcific) were classified based on Hounsfield unit values. Post-processing results were compared with histological analysis. Vessel and plaque parameters were compared using the Pearson correlation coefficient (r). Bland-Altman plots with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for correlation. McNemar's test was used for comparison of dichotomous variables. RESULTS: A significant correlation between histology and CCTA was found with respect to the areas corresponding to adipose, fibrotic and calcified plaques. The existence of proportional bias was observed between the two quantifying methods with lower discrepancies found for the adipose and fibrotic plaque areas. The Bland-Altman analyses showed a mean bias of 3.2%, 2.5% and 0.6% between histology and CCTA, for adipose, fibrotic and calcified plaque areas, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Multi-detector CT angiography represents a valuable technique to assess quantitatively the composition of atherosclerotic plaques, with particular reference to the prevalence of fibrotic tissue, and is a useful diagnostic tool to improve risk stratification of patients for cerebral stroke.


Assuntos
Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose das Carótidas/patologia , Imageamento Tridimensional , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Eur J Histochem ; 62(3)2018 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30064196

RESUMO

A concomitant action of multiple profibrotic mediators appears crucial in the development and progression of fibrosis. Sphingosine kinase/sphingosine 1 phosphate and transforming growth factor-ß/Smads pathways are both involved in pathogenesis of fibrosis in several organs by controlling differentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts and the epithelial to-mesenchymal transition. However, their direct involvement in chronic colitis-associated fibrosis it is not yet known. In this study we evaluated the immunohistochemical expression of some proteins implicated in sphingosine kinase/sphingosine 1 phosphate and transforming growth factor-ß/Smads pathways in Dextrane Sodium Sulphate (DSS)-induced colorectal fibrosis in mice. Compared to control mice, DSS-induced chronic colitis mice developed a marked intestinal fibrosis associated with a concomitant overexpression of TGF-ß, p-Smad3, α-SMA, collagen I-III, SPHK1, RhoA, PI3K, Akt, p-Akt, p-mTOR. This study highlights the relationship between the two pathways and the possible role of SPHK1 in the intestinal fibrosis.  These results, if confirmed by in vitro studies, may have important clinical implications in the development of new therapeutical approaches in inflammatory bowel disease.


Assuntos
Colite/imunologia , Colite/fisiopatologia , Intestinos/patologia , Lisofosfolipídeos/fisiologia , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/fisiologia , Proteína Smad3/fisiologia , Esfingosina/análogos & derivados , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/fisiologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibrose/patologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Padrões de Referência , Transdução de Sinais , Esfingosina/fisiologia
11.
J Histochem Cytochem ; 66(9): 673-686, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29737911

RESUMO

Collagen and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP) as a switch between type I and III collagen together with a simultaneous activation of MMPs have been observed in the vaginal wall. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Advanced Glycation End (AGE) products, ERK1/2 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß/Smad pathway expression in muscularis propria in women with POP compared with control patients. We examined 20 patients with POP and 10 control patients treated for uterine fibromatosis. Immunohistochemical analysis using AGE, RAGE, ERK1/2, Smads-2/3, Smad-7, MMP-3, and collagen I-III, TIMP, and α-SMA were performed. Smad-2/3, Smad-7, AGE, ERK1/2, p-ERK, and p-Smad3 were also evaluated using Western-blot analysis. POP samples from the anterior vaginal wall showed disorganization of the normal muscularis architecture. In POP samples, AGE, ERK1/2, Smad-2/3, MMP-3, and collagen III were upregulated in muscularis whereas in controls, Smad-7 and collagen I were increased. The receptor for AGEs (RAGE) was mild or absent both in controls and prolapse. We demonstrated the involvement of these markers in women with POP but further studies are required to elucidate if the overexpression of these molecules could play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of POP disease.


