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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 402: 123448, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688189

RESUMO

The occurrence of antibiotics in the natural environment has been a growing issue and correlations between this presence and developing resistance bacteria are explored. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of antibiotics of different classes and associated resistant bacteria, in water samples taken from urban river waters in Curitiba, Brazil. A method for the quantification of antibiotics (azithromycin, amoxicillin, norfloxacin ciprofloxacin, doxycycline and sulfamethoxazole) was developed and validated using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. To investigate and identify coliforms resistant to these antibiotics, we performed selective microbiological culturing techniques. We detected antibiotics in our water samples; concentrations ranged from 0.13 to 4.63 µg L-1, with the highest being amoxicillin at 4.63 µg L-1. In all water samples this study, antibiotic resistant bacteria were detected. Escherichia coli was resistant to amoxicillin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline and sulfamethoxazole. Strains producing ß-lactamase with extended spectrum (ESBL and AmpC) were also found in these isolates. Enterococcus spp. displayed resistance to norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin, and some isolates were resistant to vancomycin, gentamicin and streptomycin (complementary tests). No P. aeruginosa resistant strains were observed. It is possible these antibiotics came from domestic effluents and may be contributing to the spread of bacterial resistance.

2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; : 113662, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307049

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Propolis extracts are widely used in traditional folk medicine and exhibit several properties such as antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial. However, these products have not been investigated in combination with medicines used in clinical practice. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition of propolis extracts from Apis mellifera scutellata and different Meliponini species and characterize their cytotoxicity against tumor cells, antibacterial effects, and interference with the actions of doxorubicin and gentamicin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chromatographic and spectrometric analyses were performed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Propolis extracts were evaluated for cytotoxicity and synergism using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and the antimicrobial activity was examined using the broth microdilution technique and synergism was investigated using checkerboard and time-kill assays. RESULTS: The chemical characterization revealed the presence of 63 compounds, and the extracts showed selective cytotoxicity against tumor cell lines. Propolis extracts of mandaçaia and mirim exerted selective synergistic cytotoxicity in combination with doxorubicin. Except for the tubuna extract, all evaluated extracts exhibited antibacterial effects on gram-positive strains. Mandaçaia and mirim extracts exerted a synergistic effect with gentamicin; however, only mandaçaia extract exerted a selective effect. CONCLUSION: Propolis could be a source of antineoplastics and antibiotics. These natural products may reduce the occurrence of doxorubicin and gentamicin related adverse effects, resistance, or both.

3.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 2020 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A suboptimal meta-analysis with misleading conclusions, frequently published in the healthcare journals, can compromise decision making in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reporting quality, methodological quality, and risk of bias of meta-analyses of pharmacy services. METHODS: Systematic searches to identify all the meta-analyses reporting the effect of pharmacy services were performed in PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. The reporting quality, the methodological quality, and the risk of bias of the included meta-analyses were evaluated using PRISMA checklist, R-AMSTAR, and ROBIS, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 109 meta-analyses were eligible for the study. The heterogeneity, the quality of evidence, and the quality analyses were poorly reported on authors' conclusions (14.3%, 14.7%, and 17.4%, respectively). The median scores of PRISMA and R-AMSTAR tolls were 24 (IQR 21.75-25), and 30 (IQR 27-32.5), respectively. Additionally, most of the studies were considered as high risk of bias (n = 83, 76.1%). No association between the date of publication and guideline compliance exists. PRISMA score was higher in studies published in high impact factor journals (rho = 0.313; p = 0.002), in articles that reported the quality of evidence obtained (p = 0.018), and in those that stated the need for future studies in their conclusions (p = 0.011). R-AMSTAR score was higher in studies published in high impact factor journals (rho = 0.338; p = 0.001), in those which reported the quality of evidence (p = 0.002), and in articles that described the quality analyses in their conclusions (p = 0.046). An association between the risk of bias and the recognition of the need for further studies in their conclusions (p = 0.041) was also found. CONCLUSION: The rapid increase of the meta-analyses of pharmacy services was not associated with higher quality. Mechanistic meta-analyses with poor conclusions are commonly published. Quality of the analyses, strength of evidence, heterogeneity, and absence of confrontation with current guidelines are rarely considered when synthetizing evidence and making recommendations.

