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Methods Mol Biol ; 1999: 75-85, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127570


The double-strand break (DSB) is the most cytotoxic type of DNA damage and measurement of DSBs in cells is essential to understand their induction and repair. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) allows for quantitative measurement of DSBs in a cell population generated by DNA damaging agents. PFGE has the capacity to separate DNA molecules from several hundred base pairs to over six million base pairs. In the method described here, molecules from five hundred thousand to three million base pairs are consolidated into a single band on the gel that is readily analyzed.

PLoS Genet ; 15(2): e1007942, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735491


NSMCE2 is an E3 SUMO ligase and a subunit of the SMC5/6 complex that associates with the replication fork and protects against genomic instability. Here, we study the fate of collapsed replication forks generated by prolonged hydroxyurea treatment in human NSMCE2-deficient cells. Double strand breaks accumulate during rescue by converging forks in normal cells but not in NSMCE2-deficient cells. Un-rescued forks persist into mitosis, leading to increased mitotic DNA damage. Excess RAD51 accumulates and persists at collapsed forks in NSMCE2-deficient cells, possibly due to lack of BLM recruitment to stalled forks. Despite failure of BLM to accumulate at stalled forks, NSMCE2-deficient cells exhibit lower levels of hydroxyurea-induced sister chromatid exchange. In cells deficient in both NSMCE2 and BLM, hydroxyurea-induced double strand breaks and sister chromatid exchange resembled levels found in NSCME2-deficient cells. We conclude that the rescue of collapsed forks by converging forks is dependent on NSMCE2.

Dano ao DNA , Ligases/metabolismo , Mitose , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Reparo do DNA , Replicação do DNA , Epistasia Genética , Instabilidade Genômica , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Hidroxiureia/farmacologia , Ligases/deficiência , Ligases/genética , Modelos Biológicos , Rad51 Recombinase/genética , Rad51 Recombinase/metabolismo , RecQ Helicases/deficiência , RecQ Helicases/genética , RecQ Helicases/metabolismo , Troca de Cromátide Irmã/efeitos dos fármacos , Sumoilação
Neoplasia ; 19(11): 919-927, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28954241


Chordoma is a rare, radiation-resistant, skull-base and spinal tumor with high local recurrence containing mixed cell-adhesion phenotypes. We characterized DNA damage response (DDR) signaling (γH2AX, pKAP1, pATM) and survival response to ionizing radiation (IR) in human chordoma samples (42 resections, 23 patients) to test if blocking cell adhesion sensitizes U-CH1 tumor cells to IR. U-CH1 cells expressed brachyury, YAP, and laminin adhesion receptors (CD49c, CD49f, CD44), and approximately 15% to 20% of U-CH1 cells featured an α6 integrin-dependent (CD49f) cohesive cluster phenotype, which confers therapeutic resistance and aids metastasis. DDR to IR in U-CH1 cells was compared to normal prostate epithelial (PrEC) and tumor cells (DU145). Flow cytometry showed a dose- and time-dependent increase in γH2AX and pKAP1 expression in all cell lines. However, nearly 50% of U-CH1 cells exhibited nonresponsive phenotype to IR (measured by γH2AX and pKAP1) independent of cell cycle status. Immunofluorescence microscopy verified that only 15% of U-CH1 clustered cells were γH2AX or pKAP1 positive (versus 80% of nonclustered cells) 2 hours following 2-Gy IR. Conversely, both tumor cell lines were uniformly defective in pATM response. HYD1, a synthetic ECM ligand, inhibited DDR through an unresolved γH2AX response. ß1 integrin-blocking antibody (AIIB2) decreased cell survival 50% itself and approximately doubled the IR-induced cell kill at all IR doses observed at 2 and 4 weeks posttreatment. These results suggest that a heterogeneity of DDR to IR exists within a chordoma population. Blocking integrin function alone and/or as an adjuvant to IR may eradicate chordomas containing the cohesive cluster phenotype.

Cordoma/metabolismo , Integrina beta1/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Radiação Ionizante , Sacro/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cordoma/patologia , Cordoma/radioterapia , Humanos , Sacro/patologia , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/patologia , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/radioterapia , Resultado do Tratamento
Cancer Biol Ther ; 16(1): 43-51, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25485960


Gemcitabine based treatment is currently a standard first line treatment for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer, however overall survival remains poor, and few options are available for patients that fail gemcitabine based therapy. To identify potential molecular targets in gemcitabine refractory pancreatic cancer, we developed a series of gemcitabine resistant (GR) cell lines. Initial drug exposure selected for an early resistant phenotype that was independent of drug metabolic pathways. Prolonged drug selection pressure after 16 weeks, led to an induction of cytidine deaminase (CDA) and enhanced drug detoxification. Cross resistance profiles demonstrate approximately 100-fold cross resistance to the pyrimidine nucleoside cytarabine, but no resistance to the same in class agents, azacytidine and decitabine. GR cell lines demonstrated a dose dependent collateral hypersensitivity to class I and II histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors and decreased expression of 3 different global heterochromatin marks, as detected by H4K20me3, H3K9me3 and H3K27me3. Cell morphology of the drug resistant cell lines demonstrated a fibroblastic type appearance with loss of cell-cell junctions and an altered microarray expression pattern, using Gene Ontology (GO) annotation, consistent with progression to an invasive phenotype. Of particular note, the gemcitabine resistant cell lines displayed up to a 15 fold increase in invasive potential that directly correlates with the level of gemcitabine resistance. These findings suggest a mechanistic relationship between chemoresistance and metastatic potential in pancreatic carcinoma and provide evidence for molecular pathways that may be exploited to develop therapeutic strategies for refractory pancreatic cancer.

Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/genética , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Desoxicitidina/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Fenótipo