Assuntos
Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/análise , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/análise , Prolapso de Órgão Pélvico/patologia , Proteínas Smad/análise , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica
12.
Tumour Biol ; 40(4): 1010428318771773, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29687745

RESUMO

Morbidity in advanced prostate cancer patients is largely associated with bone metastatic events. The development of novel therapeutic strategies is imperative in order to effectively treat this incurable stage of the malignancy. In this context, Akt signaling pathway represents a promising therapeutic target able to counteract biochemical recurrence and metastatic progression in prostate cancer. We explored the therapeutic potential of a novel dual PI3 K/mTOR inhibitor, X480, to inhibit tumor growth and bone colonization using different in vivo prostate cancer models including the subcutaneous injection of aggressive and bone metastatic (PC3) and non-bone metastatic (22rv1) cell lines and preclinical models known to generate bone lesions. We observed that X480 both inhibited the primary growth of subcutaneous tumors generated by PC3 and 22rv1 cells and reduced bone spreading of PCb2, a high osteotropic PC3 cell derivative. In metastatic bone, X480 inhibited significantly the growth and osteolytic activity of PC3 cells as observed by intratibial injection model. X480 also increased the bone disease-free survival compared to untreated animals. In vitro experiments demonstrated that X480 was effective in counteracting osteoclastogenesis whereas it stimulated osteoblast activity. Our report provides novel information on the potential activity of PI3 K/Akt inhibitors on the formation and progression of prostate cancer bone metastases and supports a biological rationale for the use of these inhibitors in castrate-resistant prostate cancer patients at high risk of developing clinically evident bone lesions.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas , Compostos Orgânicos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Fosfoinositídeo-3 Quinase , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ósseas/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Remodelação Óssea/fisiologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/biossíntese , Células RAW 264.7 , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
13.
J Hematol Oncol ; 11(1): 32, 2018 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29486795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of alkylating agents such as temozolomide in association with radiotherapy (RT) is the therapeutic standard of glioblastoma (GBM). This regimen modestly prolongs overall survival, also if, in light of the still dismal prognosis, further improvements are desperately needed, especially in the patients with O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) unmethylated tumors, in which the benefit of standard treatment is less. Tinostamustine (EDO-S101) is a first-in-class alkylating deacetylase inhibitor (AK-DACi) molecule that fuses the DNA damaging effect of bendamustine with the fully functional pan-histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, vorinostat, in a completely new chemical entity. METHODS: Tinostamustine has been tested in models of GBM by using 13 GBM cell lines and seven patient-derived GBM proliferating/stem cell lines in vitro. U87MG and U251MG (MGMT negative), as well as T98G (MGMT positive), were subcutaneously injected in nude mice, whereas luciferase positive U251MG cells and patient-derived GBM stem cell line (CSCs-5) were evaluated the orthotopic intra-brain in vivo experiments. RESULTS: We demonstrated that tinostamustine possesses stronger antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects than those observed for vorinostat and bendamustine alone and similar to their combination and irrespective of MGMT expression. In addition, we observed a stronger radio-sensitization of single treatment and temozolomide used as control due to reduced expression and increased time of disappearance of γH2AX indicative of reduced signal and DNA repair. This was associated with higher caspase-3 activation and reduction of RT-mediated autophagy. In vivo, tinostamustine increased time-to-progression (TTP) and this was additive/synergistic to RT. Tinostamustine had significant therapeutic activity with suppression of tumor growth and prolongation of DFS (disease-free survival) and OS (overall survival) in orthotopic intra-brain models that was superior to bendamustine, RT and temozolomide and showing stronger radio sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that tinostamustine deserves further investigation in patients with glioblastoma.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/uso terapêutico , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioblastoma/radioterapia , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/farmacologia , Cloridrato de Bendamustina/farmacologia , Cloridrato de Bendamustina/uso terapêutico , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Glioblastoma/patologia , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Vorinostat/farmacologia , Vorinostat/uso terapêutico
14.
Oncotarget ; 8(32): 53482-53494, 2017 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28881825

