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1.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 37: 101486, 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to the considerable burden of multiple sclerosis (MS)-related symptoms and the need to identify effective interventions to prevent disease progression, various nutraceutical interventions have been trialed as adjunctive treatments. The aim of this review was to investigate the efficacy and safety of nutraceutical interventions for clinical and biological outcomes in people with MS. METHODS: In accordance with PRISMA reporting guidelines, a systematic literature search was conducted using three electronic literature databases. Risk of bias was assessed using the Jadad scale. RESULTS: Thirty-seven randomized controlled trials, investigating fourteen nutraceuticals, were included in the review. Trials that investigated alpha lipoic acid (n = 4/6), ginkgo biloba (n = 3/5), vitamin A (n = 2/2), biotin (n = 1/2), carnitine (n = 1/2), green tea (n = 1/2), coenzyme Q10 (n = 1/1), probiotics (n = 1/1), curcumin (n = 1/1), Andrographis paniculata (n = 1/1), ginseng (n = 1/1), and lemon verbena (n = 1/1) were reported to improve biological (e.g. MRI brain volume change, antioxidant capacity) and/or clinical (e.g. fatigue, depression, Expanded Disability Status Scale) outcomes in multiple sclerosis compared to control. However, most trials were relatively small (average study sample size across included studies, n = 55) and there were few replicate studies per nutraceutical to validate the reported results. Furthermore, some nutraceuticals (e.g. green tea and inosine) should be used with caution due to reported adverse events. Risk of bias across most studies was low, with 31 studies receiving a score between 4 and 5 (out of 5) on the Jadad Scale. CONCLUSION: The existing literature provides preliminary support for the use of a number of nutraceutical interventions in MS. However, sufficiently powered long-term trials are required to expand the currently limited literature and to investigate unexplored nutraceuticals that may target relevant pathways involved in MS such as the gut microbiome and mitochondrial dysfunction. Prospero ID: CRD42018111736.

2.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leptin regulates satiety and energy homoeostasis, and plays a key role in placentation in pregnancy. Previous studies have demonstrated regulation of leptin gene (LEP) expression and/or methylation in placenta and cord blood in association with early life exposures, but most have been small and have not considered the influence of genetic variation. Here, we investigated the relationship between maternal factors in pregnancy, infant anthropometry and LEP genetic variation with LEP promoter methylation at birth and 12 months of age. METHODS: LEP methylation was measured in cord (n = 877) and 12-month (n = 734) blood in the Barwon Infant Study, a population-based pre-birth cohort. Infant adiposity at birth and 12-months was measured as triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness. Cross-sectional regression tested associations of methylation with pregnancy and anthropometry measures, while longitudinal regression tested if birth anthropometry predicted 12-month LEP methylation levels. RESULTS: Male infants had lower LEP methylation in cord blood (-2.07% average methylation, 95% CI (-2.92, -1.22), p < 0.001). Genetic variation strongly influenced DNA methylation at a single CpG site, which was also negatively associated with birth weight (r = -0.10, p = 0.003). Pre-eclampsia was associated with lower cord blood methylation at another CpG site (-6.06%, 95% CI (-10.70, -1.42), p = 0.01). Gestational diabetes was more modestly associated with methylation at two other CpG units. Adiposity at birth was associated with 12-month LEP methylation, modified by rs41457646 genotype. There was no association of LEP methylation with 12-month anthropometric measures. CONCLUSIONS: Infant sex, weight, genetic variation, and exposure to pre-eclampsia and gestational diabetes, are associated with LEP methylation in cord blood. Infant adiposity at birth predicts 12-month blood LEP methylation in a genotype-dependent manner. These findings are consistent with genetics and anthropometry driving altered LEP epigenetic profile and expression in infancy. Further work is required to confirm this and to determine the long-term impact of altered LEP methylation on health.