4.
Diabetol Metab Syndr ; 12: 89, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33062060

RESUMO

Background: Brazil is one of top 10 countries with the highest number of people with diabetes mellitus (DM), affecting 16.8 million peoples. It is estimated that 7.7 million people (20-79 years) in the country have not yet been diagnosed, representing an under-diagnosis rate of 46.0%. Herein we aimed to screen people for high blood glucose or risk for developing type 2 DM (T2DM) through community pharmacies in Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in November 2018, involving 977 pharmacists from 345 municipalities in Brazil. The study evaluated people between 20 and 79 years old without a previous diagnosis of DM. Glycemia was considered high when its value was ≥ 100 mg/dL fasting and ≥ 140 mg/dL in a casual feeding state. The FINDRISC (Finnish Diabetes Risk Score) was used to estimate the risk for developing T2DM. The prevalence of high blood glucose was estimated and the associated factors were obtained using Poisson's multivariate analysis with robust variance. Results: During the national screening campaign, 17,580 people were tested with the majority of the consultations (78.2%) being carried out in private pharmacies. The population was composed mainly of women (59.5%) and people aged between 20 and 45 years (47.9%). The frequency of participants with high blood glucose was 18.4% (95% CI 17.9-19.0). Considering the FINDRISC, 22.7% of people had a high or very high risk for T2DM. The risk factors associated with high blood glucose were: Body Mass Index > 25 kg/m2, abdominal circumference > 94 cm for men and > 80 cm for women; education level below 15 years of study, no daily intake of vegetables and fruits; previous diagnosis of arterial hypertension; history of high blood glucose and family history of DM. Conclusions: This is the largest screening study that evaluated the frequency of high blood glucose and its associated factors in a population without a previous diagnosis ever performed in community pharmacies in Brazil. These results may help to improve public health policies and reinforce the role of pharmacists in screening and education actions aimed at this undiagnosed population in a continent-size country such as Brazil.

5.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(suppl 2): 4131-4140, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027349

RESUMO

We investigated the predictors of delay in the diagnosis and mortality of patients with COVID-19 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A cohort of 3,656 patients were evaluated (Feb-Apr 2020) and patients' sociodemographic characteristics, and social development index (SDI) were used as determinant factors of diagnosis delays and mortality. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses, time-dependent Cox regression models, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. The median time from symptoms onset to diagnosis was eight days (interquartile range [IQR] 7.23-8.99 days). Half of the patients recovered during the evaluated period, and 8.3% died. Mortality rates were higher in men. Delays in diagnosis were associated with male gender (p = 0.015) and patients living in low SDI areas (p < 0.001). The age groups statistically associated with death were: 70-79 years, 80-89 years, and 90-99 years. Delays to diagnosis greater than eight days were also risk factors for death. Delays in diagnosis and risk factors for death from COVID-19 were associated with male gender, age under 60 years, and patients living in regions with lower SDI. Delays superior to eight days to diagnosis increased mortality rates.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Diagnóstico Tardio , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238910, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946509

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Current evidence on fecal microbiota transplantation for inflammatory bowel disease is inconclusive. We conducted a systematic review to gather evidence on the efficacy and safety of fecal microbiota transplantation for inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: Systematic searches were conducted in PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Clinical remission was considered as the primary endpoint. Pairwise meta-analyses were performed for the randomized controlled studies (Mantel Haenszel, random effects model). Proportion meta-analyses, accounting for weighted pooled rates reported in the interventional studies, were conducted using the mixed effects model. Subgroup analyses considering the type of stool, donor type, and disease subtype were also performed. Cumulative meta-analyses to assess further needs of evidence were conducted. RESULTS: Sixty studies were included, from which 36 could be synthesized in the quantitative analyses. Pairwise meta-analyses of six controlled trials showed significant differences in favor of fecal microbiota transplantation compared with placebo (clinical remission: RR 1.70 [95% CI 1.12, 2.56]; clinical response: RR 1.68 [95% CI 1.04, 2.72]). An overall clinical remission of 37%, overall clinical response of 54%, and a prevalence of 29% of adverse events were found for the interventional studies. Frozen fecal material and universal donors were related to better efficacy outcomes. In addition, Crohn's disease patients seemed to benefit more from the procedure. CONCLUSIONS: The comparative analyses demonstrated that frozen fecal material from universal donors may be related to a higher rate of clinical remission, especially for Crohn's disease.


