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1.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 64(1): 59-65, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187271

RESUMO

Objective Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease with great impact on patients' quality of life (QoL). This variable can be measured using reliable, standardized, and validated instruments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the application and reporting of the Diabetes Quality of Life Measure (DQOL) or the Diabetes Quality of Life for Youths Measure (DQOLY), an adapted version for young patients with DM. Materials and methods A systematic review of interventional and observational studies using the DQOL or DQOLY was performed. Searches were conducted in the electronic databases Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, Lilacs, and SciELO. Results After conducting the searches, 111 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the qualitative analysis. Of these, 32 studies were classified as interventional and 79 as observational, with 27,481 patients. The DQOL was applied in 82 studies, the DQOLY in another 27, and two studies used both instruments. DM was classified as type 1 DM in 69 studies and type 2 DM in 35 studies. Six studies included both patients. Improvement in patients' QoL after an intervention was observed in 13 interventional studies. Most of the studies (90%) provide a detailed description of the instrument and 52% the previous validation. The interpretation of the scores obtained varies among the studies, probably due to the differences inherent in cultural validations, translations, and adaptations. Conclusion The application of the instruments in clinical practice must be rigorously standardized and requires an accurate understanding of psychometric and statistical concepts. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2020;64(1):59-65.

2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 255: 112722, 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114165

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Euphorbia tirucalli L. is an African plant that grows well in Brazil. Individuals diagnosed with cancer frequently consume latex from E. tirucalli, dissolved in drinking water. In vitro studies confirm the antitumor potential of E. tirucalli latex, but in vivo evaluations are scarce. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the effect of intake of an aqueous solution of E. tirucalli latex on tumor growth, cachexia, and immune response in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Latex from E. tirucalli was collected and analyzed by LC-MS. Sixty male Wistar rats (age, 90 days) were randomly divided into four groups: C, control group (without tumor); W, Walker 256 tumor-bearing group; SW1, W animals but treated with 25 µL latex/mL water; and SW2, W animals but treated with 50 µL latex/mL water. Animals received 1 mL of latex solution once a day by gavage. After 15 d, animals were euthanized, tumor mass was determined, and glucose and triacylglycerol serum levels were measured by using commercial kits. Change in the body weight during tumor development was calculated, and proliferation capacity of tumor cells was assessed by the Alamar Blue assay. Phagocytosis and superoxide anion production by peritoneal macrophages and circulating neutrophils were analyzed by enzymatic and colorimetric assays. Data are analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post-hoc test, with the significance level set at 5%. RESULTS: The analysis of the latex revealed the presence of triterpenes. The ingestion of the latex aqueous solution promoted 40% and 60% reduction of the tumor mass in SW1 and SW2 groups, respectively (p < 0.05). The proliferative capacity of tumor cells from SW2 group was 76% lower than that of cells from W group (p < 0.0001). Animals treated with latex gained, on average, 20 g (SW1) and 8 g (SW2) weight. Glucose and triacylglycerol serum levels in SW1 and SW2 animals were similar to those in C group rats. Peritoneal macrophages and blood neutrophils from SW1 and SW2 animals produced 30-40% less superoxide anions than those from W group animals (p < 0.05), but neutrophils from SW2 group showed an increased phagocytic capacity (20%, vs. W group). CONCLUSIONS: E. tirucalli latex, administered orally for 15 d, efficiently reduced tumor growth and cachexia in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats. Decreased tumor cell proliferative capacity was one of the mechanisms involved in this effect. Further, the data suggest immunomodulatory properties of E. tirucalli latex. The results agree with folk data on the antitumor effect of latex ingestion, indicating that it may be useful as an adjunct in the treatment of cancer patients. For this, further in vivo studies in animal and human models need to be conducted.