3.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(5): 1327-1335.e5, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials demonstrate that timely introduction of peanut to infants reduces the risk of peanut allergy. However, much debate remains regarding how to best achieve earlier peanut introduction at the population level. Our previous study in 2007-2011 (HealthNuts, n = 5300) indicated that few infants were consuming peanut in the first year. Australian infant feeding guidelines were updated in 2016 to recommend introducing peanut before 12 months for all infants. There were no data available on the subsequent effect on peanut introduction or peanut reactions. OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess the consequences of a nonscreening approach to allergenic food introduction in a population-based sample of infants in their first year of life. METHODS: EarlyNuts is a population-based, cross-sectional study of 12-month-old infants in Melbourne, Australia, recruited by using an identical sampling frame and methods to HealthNuts (72% response rate vs 73% response rate in HealthNuts). We report here on the first 860 participants recruited between November 2016 and October 2018. RESULTS: Most infants (88.6%; 95% CI, 86.1% to 90.7%) had introduced peanut by 12 months (median age, 6 months), an increase from 28.4% (95% CI, 27.2% to 29.7%) in the HealthNuts study. By 12 months, the majority of these (76.4%) had consumed peanut more than 4 times, and 28% were eating peanut more than once per week. Preliminary results on parent-reported reactions show that 4.0% of those consuming peanut by 12 months had possible IgE-mediated reactions. CONCLUSIONS: There has been a striking shift toward earlier peanut introduction, with a 3-fold increase in peanut introduction by age 1 year in 2018 compared with 2007-2011.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cashew is a common cause of tree nut allergy in children. To date there have been few studies of diagnostic tests for cashew allergy, and positive predictive values (PPVs) for cashew as well as other tree nuts are largely extrapolated from studies of peanut allergy. How relevant these cutoffs are for cashew has not been formally explored. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to establish skin prick test (SPT) wheal sizes that correlated to 95% PPV for a positive food challenge for cashew. METHODS: We included all cashew oral food challenges (OFCs) conducted as part of the HealthNuts (n = 108; age, 4-6 years) and SchoolNuts (n = 37; age, 10-14 years) studies, both recruited from the community (population cohort). A second cohort of all cashew OFCs conducted at the Royal Children's Hospital (RCH) allergy center (n = 343) (2011-2016) and a private allergy clinic based at RCH (n = 43) was included via electronic medical record review (clinic cohort). The 95% PPV for cashew SPT was calculated for both cohorts. RESULTS: Among the population cohort (n = 145), 62% of cashew OFCs were positive compared with 20% of the clinic cohort (n = 386). The SPT cutoff for 95% PPV derived from the population cohort was 10 mm (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.5-12.0). For the clinic cohort, the 95% PPV was 14 mm (95% CI, 9.5-unknown). An SPT wheal size of 8 mm had a PPV of 89% (95% CI, 79-95) in the population cohort and 62% (95% CI, 45-78) in the clinic cohort. CONCLUSION: A higher SPT wheal size may be more appropriate than the commonly used 8 mm cutoff to guide clinical decisions around when to perform OFC for cashew.

5.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 96, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Methylation of the hypoxia-inducible factor 3α gene (HIF3A) has been linked to pregnancy exposures, infant adiposity and later BMI. Genetic variation influences HIF3A methylation levels and may modify these relationships. However, data in very early life are limited, particularly in association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We investigated the relationship between maternal and gestational factors, infant anthropometry, genetic variation and HIF3A DNA methylation in the Barwon Infant Study, a population-based birth cohort. Methylation of two previously studied regions of HIF3A were tested in the cord blood mononuclear cells of 938 infants. RESULTS: No compelling evidence was found of an association between birth weight, adiposity or maternal gestational diabetes with methylation at the most widely studied HIF3A region. Male sex (- 4.3%, p < 0.001) and pre-eclampsia (- 5.4%, p = 0.02) negatively associated with methylation at a second region of HIF3A; while positive associations were identified for gestational diabetes (4.8%, p = 0.01) and gestational age (1.2% increase per week, p < 0.001). HIF3A genetic variation also associated strongly with methylation at this region (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Pre- and perinatal factors impact HIF3A methylation, including pre-eclampsia. This provides evidence that specific pregnancy complications, previously linked to adverse outcomes for both mother and child, impact the infant epigenome in a molecular pathway critical to several vascular and metabolic conditions. Further work is required to understand the mechanisms and clinical relevance, particularly the differing effects of in utero exposure to gestational diabetes or pre-eclampsia.