Assuntos
Transplante de Microbiota Fecal/métodos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/terapia , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Indução de Remissão , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 45: 102435, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to map the outcome measures of clinical efficacy reported in Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT) to evaluate disease-modifying therapies (DMT) in patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (RMS). METHODS: A systematic scoping review was performed to identify RCT that assessed the efficacy of DMT in adult patients with RMS. Searches were conducted in PubMed, Scopus, and The Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials and complemented by manual search. A descriptive-quantitative analysis of the clinical efficacy outcomes with their respective definitions was performed. RESULTS: Of the 5,476 records identified, 226 were included. Among the included studies, 89% reported clinical efficacy outcomes, with 77 different outcomes identified, including five composite outcomes. A total of 36 different definitions for 'relapse' were identified. 'Annualized relapse rate' was the most prevalent single outcome (n = 56 studies). At the same time, the 'Proportion of patients with no evidence of radiological and clinic disease activity' was the most prevalent composite outcome (n = 14 studies) although with six different definitions. CONCLUSIONS: An absence of consensus on the clinical efficacy outcomes reported in RCT associated with a wide heterogeneity of definitions were identified. The mapped results of this research can be used as a basis for the definition of a core outcome set for clinical efficacy outcomes in adults with RMS.

8.
Am J Infect Control ; 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659413

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To collate the evidence on the accuracy parameters of all available diagnostic methods for detecting SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: A systematic review with meta-analysis was performed. Searches were conducted in Pubmed and Scopus (April 2020). Studies reporting data on sensitivity or specificity of diagnostic tests for COVID-19 using any human biological sample were included. RESULTS: Sixteen studies were evaluated. Meta-analysis showed that computed tomography has high sensitivity (91.9% [89.8%-93.7%]), but low specificity (25.1% [21.0%-29.5%]). The combination of IgM and IgG antibodies demonstrated promising results for both parameters (84.5% [82.2%-86.6%]; 91.6% [86.0%-95.4%], respectively). For RT-PCR tests, rectal stools/swab, urine, and plasma were less sensitive while sputum (97.2% [90.3%-99.7%]) presented higher sensitivity for detecting the virus. CONCLUSIONS: RT-PCR remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of COVID-19 in sputum samples. However, the combination of different diagnostic tests is highly recommended to achieve adequate sensitivity and specificity.

9.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther ; 25(5): 399-408, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32489116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Different antithrombotic treatments, from vitamin K antagonists to direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), are available to reduce ischemic risks in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Objective: To synthetize evidence about the benefit-risk ratio of antithrombotic treatments and their combinations in patients with AF and PCI. METHODS: A network meta-analysis and a stochastic multicriteria acceptability analysis (SMAA) were performed including randomized controlled trials (RCT) that evaluate antithrombotic treatments in adults with AF and PCI. Searches were conducted in PubMed and Scopus (updated November-2019). Outcomes compared included bleeding, stroke, and death (Prospero registration: CRD42019146813). RESULTS: Five RCTs were included (11 532 patients). Vitamin K antagonists + dual antiplatelet therapy was associated with major bleeding (odds ratio: 0.52 [95% CI: 0.32-0.86]) compared to DOAC + P2Y12. No statistical differences were found among DOAC regimens for the main outcomes, including bleeding, stroke, and death. Surface under the cumulative ranking curve analysis (SUCRA) and SMAA demonstrated edoxaban 60 mg + P2Y12 inhibitor as the worst option (28%). Apixaban 5 mg + P2Y12 inhibitor was the safest alternative (63%) in all scenarios. CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient evidence on the clinical superiority among anticoagulant regimens exists, although apixaban slightly stands out. Edoxaban was associated with more adverse events. To strength this evidence, well-designed, low risk of bias clinical trials are needed. Cost-minimization analyses are required to provide further information for clinical decision-making.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metanálise em Rede , Segurança do Paciente , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20190594, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578707