3.
J Dermatolog Treat ; : 1-10, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043906

RESUMO

Aim: Toenail fungal infections account for half of all nail disease cases, and a highly negative impact on patient quality of life. Our aim was to compare the efficacy and safety of commercially available oral antifungals for onychomycosis.Methods: A systematic review was performed in PubMed and Scopus. Randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of oral antifungals on mycological cure, discontinuation and adverse events were included. Network meta-analyses were built for each outcome. Results were reported as odds ratios (OR) with 95% credibility intervals (CrI). Ranking probabilities were calculated by surface under the cumulative ranking analysis (SUCRA).Results: We included 40 trials (n = 9568). Albaconazole 400 mg (OR 0.02 [95% CrI 0.01-0.07] versus placebo), followed by posaconazole 200-400 mg and terbinafine 250-350 mg were considered the best therapies (SUCRA probabilities over 75%). For the networks of discontinuation and individual adverse events, few significant differences among treatments were observed, but itraconazole 400 mg was considered the safest drug (SUCRA around 25%). Albaconazole 400 mg, posaconazole 200-400 mg, and terbinafine 250-350 mg were the most effective therapies for onychomycosis, while itraconazole 400 mg was the safest.Conclusion: The profile of albaconazole and posaconazole compared to current first-line therapies should be further investigated in well-designed trials.

4.
Biomed Chromatogr ; : e4812, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068899

RESUMO

In this research, we developed and validated a liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-QToF-MS) method for simultaneous quantification of the anti-tuberculosis drugs ethambutol, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and rifampicin in human plasma. Plasma samples spiked with cimetidine (internal standard) were extracted using protein precipitation with acetonitrile containing 1% formic acid. Separation was performed using a C18 column under flow gradient conditions with water and acetonitrile, both containing 5 mm ammonium formate and 0.1% formic acid. The method was validated according to the ANVISA and US Food and Drug Administration guidelines for bioanalytical method validation. The calibration curve was linear over a concentration range of 0.2-5 µg ml-1 for ethambutol, 0.2-7.5 µg ml-1 for isoniazid, 1-40 µg ml-1 for pyrazinamide and 0.25-2 µg ml-1 for rifampicin, all with adequate precision and accuracy. The method was reproducible, selective and free of carryover and matrix effects. The validated LC-QToF-MS method was successfully applied to real samples and shown to be applicable to future therapeutic and pharmacokinetic monitoring studies.

5.
J Hosp Med ; 15(1): 52-59, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transitions of care can contribute to medication errors and other adverse drug events. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of pharmacist-led discharge counseling on hospital readmission and emergency department visits through a systematic review and meta-analysis. EDATA SOURCES: Lectronic searches were performed in PubMed, Scopus, and DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journals), along with a manual search (July 2017). PROSPERO registration no. CRD42017068444. STUDY SELECTION: Two independent reviewers performed all the steps of the systematic review process (screening of titles and abstracts, full-text appraisal, data extraction, and quality assessment), with contributions from a third researcher. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting data on pharmacist-led discharge counseling. DATA EXTRACTION: Primary extracted outcomes were emergency department visits and hospital readmission rates. DATA SYNTHESIS: Meta-analyses of intervention versus usual care for hospital readmission and emergency department visit rates were performed using the inverse variance method. Results are reported as risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Prediction intervals (PIs) were also calculated. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were performed. A total of 21 RCTs were included in the qualitative synthesis and 18 in the meta-analyses (n = 7,244 patients). The original meta-analysis revealed a significant difference in the impact between pharmacist-led discharge counseling and usual care on overall hospital readmission (RR = 0.864 [95% CI 0.763-0.997], P = .020) and emergency department (RR = 0.697 [95% CI 0.535-0.907], P = .007) visits. However, the small number of included studies, the high heterogeneity among trials (I2 between 40% and 60%), and the wide PIs (hospital readmission: PI 0.542-1.186; emergency department visits: PI 0.027-1.367) prevented drawing further conclusions. CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient evidence exists regarding the effect of pharmacist-led discharge counseling on hospital readmission and emergency department visits. Further well-designed clinical trials with defined core outcome sets are needed.

6.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 74: e1091, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778428