6.
J Nutr ; 149(8): 1385-1392, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The evidence associating diet and risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) is inconclusive. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate associations between a Mediterranean diet and risk of a first clinical diagnosis of central nervous system demyelination (FCD), a common precursor to MS. METHODS: We used data from the 2003-2006 Ausimmune Study, an Australian multicenter, case-control study examining environmental risk factors for FCD, with participants matched on age, sex, and study region (282 cases, 558 controls; 18-59 y old; 78% female). The alternate Mediterranean diet score (aMED) was calculated based on data from a food-frequency questionnaire. We created a modified version of the aMED (aMED-Red) where ∼1 daily serving (65 g) of unprocessed red meat received 1 point. All other components remained the same as aMED. Conditional logistic regression (254 cases, 451 controls) was used to test associations between aMED and aMED-Red scores and categories and risk of FCD, adjusting for history of infectious mononucleosis, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, smoking, education, total energy intake, and dietary underreporting. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant association between aMED and risk of FCD [per 1-SD increase in aMED score: adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 0.89; 95% CI: 0.75, 1.06; P = 0.181]. There was evidence of a nonlinear relation between aMED-Red and risk of FCD when a quadratic term was used (P = 0.016). Compared with the lowest category of aMED-Red, higher categories were significantly associated with reduced risk of FCD, corresponding to a 37% (aOR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.98; P = 0.039), 52% (aOR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.83; P = 0.009), and 42% (aOR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.96; P = 0.034) reduced risk of FCD in categories 2, 3, and 4, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A Mediterranean diet, including unprocessed red meat, was associated with reduced risk of FCD in this Australian adult population. The addition of unprocessed red meat to a Mediterranean diet may be beneficial for those at high risk of MS.

7.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 69(2): 182-188, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107405

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The incidence of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing worldwide. Ecological studies show higher incidence in regions at higher latitude or lower ambient ultraviolet radiation; individual-level associations with sun exposure have not been assessed. METHODS: We recruited children (0-17 years) with IBD from 2 large hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. Control participants were recruited from the day surgery unit of one of the same hospitals. Questionnaires provided data on demographics, past sun exposure, the likelihood of sunburn (skin sensitivity) or tanning following sun exposure, use of sun protection, physical activity, and parental smoking and education. Grandparent ancestry was used to determine participant ethnicity. Cases and controls were matched on age and sex. We used conditional logistic regression to test the association between being an IBD case and past sun exposure at different ages, adjusted for a range of other factors. RESULTS: After matching, n = 99 cases and n = 396 controls were included in the analysis. In multivariable analysis, for each 10 min increment in leisure-time sun exposure in summer or winter there was a linear 6% reduction in the odds of having IBD (P = 0.002). Results were similar in sensitivity analyses including only the most recently diagnosed cases, only Caucasian cases and controls, only those with symptom onset within the year before study entry, or additionally adjusted for age or physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Higher sun exposure in the previous summer or winter was associated with a reduced risk of having IBD. There are plausible pathways that could mediate this effect.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037791