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We conducted a cost-utility analysis of available interferon-free treatments for patients with early-stage genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C based on a Brazilian public health system perspective. METHODS: A Markov model was derived using a cohort of stage F0-F2 patients treated as recommended by the Brazilian national guidelines. RESULTS: Glecaprevir plus pibrentasvir was superior to all other treatments, followed by sofosbuvir plus velpatasvir. Sofosbuvir plus daclatasvir was identified as the least cost-effective option. CONCLUSIONS: The above findings were confirmed via probabilistic sensitivity analysis and the tested scenarios.


Assuntos
Antivirais/economia , Quimioterapia Combinada/economia , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/economia , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Análise Custo-Benefício , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos
11.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0231722, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) has a chronic course, little information is known about the comparison between the disease-modifying therapies (DMT) for long-term outcomes. We aimed to conduct a systematic review of randomized clinical trial (RCT) extension and observational studies to examine the efficacy and safety of all available DMT for RRMS, compare the evidence with that derived from mid-term studies, and investigate whether the published long-term data are robust and reliable enough to inform clinical decision-making concerning RRMS treatment. METHOD: PubMed, Scopus, and manual searches were performed until October 2019. The clinical outcomes of long- and mid-term studies were compared. ROBINS-I was used to assess the methodological qualities of the long-term studies. PROSPERO number CRD42019123361. RESULTS: Nineteen long-term studies (9,018 participants) were included in the systematic review. All studies presented serious or critical risks of bias that were mainly due to confounding, selection, and missing data biases. The annualised relapse rates (ARR) observed in the long-term studies are lower (better) than those from the mid-term studies for most treatments. The main reason for this ARR decrease could be a selection bias for good responders in the long-term studies, since many studies show a loss of patients between the mid- and long-term phases. The safety profiles depend on the study, follow-up, report, and outcome (i.e., discontinuation or number of patients with at least one serious adverse event). CONCLUSION: The currently available long-term data for patients with RRMS exhibit serious or critical risks of bias that preclude robust comparisons between long-term studies. High quality comparative observational studies with long-term follow-ups or RCT extensions with intention-to-treat analyses are needed to support clinical and regulatory practice. Until reliable long-term evidence is available, neurologists should continue to base their conduct on mid-term studies, patient`s experience and, most importantly, patient`s needs and predictor factors, according to personalized medicine.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/patologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recidiva , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
AIDS Care ; 32(11): 1379-1387, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32397744

RESUMO

An observational retrospective study was conducted over a 5-year period to assess survival and predictors of death in people with HIV-positive serology undergoing antiretroviral treatment with first-line regimens at the Military Hospital of Nampula, Mozambique. We collected data from 332 patient records. Kaplan-Meier boundary product estimator, log-rank, Gehan-Breslow, Tarone-Ware, time-dependent Cox models and estimates of hazard ratios (HR), with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Meantime survival for females and males was 54.8 months [95% CI 50.32-55.40] and 49.7 months [95% CI 45.89-53.53], respectively. Cox regressions indicated higher death rates significantly or potentially associated with: male sex (HR = 1.3; [95% CI 0.7-2.39]); suspected diagnosis reported only by the physician (HR = 3.6; [95% CI 1.8-7.4]); disease stages III (HR=1.2 [95% CI 0.3-3.6]) or IV (HR 1.4 [95% CI 0.4-5.8]); first TCD4+ lymphocyte count lower than 350 cells per ml (HR = 3.2; [95% CI 0.9-11.2]) or between 350-500 cells per ml (HR = 1.3; [95% CI 0.3-5.8]); or do not present cells count (HR = 3.6; [95% CI 1.2-10.2]). The above variables were significant for HIV prognosis and as predictors of death and should be considered in the clinical care of these patients.

