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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 617, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001688

RESUMO

Charge separation dynamics after the absorption of a photon is a fundamental process relevant both for photosynthetic reaction centers and artificial solar conversion devices. It has been proposed that quantum coherence plays a role in the formation of charge carriers in organic photovoltaics, but experimental proofs have been lacking. Here we report experimental evidence of coherence in the charge separation process in organic donor/acceptor heterojunctions, in the form of low frequency oscillatory signature in the kinetics of the transient absorption and nonlinear two-dimensional photocurrent spectroscopy. The coherence plays a decisive role in the initial ~200 femtoseconds as we observe distinct experimental signatures of coherent photocurrent generation. This coherent process breaks the energy barrier limitation for charge formation, thus competing with excitation energy transfer. The physics may inspire the design of new photovoltaic materials with high device performance, which explore the quantum effects in the next-generation optoelectronic applications.

2.
Sci Adv ; 5(5): eaaw5558, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172030

RESUMO

Hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskites have shown remarkable optoelectronic properties, exhibiting an impressive tolerance to defects believed to originate from correlated motion of charge carriers and the polar lattice forming large polarons. Few experimental techniques are capable of directly probing these correlations, requiring simultaneous sub-millielectron volt energy and femtosecond temporal resolution after absorption of a photon. Here, we use time-resolved multi-THz spectroscopy, sensitive to the internal excitations of the polaron, to temporally and energetically resolve the coherent coupling of charges to longitudinal optical phonons in single-crystal CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPI). We observe room temperature intraband quantum beats arising from the coherent displacement of charge from the coupled phonon cloud. Our measurements provide strong evidence for the existence of polarons in MAPI at room temperature, suggesting that electron/hole-phonon coupling is a defining aspect of the hybrid metal-halide perovskites contributing to the protection from scattering and enhanced carrier lifetimes that define their usefulness in devices.

3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(19): 7743-7750, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31017418

RESUMO

Although significant improvements have been achieved for organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs), the top-performing devices still show power conversion efficiencies far behind those of commercialized solar cells. One of the main reasons is the large driving force required for separating electron-hole pairs. Here, we demonstrate an efficiency of 14.7% in the single-junction OPV by using a new polymer donor PTO2 and a nonfullerene acceptor IT-4F. The device possesses an efficient charge generation at a low driving force. Ultrafast transient absorption measurements probe the formation of loosely bound charge pairs with extended lifetime that impedes the recombination of charge carriers in the blend. The theoretical studies reveal that the molecular electrostatic potential (ESP) between PTO2 and IT-4F is large, and the induced intermolecular electric field may assist the charge generation. The results suggest OPVs have the potential for further improvement by judicious modulation of ESP.

4.
Chem Rev ; 117(16): 10940-11024, 2017 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28805062

RESUMO

Electrons are the workhorses of solar energy conversion. Conversion of the energy of light to electricity in photovoltaics, or to energy-rich molecules (solar fuel) through photocatalytic processes, invariably starts with photoinduced generation of energy-rich electrons. The harvesting of these electrons in practical devices rests on a series of electron transfer processes whose dynamics and efficiencies determine the function of materials and devices. To capture the energy of a photogenerated electron-hole pair in a solar cell material, charges of opposite sign have to be separated against electrostatic attractions, prevented from recombining and being transported through the active material to electrodes where they can be extracted. In photocatalytic solar fuel production, these electron processes are coupled to chemical reactions leading to storage of the energy of light in chemical bonds. With the focus on the ultrafast time scale, we here discuss the light-induced electron processes underlying the function of several molecular and hybrid materials currently under development for solar energy applications in dye or quantum dot-sensitized solar cells, polymer-fullerene polymer solar cells, organometal halide perovskite solar cells, and finally some photocatalytic systems.

5.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 7(7): 1096-101, 2016 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26942559

RESUMO

There is a mounting effort to use nickel oxide (NiO) as p-type selective electrode for organometal halide perovskite-based solar cells. Recently, an overall power conversion efficiency using this hole acceptor has reached 18%. However, ultrafast spectroscopic investigations on the mechanism of charge injection as well as recombination dynamics have yet to be studied and understood. Using time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy, we show that hole transfer is complete on the subpicosecond time scale, driven by the favorable band alignment between the valence bands of perovskite and NiO nanoparticles (NiO(np)). Recombination time between holes injected into NiO(np) and mobile electrons in the perovskite material is shown to be hundreds of picoseconds to a few nanoseconds. Because of the low conductivity of NiO(np), holes are pinned at the interface, and it is electrons that determine the recombination rate. This recombination competes with charge collection and therefore must be minimized. Doping NiO to promote higher mobility of holes is desirable in order to prevent back recombination.

6.
Nanotechnology ; 27(8): 082001, 2016 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26820442

RESUMO

Organo-metal halide perovskites (OMHPs) have attracted enormous interest in recent years as materials for application in optoelectronics and solar energy conversion. These hybrid semiconductors seem to have the potential to challenge traditional silicon technology. In this review we will give an account of the recent development in the understanding of the fundamental light-induced processes in OMHPs from charge-photo generation, migration of charge carries through the materials and finally their recombination. Our and other literature reports on time-resolved conductivity, transient absorption and photoluminescence properties are used to paint a picture of how we currently see the fundamental excited state and charge-carrier dynamics. We will also show that there is still no fully coherent picture of the processes in OMHPs and we will indicate the problems to be solved by future research.