RESUMO

AIM: The burden of wheezing illnesses in Australian infants has not been documented since the success of initiatives to reduce maternal cigarette smoking. We aimed to determine the incidence of wheeze and related health-care utilisation during the first year of life among a contemporary Australian birth cohort. METHODS: A birth cohort of 1074 infants was assembled between 2010 and 2013. Parents completed questionnaires periodically. Several non-exclusive infant respiratory disease phenotypes were defined, including any wheeze, wheeze with shortness of breath and recurrent wheeze. Skin prick testing was performed to determine atopic wheeze. Health-care utilisation for respiratory disease was determined from questionnaires and hospital medical records. RESULTS: Retention to 1 year was 840/1074 (83%). The incidence of any wheeze was 51.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 48.3-55.2%), wheeze with shortness of breath 20.6% (95% CI 17.9-23.5), recurrent wheeze 19.4% (95% CI 16.8-22.2) and atopic wheeze 6% (95% CI 4.6-7.8). Respiratory illness resulted in primary health-care utilisation in 82.2% (95% CI 79.3-84.8) of participants and hospital presentation in 8.8% (95% CI 7.2-10.6). Maternal smoking during pregnancy was uncommon (15.7%) and was not associated with wheeze or health resource utilisation. Male gender, familial atopy and asthma and smaller household size were associated with a higher incidence of wheeze. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of wheezing illness among Australian infants remains high despite relatively low rates of maternal smoking during pregnancy. The majority of the health-care burden is borne by primary health-care services. Further research is required to inform novel prevention strategies.

9.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054169

RESUMO

Parental occupational exposures to pesticides, animals and organic dust have been associated with an increased risk of childhood cancer based mostly on case-control studies. We prospectively evaluated parental occupational exposures and risk of childhood leukemia and central nervous system (CNS) tumors in the International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortium. We pooled data on 329,658 participants from birth cohorts in five countries (Australia, Denmark, Israel, Norway and United Kingdom). Parental occupational exposures during pregnancy were estimated by linking International Standard Classification of Occupations-1988 job codes to the ALOHA+ job exposure matrix. Risk of childhood (<15 years) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; n = 129), acute myeloid leukemia (AML; n = 31) and CNS tumors (n = 158) was estimated using Cox proportional hazards models to generate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Paternal exposures to pesticides and animals were associated with increased risk of childhood AML (herbicides HR = 3.22, 95% CI = 0.97-10.68; insecticides HR = 2.86, 95% CI = 0.99-8.23; animals HR = 3.89, 95% CI = 1.18-12.90), but not ALL or CNS tumors. Paternal exposure to organic dust was positively associated with AML (HR = 2.38 95% CI = 1.12-5.07), inversely associated with ALL (HR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.31-0.99) and not associated with CNS tumors. Low exposure prevalence precluded evaluation of maternal pesticide and animal exposures; we observed no significant associations with organic dust exposure. This first prospective analysis of pooled birth cohorts and parental occupational exposures provides evidence for paternal agricultural exposures as childhood AML risk factors. The different risks for childhood ALL associated with maternal and paternal organic dust exposures should be investigated further.

10.
Allergy ; 74(9): 1760-1768, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30972786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In previous studies, deficits in regulatory T-cell (Treg) number and function at birth have been linked with subsequent allergic disease. However, longitudinal studies that account for relevant perinatal factors are required. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between perinatal factors, naïve Treg (nTreg) over the first postnatal year and development of food allergy. METHODS: In a birth cohort (n = 1074), the proportion of nTreg in the CD4+ T-cell compartment was measured by flow cytometry at birth (n = 463), 6 (n = 600) and 12 (n = 675) months. IgE-mediated food allergy was determined by food challenge at 1 year. Associations between perinatal factors (gestation, labour, sex, birth size), nTreg at each time point and food allergy at 1 year were examined by linear regression. RESULTS: A higher proportion of nTreg at birth, larger birth size and male sex was each associated with higher nTreg in infancy. Exposure to labour, as compared to delivery by prelabour Caesarean section, was associated with a transient decrease nTreg. Infants that developed food allergy had decreased nTreg at birth, and the labour-associated decrease in nTreg at birth was more evident among infants with subsequent food allergy. Mode of birth was not associated with risk of food allergy, and there was no evidence that nTreg at either 6 or 12 months were related to food allergy. CONCLUSION: The proportion of nTreg at birth is a major determinant of the proportion present throughout infancy, highlighting the importance of prenatal immune development. Exposure to the inflammatory stimulus of labour appears to reveal differences in immune function among infants at risk of food allergy.