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This is a randomized controlled trial that aims to evaluate the impact of pharmacist-led discharge counseling on reducing pharmacotherapy problems in the 30-day postdischarge period of cardiology patients from a tertiary hospital in Brazil. METHODS: At discharge, two cardiovascular pharmacy residents performed a medication counseling session with the intervention group, and the follow-up was performed by telephone (3 and 15 days after discharge). The number of pharmacotherapy problems was evaluated during a pharmacist-led ambulatory consultation 30 days after discharge. RESULTS: A total of 66 and 67 patients were randomized to the intervention and control groups, respectively, but only 51 patients were analyzed in each group, all with similar baseline characteristics. The intervention group had significantly fewer pharmacotherapy problems compared to the control (p<0.001), and 100% of the patients had at least one problem. We observed five problems significantly more frequently in the control group: "incorrect time of taking" (p=0.003), "use higher dose of medication" (p=0.007), "use lower dose of medication" (p=0.014), "restart discontinued medication" (p=0.011), and "underdosing prescription" (p=0.009). Simvastatin, enalapril, carvedilol, and atorvastatin were the medications more associated with pharmacotherapy problems. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that pharmacist-led discharge counseling should be an indispensable service, as patients exhibited less pharmacotherapy problems in the 30-day postdischarge period, especially related to drug administration and adherence.

7.
Food Res Int ; 126: 108623, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732087

RESUMO

Great efforts have been made to increase the bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds from plant sources. This can be achieved by the innovative and effective method of biosorption of these compounds in Saccharomyces cerevisiae obtained from the industrial fermentative process (waste yeast). In this context, this research evaluated if chemical modifications of depleted yeast can improve the capacity to biosorb the phenolic compounds and if through in vitro digestion tests, this approach can increase bioaccessibility of the secondary metabolites from yerba mate. The results showed that the chemical modification of the yeast promoted an increase in the biosorption efficiency of the bioactive compounds. Mass spectrometry peaks for the phenolic compounds reduced after biosorption as observed for the caffeic and dicaffeoylquinic acids and for kaempferol and rutin. In addition, a 10% reduction of caffeine was verified after biosorption, quantified by mass spectrometry chromatography. This showing that the compounds were retained in the cells, which was also observed by an increase of cell turgidity with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Mid-infrared spectroscopy showed that the major bands related to the components of the compounds increased proportionally after biosorption. Furthermore, an increase of bioaccessibility of the yerba mate bioactive compounds adsorbed in S. cerevisiae was verified when compared with the crude extract.

8.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 35: 7-15, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Randomised clinical trials (RCTs) and observational studies have reported adverse events that preclude the use of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) in the long term or in specific populations, however, little is known about the relationship between the use of DMTs and frequency of undesirable events. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and network meta-analyses (NMAs) of RCTs and observational studies to synthesise the evidence on the safety of all available DMTs for patients with RRMS. METHODS: PubMed, Scopus and a manual search were performed. Bayesian NMAs of safety outcomes reported in RCTs and observational studies assessing DMTs as monotherapies were conducted. RESULTS: Forty-seven studies were included in the systematic review. Considering all studies, 368 and 149 different safety outcomes were reported for at least one study and two studies, respectively. Considering clinical trials, 22 NMAs were conducted for 16 outcomes. Regarding geometry metrics, the median number of studies, DMTs, common comparator, strong edge, and patients were 5 (IQR 5-9), 5 (IQR 4-8), 44%, 33%, and 3998 (IQR 3380-6761). In summary, most comparisons showed similar risk of safety events for DMTs and placebo for all outcomes. Considering cohort studies, only three meta-analyses were conducted. CONCLUSION: Safety outcomes are poorly reported in primary studies of DMTs in RRMS, precluding the conduction of robust meta-analyses. Therefore, the current available data on safety of these drugs is not contributing to regulatory and clinical decision making, with adverse event reports underbalanced compared to efficacy outcomes.

9.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 33(11): e4663, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339572

RESUMO

Monitoring the plasma concentrations of metformin and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (canagliflozin, dapagliflozin and empagliflozin) is essential for pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence studies and therapeutic monitoring. The present work therefore aimed to develop and validate a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous quantification of these drugs in human plasma. The analyses were performed using an Agilent 1200 HPLC system coupled to an Applied Biosystems API 3200 triple quadrupole MS/MS with electrospray ionization in positive ion mode. After one-step protein precipitation of plasma with acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid, chromatographic separation was achieved on an Xbridge C18 column, with a mobile phase consisting of a gradient of water and acetonitrile, both containing 1 mm ammonium formate and 0.1% formic acid. Quantification was performed in multiple reaction monitoring mode using m/z 130.1 → 71.1 for metformin, m/z 462.0 → 191.2 for canagliflozin, m/z 426.1 → 167.1 for dapagliflozin and m/z 468.0 → 354.9 for empagliflozin. The proposed method was validated and demonstrated to be adequate for the quantification of metformin, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin and empagliflozin for clinical monitoring, pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence studies.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Metformina/sangue , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/sangue , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Compostos Benzidrílicos/sangue , Canagliflozina/sangue , Glucosídeos/sangue , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
Value Health Reg Issues ; 20: 95-102, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108456