7.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 7(1): 204-10, 2016 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26703885

RESUMO

We report on studies of the formamidinium lead triiodide (FAPbI3) perovskite film using time-resolved terahertz (THz) spectroscopy (TRTS) and flash photolysis to explore charge carriers generation, migration, and recombination. The TRTS results show that upon femtosecond excitation above the absorption edge, the initial high photoconductivity (∼75 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) remains constant at least up to 8 ns, which corresponds to a diffusion length of 25 µm. Pumping below the absorption edge results in a mobility of 40 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) suggesting lower mobility of charge carriers located at the bottom of the conduction band or shallow sub-bandgap states. Furthermore, analysis of the THz kinetics reveals rising components of <1 and 20 ps, reflecting dissociation of excitons having different binding energies. Flash photolysis experiments indicate that trapped charge carriers persist for milliseconds.

8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 137(51): 16043-8, 2015 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26636183

RESUMO

Despite the unprecedented interest in organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite solar cells, quantitative information on the charge transfer dynamics into selective electrodes is still lacking. In this paper, we report the time scales and mechanisms of electron and hole injection and recombination dynamics at organic PCBM and Spiro-OMeTAD electrode interfaces. On the one hand, hole transfer is complete on the subpicosecond time scale in MAPbI3/Spiro-OMeTAD, and its recombination rate is similar to that in neat MAPbI3. This was found to be due to a high concentration of dark charges, i.e., holes brought about by unintentional p-type doping of MAPbI3. Hence, the total concentration of holes in the perovskite is hardly affected by optical excitation, which manifested as similar decay kinetics. On the other hand, the decay of the photoinduced conductivity in MAPbI3/PCBM is on the time scale of hundreds of picoseconds to several nanoseconds, due to electron injection into PCBM and electron-hole recombination at the interface occurring at similar rates. These results highlight the importance of understanding the role of dark carriers in deconvoluting the complex photophysical processes in these materials. Moreover, optimizing the preparation processes wherein undesired doping is minimized could prompt the use of organic molecules as a more viable electrode substitute for perovskite solar cell devices.

9.
Nat Chem ; 7(11): 883-9, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26492008

RESUMO

Solar energy conversion in photovoltaics or photocatalysis involves light harvesting, or sensitization, of a semiconductor or catalyst as a first step. Rare elements are frequently used for this purpose, but they are obviously not ideal for large-scale implementation. Great efforts have been made to replace the widely used ruthenium with more abundant analogues like iron, but without much success due to the very short-lived excited states of the resulting iron complexes. Here, we describe the development of an iron-nitrogen-heterocyclic-carbene sensitizer with an excited-state lifetime that is nearly a thousand-fold longer than that of traditional iron polypyridyl complexes. By the use of electron paramagnetic resonance, transient absorption spectroscopy, transient terahertz spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations, we show that the iron complex generates photoelectrons in the conduction band of titanium dioxide with a quantum yield of 92% from the (3)MLCT (metal-to-ligand charge transfer) state. These results open up possibilities to develop solar energy-converting materials based on abundant elements.

10.
Nano Lett ; 15(3): 1603-8, 2015 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25706329

RESUMO

Fluorescence super-resolution microscopy showed correlated fluctuations of photoluminescence intensity and spatial localization of individual perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) nanocrystals of size ∼200 × 30 × 30 nm(3). The photoluminescence blinking amplitude caused by a single quencher was a hundred thousand times larger than that of a typical dye molecule at the same excitation power density. The quencher is proposed to be a chemical or structural defect that traps free charges leading to nonradiative recombination. These trapping sites can be activated and deactivated by light.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cálcio/química , Compostos de Cálcio/efeitos da radiação , Cristalização/métodos , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/efeitos da radiação , Óxidos/química , Óxidos/efeitos da radiação , Titânio/química , Titânio/efeitos da radiação , Absorção de Radiação , Luz , Teste de Materiais , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula
11.
J Am Chem Soc ; 136(32): 11331-8, 2014 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25025885

RESUMO

In this paper we studied carrier drift dynamics in APFO3:PC61BM solar cells of varied stoichiometry (2:1, 1:1, and 1:4 APFO3:PC61BM) over a wide time range, from subpicoseconds to microseconds with a combination of ultrafast optical electric field probing and conventional transient integrated photocurrent techniques. Carrier drift and extraction dynamics are strongly stoichiometry dependent: the speed of electron or hole drift increases with higher concentration of PC61BM or polymer, respectively. The electron extraction from a sample with 80% PC61BM takes place during hundreds of picoseconds, but slows down to sub-microseconds in a sample with 33% PC61BM. The hole extraction is less stoichiometry dependent: it varies form sub-nanoseconds to tens of nanoseconds when the PC61BM concentration changes from 33% to 80%. The electron extraction rate correlates with the conversion efficiency of solar cells, leading to the conclusion that fast electron motion is essential for efficient charge carrier separation preventing their geminate recombination.