11.
Front Immunol ; 10: 185, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30949161

RESUMO

The human Fc-gamma receptors (FcγRs) link adaptive and innate immunity by binding immunoglobulin G (IgG). All human low-affinity FcγRs are encoded by the FCGR2/3 locus containing functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and gene copy number variants. This locus is notoriously difficult to genotype and high-throughput methods commonly used focus on only a few SNPs. We performed multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification for all relevant genetic variations at the FCGR2/3 locus in >4,000 individuals to define linkage disequilibrium (LD) and allele frequencies in different populations. Strong LD and extensive ethnic variation in allele frequencies was found across the locus. LD was strongest for the FCGR2C-ORF haplotype (rs759550223+rs76277413), which leads to expression of FcγRIIc. In Europeans, the FCGR2C-ORF haplotype showed strong LD with, among others, rs201218628 (FCGR2A-Q27W, r 2 = 0.63). LD between these two variants was weaker (r 2 = 0.17) in Africans, whereas the FCGR2C-ORF haplotype was nearly absent in Asians (minor allele frequency <0.005%). The FCGR2C-ORF haplotype and rs1801274 (FCGR2A-H131R) were in weak LD (r 2 = 0.08) in Europeans. We evaluated the importance of ethnic variation and LD in Kawasaki Disease (KD), an acute vasculitis in children with increased incidence in Asians. An association of rs1801274 with KD was previously shown in ethnically diverse genome-wide association studies. Now, we show in 1,028 European KD patients that the FCGR2C-ORF haplotype, although nearly absent in Asians, was more strongly associated with susceptibility to KD than rs1801274 in Europeans. Our data illustrate the importance of interpreting findings of association studies concerning the FCGR2/3 locus with knowledge of LD and ethnic variation.

13.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 90(6): 636-641, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30782980

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether lipid-related or body mass index (BMI)-related common genetic polymorphisms modulate the associations between serum lipid levels, BMI and disability progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: The association between disability progression (annualised Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) change over 5 years, ΔEDSS) and lipid-related or BMI-related genetic polymorphisms was evaluated in a longitudinal cohort (n=184), diagnosed with MS. We constructed a cumulative genetic risk score (CGRS) of associated polymorphisms (p<0.05) and examined the interactions between the CGRS and lipid levels (measured at baseline) in predicting ΔEDSS. All analyses were conducted using linear regression. RESULTS: Five lipid polymorphisms (rs2013208, rs9488822, rs17173637, rs10401969 and rs2277862) and one BMI polymorphism (rs2033529) were nominally associated with ΔEDSS. The constructed lipid CGRS showed a significant, dose-dependent association with ΔEDSS (ptrend=1.4×10-6), such that participants having ≥6 risk alleles progressed 0.38 EDSS points per year faster compared with those having ≤3. This CGRS model explained 16% of the variance in ΔEDSS. We also found significant interactions between the CGRS and lipid levels in modulating ΔEDSS, including high-density lipoprotein (HDL; pinteraction=0.005) and total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein ratio (TC:HDL; pinteraction=0.030). The combined model (combination of CGRS and the lipid parameter) explained 26% of the disability variance for HDL and 27% for TC:HDL. INTERPRETATION: In this prospective cohort study, both lipid levels and lipid-related polymorphisms individually and jointly were associated with significantly increased disability progression in MS. These results indicate that these polymorphisms and tagged genes might be potential points of intervention to moderate disability progression.

15.
Int J Cancer ; 144(1): 26-33, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30098208

RESUMO

The "delayed infection hypothesis" states that a paucity of infections in early childhood may lead to higher risks of childhood leukemia (CL), especially acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Using prospectively collected data from six population-based birth cohorts we studied the association between birth order (a proxy for pathogen exposure) and CL. We explored whether other birth or parental characteristics modify this association. With 2.2 × 106 person-years of follow-up, 185 CL and 136 ALL cases were ascertained. In Cox proportional hazards models, increasing birth order (continuous) was inversely associated with CL and ALL; hazard ratios (HR) = 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI): (0.77-0.99) and 0.85: (0.73-0.99), respectively. Being later-born was associated with similarly reduced hazards of CL and ALL compared to being first-born; HRs = 0.78: 95% CI: 0.58-1.05 and 0.73: 0.52-1.03, respectively. Successive birth orders were associated with decreased CL and ALL risks (P for trend 0.047 and 0.055, respectively). Multivariable adjustment somewhat attenuated the associations. We found statistically significant and borderline interactions between birth weight (p = 0.024) and paternal age (p = 0.067), respectively, in associations between being later-born and CL, with the lowest risk observed for children born at <3 kg with fathers aged 35+ (HR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.06-0.50). Our study strengthens the theory that increasing birth order confers protection against CL and ALL risks, but suggests that this association may be modified among subsets of children with different characteristics, notably advanced paternal age and lower birth weight. It is unclear whether these findings can be explained solely by infectious exposures.