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Because of the lack of evidence regarding long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of first-generation direct-acting antivirals for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) treatment in Brazil, we performed a cost-utility analysis comparing standard dual therapy (peginterferon plus ribavirin [pegIFN/RBV]), boceprevir, and telaprevir for CHC patients. METHODS: We developed a state-transition Markov model simulating the progression of CHC. Long-term outcomes included remaining life expectancy in life-years (LYs), quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Short-term outcomes included sustained virological response rates (SVR). Direct medical costs were obtained from Brazilian databases. A lifelong time horizon was considered and a 5% annual discount rate was applied for costs and clinical outcomes. A willingness-to-pay threshold of approximately $20 000 per QALY was used. We performed multiple sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: For short- and long-term scenarios, therapy with boceprevir was dominated by telaprevir, which was more effective than standard dual therapy (75.0% vs 40.4% SVR rate, 13.47 vs 12.59 LYs, and 9.74 vs 8.49 QALYs, respectively) and was also more expensive ($15 742 vs $5413). The corresponding ICERs were $29 854/SVR, $11 803/LY, and $8277/QALY. Based on our model, triple therapy with telaprevir was the most cost-effective treatment for the Brazilian health system. Despite a lack of data regarding the Brazilian population, we incorporated as many applicable parameters as possible. CONCLUSIONS: Telaprevir is more effective and cost-effective than boceprevir. Our model may be applied for other settings with a few adjustments in the input parameters.

11.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 41(3): 785-792, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963446

RESUMO

Background The Cochrane collaboration risk of bias assessment (RoB) tool is used in several fields to evaluate the methodological quality of studies. Its strengths and challenges are discussed. Objective To assess the sensitivity of the RoB tool in studies of pharmacist interventions. Setting DEPICT database was used to pool randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of complex interventions. Method A Guide for RoB Judgment in Pharmacy Services was created to help in the interpretation and judgment of bias criteria. The evaluation of bias (low, unclear, high risk) was performed by RCT. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the influence of different interpretations of eight elements of judgment in the RoB tool. Paired analysis and estimations of the effect size (95% confidence interval) of the criteria modifications compared to the original analyses were calculated. Main outcome measure Changes in the interpretations of judgment in the RoB tool. Results Overall, 8.3, 45.4, and 46.3% of the studies were determined to have low, unclear, and high risk of bias, respectively. High risk of bias was caused by attrition and detection domains. The number of studies classified with high risk of bias significantly increased for five of the eight interpretations, while unclear risk of bias increased for three interpretations (with a negligible effect size in all of them). Lack of blinding, loss of participants, and the use of subjective and self-reported outcomes were the main elements resulting in high risk of bias. Conclusion The RoB tool is useful for evaluating RCTs of pharmacist interventions if adapted criteria for judgment are used. Ignoring these adjustments produces a floor-effect with studies classified with high risk of bias.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais/normas , Farmacêuticos/normas , Papel Profissional , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/normas , Viés , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco
12.
Rev. bras. farmacogn ; 29(2): 147-151, Mar.-Apr. 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1003496

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Bananas and plantains are herbaceous monocotyledonous plants belonging to the genus Musa, Musaceae, which has a widespread distribution around the world. Various parts of banana plant are commonly used in traditional medicines. Several species of Musa are reported to possess anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperglycemic and antidiabetic properties. This work is aimed at studying the morphological and anatomical characteristics of the inflorescences of Musa × paradisiaca L., that could contribute to the characterization of these species cultivated in Brazil. Plant materials were collected and prepared in accordance with standard optical microscopy techniques. Morphological characterizations were conducted using morphological descriptors for inflorescences, including some descriptors from International Plant Genetic Resources Institute for Musa spp. Microscope slides were prepared using glycol-methacrylate and were stained in toluidine blue. Main features observed for M. × paradisiaca inflorescence were amphistomatic bracts with tetracytic stomata, fiber caps next to the phloem, adaxial and abaxial uniseriate epidermis, and papillose on the abaxial face. Outer tepals have multilayer epidermis and vascular bundles aligned next to the abaxial face. Free tepal has unilayeredepidermis. Anthers are tetrasporangiate and the locules are separated by the septum. Ovary is inferior and trilocular with external unilayered and internal epidermis. The main morpho-anatomical characteristics of inflorescence of Musa × paradisiaca are highlighted in this study, contributing to provide more information about the characterization of this species cultivated in Brazil.