12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 136(14): 5189-92, 2014 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24654882

RESUMO

Organometal halide perovskite-based solar cells have recently been reported to be highly efficient, giving an overall power conversion efficiency of up to 15%. However, much of the fundamental photophysical properties underlying this performance has remained unknown. Here, we apply photoluminescence, transient absorption, time-resolved terahertz and microwave conductivity measurements to determine the time scales of generation and recombination of charge carriers as well as their transport properties in solution-processed CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite materials. We found that electron-hole pairs are generated almost instantaneously after photoexcitation and dissociate in 2 ps forming highly mobile charges (25 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) in the neat perovskite and in perovskite/alumina blends; almost balanced electron and hole mobilities remain very high up to the microsecond time scale. When the perovskite is introduced into a TiO2 mesoporous structure, electron injection from perovskite to the metal oxide is efficient in less than a picosecond, but the lower intrinsic electron mobility of TiO2 leads to unbalanced charge transport. Microwave conductivity measurements showed that the decay of mobile charges is very slow in CH3NH3PbI3, lasting up to tens of microseconds. These results unravel the remarkable intrinsic properties of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite material if used as light absorber and charge transport layer. Moreover, finding a metal oxide with higher electron mobility may further increase the performance of this class of solar cells.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Iodetos/química , Chumbo/química , Metilaminas/química , Energia Solar , Micro-Ondas , Fatores de Tempo
13.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 5(13): 2189-94, 2014 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26279532

RESUMO

Solar cells based on organometal halide perovskites have seen rapidly increasing efficiencies, now exceeding 15%. Despite this progress, there is still limited knowledge on the fundamental photophysics. Here we use microwave photoconductance and photoluminescence measurements to investigate the temperature dependence of the carrier generation, mobility, and recombination in (CH3NH3)PbI3. At temperatures maintaining the tetragonal crystal phase of the perovskite, we find an exciton binding energy of about 32 meV, leading to a temperature-dependent yield of highly mobile (6.2 cm(2)/(V s) at 300 K) charge carriers. At higher laser intensities, second-order recombination with a rate constant of γ = 13 × 10(-10) cm(3) s(-1) becomes apparent. Reducing the temperature results in increasing charge carrier mobilities following a T(-1.6) dependence, which we attribute to a reduction in phonon scattering (Σµ = 16 cm(2)/(V s) at 165 K). Despite the fact that Σµ increases, γ diminishes with a factor six, implying that charge recombination in (CH3NH3)PbI3 is temperature activated. The results underline the importance of the perovskite crystal structure, the exciton binding energy, and the activation energy for recombination as key factors in optimizing new perovskite materials.

14.
J Am Chem Soc ; 134(29): 11836-9, 2012 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22747242

RESUMO

The few-picosecond (ps) decay of terahertz (THz) photoconductivity typically observed for conjugated polymer:fullerene blends (at excitation fluencies ~10(15) photons/cm(2) per pulse) is shown to be a result of charge pair annihilation for two polymer:PCBM blends. At a factor of 100 lower excitation density, the THz decay is in the hundreds of ps time scale, implying that very high carrier mobility (~0.1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) prevails for long time after charge formation, of importance for free charge formation in organic solar cells.

15.
J Am Chem Soc ; 134(29): 12110-7, 2012 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22730926

RESUMO

Photoinduced electron injection dynamics from CdSe quantum dots to ZnO nanowires is studied by transient absorption and time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy measurements. Ultrafast electron transfer from the CdSe quantum dots to ZnO is proven to be efficient already on a picoseconds time scale (τ = 3-12 ps). The measured kinetics was found to have a two-component character, whose origin is discussed in detail. The obtained results suggest that electrons are injected into ZnO via an intermediate charge transfer state.

16.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 3(17): 2442-6, 2012 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26292130

RESUMO

Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy was employed for the investigation of charge-transport dynamics in benzothiadiazolo-dithiophene polyfluorene ([2,7-(9,9-dioctyl-fluorene)-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)]) (APFO-3) polymers with various chain lengths and in its monomer form, all blended with an electron acceptor ([6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, PCBM). Upon photoexcitation, charged polaron pairs are created, negative charges are transferred to fullerenes, while positive polarons remain on polymers/monomers. Vastly different hole mobility in polymer and monomer blends allows us to distinguish the hole and electron contributions to the carrier mobility.

17.
Opt Lett ; 33(9): 902-4, 2008 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18451933

RESUMO

A hollow-core microstructured polymer optical fiber was analyzed in the terahertz (THz) region. Spectral analysis of time domain data shows propagation of THz waves in both the hollow-core and the microstructured cladding with a time delay of approximately 20 ps. The frequency range and shift of the transmission bands between different sized waveguides suggested photonic bandgap or resonant guidance. Finite-difference time domain calculations agree relatively well to the experimental transmission results. Propagation losses were estimated to be as low as 0.9 dB/cm.

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