Assuntos
Ordem de Nascimento , Peso ao Nascer , Idade Paterna , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/patologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Análise Multivariada , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Photochem Photobiol ; 2018 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30378692

RESUMO

Cutaneous sun exposure is an important determinant of circulating vitamin D. Both sun exposure and vitamin D have been inversely associated with risk of autoimmune disease. In juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), low circulating vitamin D appears common, but disease-related behavioral changes may have influenced sun exposure. We therefore aimed to determine whether predisease sun exposure is associated with JIA. Using validated questionnaires, we retrospectively measured sun exposure for 202 Caucasian JIA case-control pairs born in Victoria Australia, matched for birth year and time of recruitment. Measures included maternal sun exposure at 12 weeks of pregnancy and child sun exposure across the life-course prediagnosis. We converted exposure to UVR dose and looked for case-control differences using logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. Higher cumulative prediagnosis UVR exposure was associated with reduced risk of JIA, with a clear dose-response relationship (trend P = 0.04). UVR exposure at 12 weeks of pregnancy was similarly inversely associated with JIA (trend P = 0.011). Associations were robust to sensitivity analyses for prediagnosis behavioral changes, disease duration and knowledge of the hypothesis. Our data indicate that lower UVR exposure may increase JIA risk. This may be through decreased circulating vitamin D, but prospective studies are required to confirm this.

17.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 32(6): 568-583, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood cancer is a rare but leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Established risk factors, accounting for <10% of incidence, have been identified primarily from case-control studies. However, recall, selection and other potential biases impact interpretations particularly, for modest associations. A consortium of pregnancy and birth cohorts (I4C) was established to utilise prospective, pre-diagnostic exposure assessments and biological samples. METHODS: Eligibility criteria, follow-up methods and identification of paediatric cancer cases are described for cohorts currently participating or planning future participation. Also described are exposure assessments, harmonisation methods, biological samples potentially available for I4C research, the role of the I4C data and biospecimen coordinating centres and statistical approaches used in the pooled analyses. RESULTS: Currently, six cohorts recruited over six decades (1950s-2000s) contribute data on 388 120 mother-child pairs. Nine new cohorts from seven countries are anticipated to contribute data on 627 500 additional projected mother-child pairs within 5 years. Harmonised data currently includes over 20 "core" variables, with notable variability in mother/child characteristics within and across cohorts, reflecting in part, secular changes in pregnancy and birth characteristics over the decades. CONCLUSIONS: The I4C is the first cohort consortium to have published findings on paediatric cancer using harmonised variables across six pregnancy/birth cohorts. Projected increases in sample size, expanding sources of exposure data (eg, linkages to environmental and administrative databases), incorporation of biological measures to clarify exposures and underlying molecular mechanisms and forthcoming joint efforts to complement case-control studies offer the potential for breakthroughs in paediatric cancer aetiologic research.

