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1.
Am J Health Behav ; 43(6): 1016-1029, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662162

RESUMO

Objective: In this study, we evaluated whether exercise prior to memory encoding or during memory consolidation can influence episodic memory function after being exposed to a stressful environment. Methods: We conducted 3 between-group randomized controlled experiments among young adults. We assessed episodic memory (via logic memory task) at the beginning of the experiment and approximately 45 minutes later. Across the 3 experiments, we varied the temporal period (eg, before memory encoding or during consolidation) of the acute bout of exercise (15-minute moderate-intensity exercise) and psychological stress induction. Results: Across all 3 experiments there was a statistically significant main effect for time for memory function, but there were no time x group interaction effects. Conclusion: Memory declined across the 2 assessment periods, but for all 3 experiments, exercise was not associated with memory function after being exposed to a stressful stimulus.

2.
Brain Sci ; 9(6)2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226771

RESUMO

The objective of the present review was to evaluate whether exercise can counteract a potential high-fat diet-induced memory impairment effect. The evaluated databases included: Google Scholar, Sports Discus, Embase/PubMed, Web of Science, and PsychInfo. Studies were included if: (1) an experimental/intervention study was conducted, (2) the experiment/intervention included both a high-fat diet and exercise group, and evaluated whether exercise could counteract the negative effects of a high-fat diet on memory, and (3) evaluated memory function (any type) as the outcome measure. In total, 17 articles met the inclusionary criteria. All 17 studies (conducted in rodents) demonstrated that the high-fat diet protocol impaired memory function and all 17 studies demonstrated a counteracting effect with chronic exercise engagement. Mechanisms of these robust effects are discussed herein.

3.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(5)2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31052284

RESUMO

Background and Objective: The present study was designed to investigate whether acute physical activity and psychological stress produce different effects on cortisol release and working memory performance. Materials and Methods: Male subjects (N = 12; 18-35 years) were recruited and scheduled to come four times to our lab (within-subject design). For each counterbalanced visit, they performed one of the following four protocols: control, moderate physical activity (MOD), vigorous physical activity (VIG), and acute stress. Heart rate was monitored during every protocol. MOD and VIG were performed for 15 min and were defined as 40-50% and 70-80%, respectively, of their maximum heart rate. Acute stress was imposed via the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Salivary samples were collected before and after every protocol to assess cortisol concentrations. Working memory (WM) performance was evaluated through the 2N-Back task right after ending the protocol (early WM) and after a delay of 35 min (late WM). Results: VIG and stress, but not MOD, increased salivary cortisol concentrations. However, the increases of cortisol produced by VIG and stress were not significantly different. Also, there were no significant differences in working memory performance (late and early) in any of the experimental protocols tested. Conclusions: These results show that exercise (VIG) and stress produce similar effects on cortisol release and do not support the hypothesis that working memory capacity is influenced by elevated cortisol levels, either from varying exercise intensities or psychological stress.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/psicologia , Hidrocortisona/análise , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
4.
Fetal Diagn Ther ; 45(3): 168-175, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29635237

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the added value of maternal serum levels of IL-6 in women with preterm-prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) as a non-invasive test for the prediction of histological chorioamnionitis (HCA). METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of pregnant women between 20 + 0 and 36 + 6 weeks of gestation with a confirmed diagnosis of PPROM. Logistic regression models were created for the prediction of HCA and compared by assessing the improvement in their Naegelkerke R2 as a measure of goodness of fit. Predictive performance of all models was assessed by receiver operating characteristics curve (ROC) analysis and compared by the DeLong method. RESULTS: From 47 women with PPROM, 31 (66%) developed HCA. Maternal serum IL-6 ≥19.5 pg/dL was the best cut-off point for the prediction of HCA (OR = 15; 95% CI: 3.6-61; p < 0.01). A model comprising maternal characteristics and IL-6 ≥19.5 pg/dL showed an area under the curve of 0.85 (95% CI: 0.74-0.95), significantly improving the previous models of IL-6 ≥19.5 pg/dL (R2: 23.3 vs. 34.1%; p = 0.01) or maternal characteristics (R2: 8.4 vs. 34.1%; p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: A model comprising maternal serum levels of IL-6 plus maternal characteristics proves to be a good non-invasive predictor of HCA.