13.
World J Urol ; 2020 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388784

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To quantitatively assess the benefit-risk ratio on the efficacy and safety of all phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5i) in men with erectile dysfunction. METHODS: A systematic review with network meta-analysis, surface under the cumulative ranking analysis and stochastic multicriteria acceptability analyses were performed. Searches were conducted in Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science without limits for time-frame or language. Randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy or safety of any PDE5i compared to a placebo or to other PDE5i in males with erectile disfunction were included. RESULTS: Overall, 184 articles representing 179 randomized controlled trials (50,620 patients) were included. All PDE5i were significantly more efficient than placebo. Sildenafil 25 mg was statistically superior to all interventions in enhancing IIEF (with a 98% probability of being the most effective treatment), followed by sildenafil 50 mg (80% of probability). Taladafil 10 mg and 20 mg also presented good profiles (73% and 76%, respectively). Avanafil and lodenafil were less effective interventions. Mirodenafil 150 mg was the treatment that caused more adverse events, especially flushing and headaches. Sildenafil 100 mg was more related to visual disorders, while vardenafil and udenafil were more prone to cause nasal congestion. CONCLUSION: Sildenafil at low doses and tadalafil should be the first therapeutic options. Avanafil, lodenafil and mirodenafil use are hardly justified given the lack of expressive efficacy or high rates of adverse events.

14.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 42(5): 1252-1260, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32430882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suboptimal meta-analyses with misleading conclusions are frequently published in the health areas, and they can compromise decision making in clinical practice. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This systematic review aimed to map the characteristics of published meta-analyses of pharmacy services and their association with the study conclusions. METHOD: We searched electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science) to identify published meta-analyses of pharmacy services up to January 2019. Components of meta-analyses were extracted (i.e. studies' metadata; methods used in the systematic review; description of the statistical model used for the meta-analysis; main results; conflict of interest and funding source). The methodological quality was evaluated using the R-AMSTAR tool. RESULTS: A total of 85 meta-analyses were included, with 2016 as the median publication year. Overall, the methodological quality of meta-analyses of pharmacy services was considered suboptimal. Only one-third of authors registered a protocol; complete search strategy and raw data were provided by 55.3% and 9.4% of studies, respectively. Evidence strength (GRADE) was evaluated in only 19.2% of studies. PRISMA and Cochrane recommendations were stated to be followed in 60% and 27.4% of articles, respectively. Around half of studies performed sensitivity analysis, however, the prediction interval was presented by only one meta-analysis. Studies that favoured the pharmacists' interventions poorly discussed the methodological quality and heterogeneity of primary trials. CONCLUSION: Poor conduction and reporting were observed in meta-analyses of pharmacy services, especially in those that favoured the pharmacist's interventions. Reproducibility and transparency should be rigorously ensured by journal editors and peer-reviewers.

15.
Neuroendocrinology ; 2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299084

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To conduct a cost-utility analysis comparing drug strategies involving octreotide, lanreotide, pasireotide, and pegvisomant for the treatment of patients with acromegaly who have failed surgery, from a Brazilian public payer perspective. METHODS: A probabilistic cohort Markov model was developed. One-year cycles were employed. The patients started at 45 years of age and were followed lifelong. Costs, efficacy, and quality of life parameters were retrieved from the literature. A discount rate (5%) was applied to both costs and efficacy. The results were reported as costs per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated when applicable. Scenario analyses considered alternative dosages, discount rate, tax exemption, and continued use of treatment despite lack of response. Value of information (VOI) analysis was conducted to explore uncertainty and to estimate the costs to be spent in future research. RESULTS: Only lanreotide showed an ICER reasonable for having its use considered in clinical practice (R$ 112,138 / US$ 28,389 per QALY compared to no treatment). Scenario analyses corroborated the base-case result. VOI analysis showed that much uncertainty surrounds the parameters, and future clinical research should cost less than R$ 43,230,000 / US$ 10,944,304 per year. VOI also showed that almost all uncertainty that precludes an optimal strategy choice involves quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: With current information, the only strategy that can be considered cost-effective in Brazil is lanreotide treatment. No second-line treatment is recommended. Significant uncertainty of parameters impairs optimal decision-making, and this conclusion can be generalized to other countries. Future research should focus on acquiring utility data.