18.
Mult Scler ; : 1352458518806103, 2018 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30351240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:: Transition probabilities are the engine within many health economics decision models. However, the probabilities of progression of disability due to multiple sclerosis (MS) have not previously been estimated in Australia. OBJECTIVES:: To estimate annual probabilities of changing disability levels in Australians with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). METHODS:: Combining data from Ausimmune/Ausimmune Longitudinal (2003-2011) and Tasmanian MS Longitudinal (2002-2005) studies ( n = 330), annual transition probabilities were obtained between no/mild (Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) levels 0-3.5), moderate (EDSS 4-6.0) and severe (EDSS 6.5-9.5) disability. RESULTS:: From no/mild disability, 6.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.7-8.4) and 0.1% (0.0-0.2) progressed to moderate and severe disability annually, respectively. From moderate disability, 6.9% (1.0-11.4) improved (to no/mild state) and 2.6% (1.1-4.5) worsened. From severe disability, 0.0% improved to moderate and no/mild disability. Male sex, age at onset, longer disease duration, not using immunotherapies greater than 3 months and a history of relapse were related to higher probabilities of worsening. CONCLUSION:: We have estimated probabilities of changing disability levels in Australians with RRMS. Probabilities differed between various subgroups, but due to small sample sizes, results should be interpreted with caution. Our findings will be helpful in predicting long-term disease outcomes and in health economic evaluations of MS.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30267891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overall early exposure to allergenic foods in the infant's diet is a new strategy for preventing food allergy to that allergen, but the optimal timing of exposure for different allergens is not known. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine the relationship between exposure to cow's milk protein in the first 3 months of life and risk of cow's milk allergy at age 12 months. METHODS: HealthNuts is a longitudinal population-based food allergy study that recruited 5,276 twelve-month-old infants. Skin prick testing to cow's milk was conducted on the second half of the cohort (n = 2,715) and sensitization defined as a wheal ≥2 mm. Cow's milk allergy was defined as a parent-reported reaction to cow's milk consistent with IgE-mediated allergy together with evidence of sensitization. Early exposure to cow's milk protein was captured through parental questionnaire administered at 1 year of age and defined as consumption of cow's milk-based infant formula during the first 3 months of life. RESULTS: Forty-two percent of infants were exposed to cow's milk in the first 3 months of life (n= 1,977/4,712) and 87% of these infants were also breastfed. Early exposure to cow's milk protein was associated with a reduced risk of cow's milk sensitization (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23-0.83), parent-reported reactions to cow's milk (aOR 0.44, 95% CI 0.29-0.67), and cow's milk allergy (aOR 0.31, 95% CI 0.10-0.91) at age 12 months. Age at exposure to cow's milk protein was not associated with the risk of other food allergies. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to cow's milk protein in the first 3 months of life was associated with a reduced risk of cow's milk allergy. These findings are from an observational study and clinical trials are warranted to further assess this association before any recommendations to infant feeding guidelines can be made.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30171872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Longitudinal population-based data regarding tree nut allergy are limited. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the population prevalence of tree nut allergy at age 6 years and explore the relationship between egg and peanut allergy at age 1 year and development of tree nut allergy at age 6 years. METHODS: A population-based sample of 5276 children was recruited at age 1 year and followed up at age 6 years. At age 1 year, allergies to egg and peanut were determined by means of oral food challenge, and parents reported their child's history of reaction to tree nuts. Challenge-confirmed tree nut allergy was assessed at age 6 years. RESULTS: At age 1 year, the prevalence of parent-reported tree nut allergy was 0.1% (95% CI, 0.04% to 0.2%). Only 18.5% of infants had consumed tree nuts in the first year of life. At age 6 years, challenge-confirmed tree nut allergy prevalence was 3.3% (95% CI, 2.8% to 4.0%), with cashew the most common (2.7%; 95% CI, 2.2% to 3.3%). Of children with peanut allergy only at age 1 year, 27% (95% CI, 16.1% to 39.7%) had tree nut allergy at age 6 years compared with 14% (95% CI, 10.4% to 17.9%) of those with egg allergy only and 37% (95% CI, 27.2% to 47.4%) of those with both peanut and egg allergy. CONCLUSIONS: Tree nut allergy is uncommon in the first year of life, likely because of limited tree nut consumption. At age 6 years, tree nut allergy prevalence is similar to peanut allergy prevalence. More than a third of children with both peanut and egg allergy in infancy have tree nut allergy at age 6 years. Understanding how to prevent tree nut allergy should be an urgent priority for future research.

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