Assuntos
Corioamnionite/diagnóstico , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/diagnóstico , Interleucina-6/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Corioamnionite/sangue , Feminino , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/sangue , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Phys Sportsmed ; 47(3): 290-294, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30449247

RESUMO

Objective: The objective of the study is to examine the association between physical activity and hippocampal-orbitofrontal functional connectivity. Methods: Data from the Nathan Kline Institute-Rockland Sample was utilized, which consisted of 366 participants (Mage = 43 years; 63% female). Physical activity was self-reported using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Hippocampal-orbitofrontal functional connectivity was assessed from magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Moderate-intensity physical activity was not statistically significantly associated with left hippocampal-orbitofrontal connectivity (ß = 0.001; 95% CI: -0.02, 0.03; P = 0.90) or right hippocampal-orbitofrontal connectivity (ß = 0.01; 95% CI: -0.01, 0.04; P = 0.22). However, vigorous-intensity physical activity was statistically significantly associated with right hippocampal-orbitofrontal connectivity (ß = 0.01; 95% CI: 0.004, 0.02; P = 0.002). Discussion: Habitual engagement in intense physical activity was associated with greater hippocampal-orbitofrontal connectivity, while moderate activity engagement was not. This may have important implications for the exercise neurobiology field in the context of exercise and memory function, suggesting that intense activity may facilitate cognitive/memory functions. However, our findings should be interpreted with caution given the relatively weak associations that were observed.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cognição , Estudos de Coortes , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
6.
Med Hypotheses ; 117: 3-6, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30077191

RESUMO

Recent empirical work suggests that acute exercise engagement may help to subserve episodic memory function. In this paper, we discuss these effects as well as introduce a hypothesized model suggesting a potential bi-directional relationship between exercise and memory. We provide empirical support for each of the pathways delineated within this model. Future research is needed to empirically evaluate the totality of this model. If such work demonstrates utility and predictive validity, then this model will have important implications not only for clinicians, but for the exercise neurobiology field as well.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Memória Episódica , Modelos Neurológicos , Cognição , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
7.
Phys Sportsmed ; 46(2): 145-154, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29480042

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a debilitating disease influencing a multitude of outcomes, including memory function. Recent work suggests that memory may be influenced by exercise ('memorcise'), even among those with AD. The present narrative review details (1) the underlying mechanisms of AD; (2) whether exercise has a protective effect in preventing AD; (3) the mechanisms through which exercise may help to prevent AD; (4) the mechanisms through which exercise may help attenuate the progression of AD severity among those with existing AD; (5) the effects and mechanisms through which exercise is associated with memory among those with existing AD; and (6) exercise recommendations for those with existing AD. Such an understanding will aid clinicians in their ability to use exercise as a potential behavioral strategy to help prevent and treat AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Terapia por Exercício/psicologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Transtornos da Memória/terapia , Memória/fisiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia
8.
Org Med Chem Lett ; 4: 2, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24995152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phenylazonaphtol-ß-D-O-glycosides are alternative substrates for the detection of enzymatic activity of ß-glycosidases which are involved in various important processes. These azoic compounds are currently exploited as prodrugs for colonic disease due the presence of ß-glycosidase activity in the gut flora and therefore allowing the release of the drug at the specific site. RESULTS: Phenylazonaphtol-ß-D-O-glucoside 3a and galactoside 3b were prepared via diazonium salt conditions under weak acidic conditions which do not compromise the O-glycosidic bond stability, by coupling reaction between 2-naphtol sodium salt with aminoglycosides 1a and 1b. The resulting phenylazonaphtol glycosides 2a and 2b were deprotected affording the phenylazonaphtol glycosides 3a and 3b in quantitative yield. The galactoside glycoside 3b was assayed as substrate for in vitro ß-galactosidase enzymatic activity showing strong absorbance after releasing of the azoic chromophore. Also, docking studies were performed to determine the best pose as well as the interactions between the ligand and the residues located at the active site. CONCLUSIONS: The methodology developed for synthesizing the phenylazonaphtol glycosides described proved to be convenient for generating azoic functionalities in the presence of glycosidic bonds and the glycosides suitable as alternative substrates and potentially useful prodrugs in the treatment of colonic diseases.

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