13.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 85(10): 2280-2291, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907446

RESUMO

AIMS: Despite their overall favourable safety profile, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are related to severe adverse events including haematological toxicities such as anaemia, leucopenia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. We designed a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials to compare safety among TKIs (bosutinib, dasatinib, imatinib, nilotinib, ponatinib and radotinib) used by patients diagnosed with chronic myeloid leukaemia. METHODS: We obtained data from the PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and SciELO databases. The Bayesian approach was used for direct and indirect comparisons, and the treatments were ranked by the surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA). RESULTS: Seventeen studies were included in the network meta-analysis. Our data show that dasatinib was generally considered worse than the other TKIs, with SUCRA values ​​for 140 mg dasatinib of 90.3% for anaemia, 87.4% for leucopenia, 90.6% for neutropenia and 97.2% for thrombocytopenia. In addition, nilotinib was shown to be safer, with SUCRA values ​​for 600 and 800 mg doses of 21.9 and 35.8% for anaemia, 23.8 and 14.6% for leucopenia, 33.0 and 17.7% for neutropenia, and 28.7 and 32.6% for thrombocytopenia, respectively. CONCLUSION: Dasatinib appeared as the least safe drug for chronic myeloid leukaemia, probably because it binds to multiple key kinase targets, being more prone to cause serious haematological adverse events. Nilotinib demonstrated a safer profile, mostly due to its selective binding capacity.

14.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212650, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The conduction and report of network meta-analysis (NMA), including the presentation of the network-plot, should be transparent. We aimed to propose metrics adapted from graph theory and social network-analysis literature to numerically describe NMA geometry. METHODS: A previous systematic review of NMAs of pharmacological interventions was performed. Data on the graph's presentation were collected. Network-plots were reproduced using Gephi 0.9.1. Eleven geometric metrics were tested. The Spearman test for non-parametric correlation analyses and the Bland-Altman and Lin's Concordance tests were performed (IBM SPSS Statistics 24.0). RESULTS: From the 477 identified NMAs only 167 graphs could be reproduced because they provided enough information on the plot characteristics. The median nodes and edges were 8 (IQR 6-11) and 10 (IQR 6-16), respectively, with 22 included studies (IQR 13-35). Metrics such as density (median 0.39, ranged 0.07-1.00), median thickness (2.0, IQR 1.0-3.0), percentages of common comparators (median 68%), and strong edges (median 53%) were found to contribute to the description of NMA geometry. Mean thickness, average weighted degree and average path length produced similar results than other metrics, but they can lead to misleading conclusions. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest the incorporation of seven simple metrics to report NMA geometry. Editors and peer-reviews should ensure that guidelines for NMA report are strictly followed before publication.