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver disease. It can progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and, in a percentage of cases, to hepatocarcinogenesis. The strong incidence in western countries of obesity and metabolic syndrome, whose NAFLD is the hepatic expression, is thought to be correlated to consumption of diets characterized by processed food and sweet beverages. Previous studies described high-fat diet-induced liver tumors. Conversely, the involvement of low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet in the progression of liver disease or cancer initiation has not been described yet. Here we show for the first time hepatic cancer formation in low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet fed NAFLD/NASH mouse model. Animals were long term high-fat, low-fat/high-carbohydrate or standard diet fed. We observed progressive liver damage in low-fat/high-carbohydrate and high-fat animals after 12 and, more, 18 months. Tumors were detected in 20% and 50% of high-fat diet fed mice after 12 and 18 months and, interestingly, in 30% of low-fat/high-carbohydrate fed animals after 18 months. No tumors were detected in standard diet fed mice. Global increase of hepatic interleukin-1ß, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and hepatocyte growth factor was detected in low-fat/high-carbohydrate and high-fat with respect to standard diet fed mice as well as in tumor with respect to non-tumor bearing mice. A panel of 15 microRNAs was analyzed: some of them revealed differential expression in low-fat/high-carbohydrate with respect to high-fat diet fed groups and in tumors. Data here shown provide the first evidence of the involvement of low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet in hepatic damage leading to tumorigenesis.

15.
Eur J Histochem ; 61(2): 2732, 2017 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28735518

RESUMO

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive tumor of the central nervous system. Unfortunately, patients affected by this disease have a very poor prognosis, due to high level of invasiveness and resistance to standard therapies. Although the molecular profile of GBM has been extensively investigated, the events responsible for its pathogenesis and progression remain largely unknown. Histone Deacetylases (HDAC) dependent epigenetic modifications and transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß/Smad pathway seem to play an important role in GBM tumorigenesis, resistance to common therapies and poor clinical outcome.  The aim of this study was to evaluate the involvement and the possible interaction between these two molecular cascades in the pathogenesis and prognosis of GBM. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on microdissected GBM samples, collected from 14 patients (6 men and 8 women) ranging in age from 43 to 74 years. The patients were previously divided, on the basis of their overall survival (OS), into two groups: short and long OS. Patients with poor prognosis showed hyperexpression of HDAC4 and HDAC6, an activation of the TGF-ß/Smad pathway, with high levels of IL-13, Smad2, PDGF and MMP3 expression, compared to the long survivors. The short OS group exhibits a decrease in Smad 7 expression and also low levels of p21 immunostaining, which represents a common target of the two pathways. The IHC data was confirmed by quantitative analysis and Immunoblotting. Our preliminary results suggest that both HDAC4 and HDAC6 together with the TGF-ß/Smad pathway may be involved in progression of GBM and this cross talking could be a useful prognostic marker in this deadly disease.


Assuntos
Quimiorradioterapia , Glioma/diagnóstico , Glioma/terapia , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Smad2/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Glioma/fisiopatologia , Glioma/cirurgia , Histona Desacetilases/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Proteína Smad2/genética , Coloração e Rotulagem , Transcriptoma , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética
16.
Tumour Biol ; 39(6): 1010428317695528, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28639900

RESUMO

Glioblastoma is the most frequent and the most lethal primary brain tumor among adults. Standard of care is the association of radiotherapy with concomitant or adjuvant temozolomide. However, to date, recurrence is inevitable. The CXCL12/CXCR4 pathway is upregulated in the glioblastoma tumor microenvironment regulating tumor cell proliferation, local invasion, angiogenesis, and the efficacy of radio-chemotherapy. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the novel CXCR4 antagonist, PRX177561, in preclinical models of glioblastoma. CXCR4 expression and PRX177561 effects were assessed on a panel of 12 human glioblastoma cells lines and 5 patient-derived glioblastoma stem cell cultures. Next, the effect of PRX177561 was tested in vivo, using subcutaneous injection of U87MG, U251, and T98G cells as well as orthotopic intrabrain inoculation of luciferase-transfected U87MG cells. Here we found that PRX177561 impairs the proliferation of human glioblastoma cell lines, increases apoptosis, and reduces CXCR4 expression and cell migration in response to stromal cell-derived factor 1alpha in vitro. PRX177561 reduced the expression of stem cell markers and increased that of E-cadherin and glial fibrillary acidic protein in U87MG cells consistent with a reduction in cancer stem cells. In vivo, PRX177561 reduced the weight and increased the time to progression of glioblastoma subcutaneous tumors while increasing disease-free survival and overall survival of mice bearing orthotopic tumors. Our findings suggest that targeting stromal cell-derived factor 1 alpha/CXCR4 axis by PRX177561 might represent a novel therapeutic approach against glioblastoma and support further investigation of this compound in more complex preclinical settings in order to determine its therapeutic potential.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CXCL12/genética , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Neovascularização Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores CXCR4/genética , Adulto , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Glioblastoma/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Neovascularização Patológica/genética , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Receptores CXCR4/antagonistas & inibidores , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Cancer Lett ; 397: 1-11, 2017 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28342984