16.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 31(6): 1172-1179, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298572

RESUMO

High-resolution mass spectrometry is a powerful tool in clinical analysis but remains less explored due to its lower dynamic range and sensitivity compared to triple quadrupoles. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is the current gold standard biomarker to monitor the control of diabetes, representing long-term plasma glycemic levels. Due to its clinical importance, several methods have been developed for HbA1c quantification, using different principles; however, the results obtained with these techniques may differ according to the method adopted. Hence, there is a great need to standardize the current methods to quantify glycated hemoglobin. A new UPLC-QToF-MS method was fully validated and tested to quantify HbA1c in human samples. The peptides VHLTPE m/z 695.373 and gly-VHLTPE m/z 857.426, obtained via Glu-C digestion, were the selected peptides for quantification of HbA1c (mmol/mol). Chromatographic separation was obtained in a C18 column, maintained at 40 °C. The mobile phase was composed of water and acetonitrile, both containing 0.02% TFA and 0.1% acetic acid, and eluted in gradient mode. The method was fully validated, being considered linear in the range of 25-107 mmol/mol of HbA1c, and was sensitive, selective, precise, accurate, and free of matrix and carryover effects. The method was successfully applied to real samples, reaching about 90% agreement with reference method results, providing accurate and precise information on peptide mass, without laborious sample preparation. These results support the use of HRMS to improve the quality of quantitative results of HbA1c in health services and demonstrate a possible application of peptide investigation for clinical analysis in the near future.

17.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 64(1): 59-65, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187271

RESUMO

Objective Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease with great impact on patients' quality of life (QoL). This variable can be measured using reliable, standardized, and validated instruments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the application and reporting of the Diabetes Quality of Life Measure (DQOL) or the Diabetes Quality of Life for Youths Measure (DQOLY), an adapted version for young patients with DM. Materials and methods A systematic review of interventional and observational studies using the DQOL or DQOLY was performed. Searches were conducted in the electronic databases Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, Lilacs, and SciELO. Results After conducting the searches, 111 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the qualitative analysis. Of these, 32 studies were classified as interventional and 79 as observational, with 27,481 patients. The DQOL was applied in 82 studies, the DQOLY in another 27, and two studies used both instruments. DM was classified as type 1 DM in 69 studies and type 2 DM in 35 studies. Six studies included both patients. Improvement in patients' QoL after an intervention was observed in 13 interventional studies. Most of the studies (90%) provide a detailed description of the instrument and 52% the previous validation. The interpretation of the scores obtained varies among the studies, probably due to the differences inherent in cultural validations, translations, and adaptations. Conclusion The application of the instruments in clinical practice must be rigorously standardized and requires an accurate understanding of psychometric and statistical concepts. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2020;64(1):59-65.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 255: 112722, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114165