Assuntos
Meta-Análise em Rede , Bibliometria , Mineração de Dados , Bases de Dados Bibliográficas , Humanos , Editoração
15.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 15(12): 1464-1471, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pharmacy journals constitute a heterogeneous group that can be map to identify Pharmacy scientific subareas. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to objectively map Pharmacy journals by means of a lexicographic analysis of the titles of published articles. METHODS: Active journals between 2006 and 2016 containing any of the terms 'pharmacy', 'pharmacist*', 'pharmaceut*', 'pharmacol*', or 'pharmacotherap*' in their titles were searched in four databases (01/15/2018): Medline, PubMed Central, Science Citation Index expanded/Social Sciences Citation Index expanded (SCIe/SSCIe), and Scopus CiteScore Metrics. The titles of all the articles (Jan-2006 to Dec-2016) in the identified journals were gathered into a single text corpus. The following analyses were performed (Iramuteq 0.7): lexicographic analysis to determine the number, frequency and distribution of active words; descending hierarchical classification (DHC) to categorize active words and journals into lexical classes; factorial correspondence analyses (FCA) to obtain bi- and tri-dimensional graphs. RESULTS: A total of 285 journals comprising 316,089 articles (median 70.4 articles [IQR 34.0-141.0] per journal per year) were included for the analyses. The journals were indexed in Scopus (90.2%) with a median CiteScore of 1.16 (IQR 0.28-2.55); in SCIe/SSCIe (44.6%) with a median impact factor of 2.410 (IQR 1.629-3.316); and in PubMed (65.7%). The DHC of active words produced three major groups (A, B, C) with two lexical classes each, representing six Pharmacy subareas depicted by the FCA as: Group A comprising 'Cell Pharmacology' (20 journals) and 'Molecular Pharmacology' (46 journals), Group B with 'Clinical Pharmacology' (57 journals) and 'Pharmacy Practice' (67 journals), and Group C with 'Pharmaceutics' (35 journals) and 'Pharmaceutical Analysis' (60 journals). Coverage of the classes in bibliographic databases and impact metrics is unbalanced. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacy journals that can be objectively classified into six different classes that represent different research subareas with uneven coverage in bibliographic databases.

16.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 15(4): 358-365, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29801918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor medication adherence is associated with adverse health outcomes and higher costs of care. However, inconsistencies in the assessment of adherence are found in the literature. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of different measures of adherence in the comparative effectiveness of complex interventions to enhance patients' adherence to prescribed medications. METHODS: A systematic review with network meta-analysis was performed. Electronic searches for relevant pairwise meta-analysis including trials of interventions that aimed to improve medication adherence were performed in PubMed. Data extraction was conducted with eligible trials evaluating short-period adherence follow-up (until 3 months) using any measure of adherence: self-report, pill count, or MEMS (medication event monitoring system). To standardize the results obtained with these different measures, an overall composite measure and an objective composite measure were also calculated. Network meta-analyses for each measure of adherence were built. Rank order and surface under the cumulative ranking curve analyses (SUCRA) were performed. RESULTS: Ninety-one trials were included in the network meta-analyses. The five network meta-analyses demonstrated robustness and reliability. Results obtained for all measures of adherence were similar across them and to both composite measures. For both composite measures, interventions comprising economic + technical components were the best option (90% of probability in SUCRA analysis) with statistical superiority against almost all other interventions and against standard care (odds ratio with 95% credibility interval ranging from 0.09 to 0.25 [0.02, 0.98]). CONCLUSION: The use of network meta-analysis was reliable to compare different measures of adherence of complex interventions in short-periods follow-up. Analyses with longer follow-up periods are needed to confirm these results. Different measures of adherence produced similar results. The use of composite measures revealed reliable alternatives to establish a broader and more detailed picture of adherence.


Assuntos
Adesão à Medicação , Humanos , Meta-Análise em Rede , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
17.
Endocrine ; 63(1): 18-26, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30145746

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Acromegaly is a rare disease that often requires drug treatment to achieve control, with pegvisomant being one of the most widely used therapies. In the present paper, we aimed to obtain evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety of pegvisomant by reviewing real-world observational longitudinal studies. METHODS: A systematic review was performed with a meta-analysis of event rates (95% confidence interval (CI)) using a random effects model. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were performed (comprehensive meta-analysis 2.0). The systematic review was performed in accordance to preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses, meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology, and Cochrane recommendations (PROSPERO register CRD 42017059880). PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and SciELO were used to search for literature. Observational studies in patients using pegvisomant for the treatment of acromegaly were included. RESULTS: Initially, 552 papers were retrieved from the databases; and 31 articles were included in the qualitative analysis and 14 in the quantitative analysis. Eight primary meta-analyses were performed. The overall rate of patients with disease control was of 60.9% (51.8-69.3%; 95% CI). When considering patients under monotherapy, the control rate was 71.7% (64.0-78.4%; 95% CI). Tumor growth was estimated in 7.3% (4.7-11.1%; 95% CI) and elevation of transaminases in 3.0% (1.7-5.2%; 95% CI). CONCLUSIONS: The real-world data showed that the effectiveness of pegvisomant is not as high as reported in interventional studies. Acromegaly appears to be better controlled when pegvisomant is used as a monotherapy. No serious adverse events were associated with the use of pegvisomant; however, given the high cost of this drug, further studies are required.