RESUMO

The role of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 4 and 6 in glioblastoma (GBM) radioresistance was investigated. We found that tumor samples from 31 GBM patients, who underwent temozolomide and radiotherapy combined treatment, showed HDAC4 and HDAC6 expression in 93.5% and 96.7% of cases, respectively. Retrospective clinical data analysis demonstrated that high-intensity HDAC4 and/or HDAC6 immunostaining was predictive of poor clinical outcome. In vitro experiments revealed that short hairpin RNA-mediated silencing of HDAC4 or HDAC6 radiosensitized U87MG and U251MG GBM cell lines by promoting DNA double-strand break (DSBs) accumulation and by affecting DSBs repair molecular machinery. We found that HDAC6 knock-down predisposes to radiation therapy-induced U251MG apoptosis- and U87MG autophagy-mediated cell death. HDAC4 silencing promoted radiation therapy-induced senescence, independently by the cellular context. Finally, we showed that p53WT expression contributed to the radiotherapy lethal effects and that HDAC4 or HDAC6 sustained GBM stem-like radioresistant phenotype. Altogether, these observations suggest that HDAC4 and HDAC6 are guardians of irradiation-induced DNA damages and stemness, thus promoting radioresistance, and may represent potential prognostic markers and therapeutic targets in GBM.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Reparo do DNA/efeitos da radiação , Glioblastoma/radioterapia , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos da radiação , Tolerância a Radiação , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Autofagia/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias Encefálicas/enzimologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos da radiação , Senescência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Feminino , Glioblastoma/enzimologia , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/patologia , Desacetilase 6 de Histona , Histona Desacetilases/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/enzimologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Fenótipo , Interferência de RNA , Tolerância a Radiação/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos da radiação , Fatores de Tempo , Transfecção , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
18.
PLoS One ; 12(2): e0171093, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28207769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intestinal fibrosis is characterized by abnormal production and deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins by activated myofibroblasts. The main progenitor cells of activated myofibroblasts are the fibroblasts and the epithelial cells, the latter through the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). AIM: To evaluate the action of the new PPAR-γ modulator, GED-0507-34 Levo (GED) on the expression of EMT associated and regulatory proteins such as TGF-ß, Smad3, E-cadherin, Snail, ZEB1, ß-catenin, and GSK-3ß, in a mouse model of DSS-induced intestinal fibrosis. METHODS: Chronic colitis and fibrosis were induced by oral administration of 2.5% DSS (w/v) for 6 weeks. GW9662 (GW), a selective PPAR-γ inhibitor, was also administered by intraperitoneal injection at the dose of 1 mg/kg/day combined with GED treatment. All drugs were administered at the beginning of the second cycle of DSS (day 12). 65 mice were randomly divided into five groups (H2O as controls n = 10, H2O+GED n = 10, DSS n = 15, DSS+GED n = 15, DSS+GED+GW n = 15). The colon was excised for macroscopic examination and histological and morphometric analyses. The level of expression of molecules involved in EMT and fibrosis, like TGF-ß, Smad3, E-cadherin, Snail, ZEB1, ß-catenin, GSK-3ß and PPAR-γ, was assessed by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, western blot and Real Time PCR. RESULTS: GED improved the DSS-induced chronic colitis and fibrosis. GED was able to reduce the expression of the main fibrosis markers (α-SMA, collagen I-III and fibronectin) as well as the pivotal pro-fibrotic molecules IL-13, TGF-ß and Smad3, while it increased the anti-fibrotic PPAR-γ. All these GED effects were nullified by co-administration of GW with GED. Furthermore, GED was able to normalize the expression levels of E-cadherin and ß-catenin and upregulated GSK-3ß, that are all known to be involved both in EMT and fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: The DSS-induced intestinal fibrosis was improved by the new PPAR-γ modulator GED-0507-34 Levo through the modulation of EMT mediators and pro-fibrotic molecules and through GSK-3ß induction.