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Euphorbia tirucalli L. is an African plant that grows well in Brazil. Individuals diagnosed with cancer frequently consume latex from E. tirucalli, dissolved in drinking water. In vitro studies confirm the antitumor potential of E. tirucalli latex, but in vivo evaluations are scarce. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the effect of intake of an aqueous solution of E. tirucalli latex on tumor growth, cachexia, and immune response in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Latex from E. tirucalli was collected and analyzed by LC-MS. Sixty male Wistar rats (age, 90 days) were randomly divided into four groups: C, control group (without tumor); W, Walker 256 tumor-bearing group; SW1, W animals but treated with 25 µL latex/mL water; and SW2, W animals but treated with 50 µL latex/mL water. Animals received 1 mL of latex solution once a day by gavage. After 15 d, animals were euthanized, tumor mass was determined, and glucose and triacylglycerol serum levels were measured by using commercial kits. Change in the body weight during tumor development was calculated, and proliferation capacity of tumor cells was assessed by the Alamar Blue assay. Phagocytosis and superoxide anion production by peritoneal macrophages and circulating neutrophils were analyzed by enzymatic and colorimetric assays. Data are analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post-hoc test, with the significance level set at 5%. RESULTS: The analysis of the latex revealed the presence of triterpenes. The ingestion of the latex aqueous solution promoted 40% and 60% reduction of the tumor mass in SW1 and SW2 groups, respectively (p < 0.05). The proliferative capacity of tumor cells from SW2 group was 76% lower than that of cells from W group (p < 0.0001). Animals treated with latex gained, on average, 20 g (SW1) and 8 g (SW2) weight. Glucose and triacylglycerol serum levels in SW1 and SW2 animals were similar to those in C group rats. Peritoneal macrophages and blood neutrophils from SW1 and SW2 animals produced 30-40% less superoxide anions than those from W group animals (p < 0.05), but neutrophils from SW2 group showed an increased phagocytic capacity (20%, vs. W group). CONCLUSIONS: E. tirucalli latex, administered orally for 15 d, efficiently reduced tumor growth and cachexia in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats. Decreased tumor cell proliferative capacity was one of the mechanisms involved in this effect. Further, the data suggest immunomodulatory properties of E. tirucalli latex. The results agree with folk data on the antitumor effect of latex ingestion, indicating that it may be useful as an adjunct in the treatment of cancer patients. For this, further in vivo studies in animal and human models need to be conducted.

19.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(1): 59-65, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088779

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease with great impact on patients' quality of life (QoL). This variable can be measured using reliable, standardized, and validated instruments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the application and reporting of the Diabetes Quality of Life Measure (DQOL) or the Diabetes Quality of Life for Youths Measure (DQOLY), an adapted version for young patients with DM. Materials and methods A systematic review of interventional and observational studies using the DQOL or DQOLY was performed. Searches were conducted in the electronic databases Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, Lilacs, and SciELO. Results After conducting the searches, 111 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the qualitative analysis. Of these, 32 studies were classified as interventional and 79 as observational, with 27,481 patients. The DQOL was applied in 82 studies, the DQOLY in another 27, and two studies used both instruments. DM was classified as type 1 DM in 69 studies and type 2 DM in 35 studies. Six studies included both patients. Improvement in patients' QoL after an intervention was observed in 13 interventional studies. Most of the studies (90%) provide a detailed description of the instrument and 52% the previous validation. The interpretation of the scores obtained varies among the studies, probably due to the differences inherent in cultural validations, translations, and adaptations. Conclusion The application of the instruments in clinical practice must be rigorously standardized and requires an accurate understanding of psychometric and statistical concepts. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2020;64(1):59-65


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Psicometria
20.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 34(5): e4812, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068899

RESUMO

In this research, we developed and validated a liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-QToF-MS) method for simultaneous quantification of the anti-tuberculosis drugs ethambutol, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and rifampicin in human plasma. Plasma samples spiked with cimetidine (internal standard) were extracted using protein precipitation with acetonitrile containing 1% formic acid. Separation was performed using a C18 column under flow gradient conditions with water and acetonitrile, both containing 5 mm ammonium formate and 0.1% formic acid. The method was validated according to the ANVISA and US Food and Drug Administration guidelines for bioanalytical method validation. The calibration curve was linear over a concentration range of 0.2-5 µg ml-1 for ethambutol, 0.2-7.5 µg ml-1 for isoniazid, 1-40 µg ml-1 for pyrazinamide and 0.25-2 µg ml-1 for rifampicin, all with adequate precision and accuracy. The method was reproducible, selective and free of carryover and matrix effects. The validated LC-QToF-MS method was successfully applied to real samples and shown to be applicable to future therapeutic and pharmacokinetic monitoring studies.

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