Assuntos
Acromegalia/tratamento farmacológico , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/análogos & derivados , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/efeitos adversos , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto
18.
J Pharm Sci ; 108(2): 860-869, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30222977

RESUMO

Perillyl alcohol is a natural compound that has attracted a significant interest due to its potent antitumor activity. However, clinical trials have exhibited poor tolerance by oral administration, mainly due to gastrointestinal side effects. We propose the entrapment of perillyl alcohol into poly(D,L-lactic acid)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLA-b-PEG) as delivery platform (entrapment efficiency of 63%-68%). The influence of different concentrations of the tensoactives poly(vinyl alcohol) and sodium cholate (SC) on shear strength and morphology was evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy and interfacial tension studies. Only the microcapsules formulated with SC maintained their sphericity when submitted to shear stress. These results indicate that the interface is better organized with SC, conferring mutual stacked packing that is able to better stabilize the organic drop. The in vitro release profile of the drug from the microcapsules was correlated with pore formation and polymer degradation, best fitted to the Baker-Lonsdale model. The loaded microcapsules showed an IC50 equivalent to that of the free drug (80 µg/mL) after 72 h of exposure. However, after 24 h of exposure, loaded microcapsules showed an IC50 almost two-fold higher (220 µg/mL) suggesting gradual release.

19.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(2): 620-632, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30212868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the methodological quality of network meta-analyses (NMAs) and their compliance with reporting guidelines. METHODS: A systematic review of NMAs comparing any pharmacological interventions was performed (searches in Medline and Scopus). The characteristics of NMAs were collected by two independent reviewers. We applied R-AMSTAR to all NMAs, generating a methodological quality score that could range from 11 to 44 points. PRISMA and PRISMA-NMA reporting checklists were converted into quantitative scores (maximum values of 27 and 32 points). To normalize the values between these two checklists, a third score (PRISMA-SCORE) of 0-1 was created. The correlation of the scores with NMA publication year, journal impact factor and most productive countries were calculated using non-parametric tests. RESULTS: We identified 477 NMAs. Only 36.1% of studies reported having followed PRISMA statements. The medians of R-AMSTAR, PRISMA and PRISMA-NMA scores were 28 (IQR 25-31), 21 (IQR 19-23) and 23 (IQR 19-26), respectively. Several problems were noted in NMAs (e.g. lack of study protocol, issues in literature searches, lack of raw data). NMAs from the most productive countries (USA and China) have similar methodological quality. Correlation analyses between R-AMSTAR and normalized PRISMA-SCORE revealed a strong positive correlation (Spearman's ρ = 0.776; P <0.001). A weak but positive correlation was found for PRISMA-SCORE and journal impact factor (0.193; P <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The important growth of NMA publication rate during the past 5 years is not associated with better methodological and reporting quality. Editors, peer reviewers, researchers and funding agencies should ensure that methodological and reporting standards are met before publication.

20.
J Atten Disord ; 23(2): 111-120, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28366111

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to analyze evidence comparing the profile of drugs used to treat ADHD in adult patients. METHOD: Systematic searches were conducted in electronic databases. Randomized, double-blind, parallel controlled trials that evaluated the safety of drugs in ADHD were included. The statistical analyses were conducted by pairwise meta-analyses and mixed treatment comparison (MTC). RESULTS: Ten ( n = 3006) trials were included in the analyses. We observed statistical differences for the following outcomes: decreased appetite between atomoxetine and placebo (odds ratio [OR] = 0.15, 95% credibility interval [CrI] = [0.05, 0.38]) and extended-release mixed amphetamine salts and placebo (OR = 0.06, 95% CrI = [0.00, 0.51]); insomnia between atomoxetine and placebo (OR = 0.48, 95% CrI = [0.27, 0.88]) and extended-release mixed amphetamine salts and placebo (OR = 0.23, 95% CrI = [0.06, 0.76]); sleepiness between atomoxetine and methylphenidate OROS (OR = 0.24, 95% CrI = [0.06, 0.97]); and decreased libido between atomoxetine and placebo (OR = 0.28, 95% CrI = [0.08, 0.90]). CONCLUSION: It was possible to generate evidence about the safety profile of different ADHD drugs.

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