Assuntos
Colite/patologia , Sulfato de Dextrana/toxicidade , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Fibrose/patologia , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Reto/patologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/metabolismo , Fibrose/induzido quimicamente , Fibrose/metabolismo , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , PPAR gama/genética , Reto/efeitos dos fármacos , Reto/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
19.
Pathol Res Pract ; 213(1): 58-65, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27894619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatic fibrosis is characterized by a progressive accumulation of fibrillar extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, produced by activated myofibroblasts which are modulated by both profibrotic and antifibrotic factors. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in vivo the expression of pro-fibrotic molecules like avß6 integrin, transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß), Smad3, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR), as well as anti-fibrotic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) in an experimental model of chronic hepatitis-associated fibrosis induced by intraperitoneal administration of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) in mice. METHODS: Chronic hepatitis was induced in 12 Smad3 wild-type (WT) and 12 knock-out (KO) mice by intraperitoneal DMN administration. Histological, morphometric and immunohistochemical analyses using α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), collagen types I-III, TGF-ß1, Smad3, avß6 integrin, CTGF, mTOR and PPARγ antibodies were performed. RESULTS: The liver of DMN-treated Smad3 WT mice showed a higher degree of hepatic accumulation of connective tissue compared to KO mice. The expression of α-SMA, collagen I-III and CTGF was increased in Smad3 WT compared to KO mice treated with DMN, associated with a concomitant up-regulation of avß6, TGFß, Smad3, and mTOR and a reduction in PPARγ expression. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a possible interaction between pro-fibrotic and anti-fibrotic molecules in the development of hepatic fibrosis.


Assuntos
Fator de Crescimento do Tecido Conjuntivo/metabolismo , Integrinas/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Animais , Dimetilnitrosamina , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Camundongos
20.
Oncotarget ; 8(67): 111225-111245, 2017 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29340049

RESUMO

Background and aims: Docetaxel (DTX) modestly increases patient survival of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) due to insurgence of pharmacological resistance. Deregulation of Chromosome Region Maintenance (CRM-1)/ exportin-1 (XPO-1)-mediated nuclear export may play a crucial role in this phenomenon. Material and methods: Here, we evaluated the effects of two Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) compounds, selinexor (KPT-330) and KPT-251, in association with DTX by using 22rv1, PC3 and DU145 cell lines with their. DTX resistant derivatives. Results and conclusions: We show that DTX resistance may involve overexpression of ß-III tubulin (TUBB3) and P-glycoprotein as well as increased cytoplasmic accumulation of Foxo3a. Increased levels of XPO-1 were also observed in DTX resistant cells suggesting that SINE compounds may modulate DTX effectiveness in sensitive cells as well as restore the sensitivity to DTX in resistant ones. Pretreatment with SINE compounds, indeed, sensitized to DTX through increased tumor shrinkage and apoptosis by preventing DTX-induced cell cycle arrest. Basally SINE compounds induce FOXO3a activation and nuclear accumulation increasing the expression of FOXO-responsive genes including p21, p27 and Bim causing cell cycle arrest. SINE compounds-catenin and survivin supporting apoptosis. ßdown-regulated Cyclin D1, c-myc, Nuclear sequestration of p-Foxo3a was able to reduce ABCB1 and TUBB3 H2AX levels, prolonged γ expression. Selinexor treatment increased DTX-mediated double strand breaks (DSB), and reduced the levels of DNA repairing proteins including DNA PKc and Topo2A. Our results provide supportive evidence for the therapeutic use of SINE compounds in combination with DTX suggesting their clinical use in mCRPC patients.

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