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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19502, 2020 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177589

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by retention of uremic solutes. Compared to patients with non-dialysis dependent CKD, those requiring haemodialysis (HD) have increased morbidity and mortality. We wished to characterise metabolic patterns in CKD compared to HD patients using metabolomics. Prevalent non-HD CKD KDIGO stage 3b-4 and stage 5 HD outpatients were screened at a single tertiary hospital. Various liquid chromatography approaches hyphenated with mass spectrometry were used to identify 278 metabolites. Unsupervised and supervised data analyses were conducted to characterize metabolic patterns. 69 patients were included in the CKD group and 35 in the HD group. Unsupervised data analysis showed clear clustering of CKD, pre-dialysis (preHD) and post-dialysis (postHD) patients. Supervised data analysis revealed qualitative as well as quantitative differences in individual metabolites profiles between CKD, preHD and postHD states. An original metabolomics framework could discriminate between CKD stages and highlight HD effect based on 278 identified metabolites. Significant differences in metabolic patterns between CKD and HD patients were found overall as well as for specific metabolites. Those findings could explain clinical discrepancies between patients requiring HD and those with earlier stage of CKD.

2.
Hypertension ; 76(6): 1898-1905, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012201

RESUMO

Renal resistive index (RRI) has been associated with adverse renal and cardiovascular outcomes. Although traditionally considered a marker of intrinsic renal damage, RRI could also reflect systemic vascular dysfunction. As sodium intake was linked to alterations in vascular properties, we wished to characterize the association of salt consumption with RRI in the general adult population. Participants were recruited in a population-based study in Switzerland. RRI was measured by ultrasound in 3 segmental arteries. Sodium intake (UNa; mmol/24 h) was estimated on 24-hour urine samples. Carotido-femoral pulse wave velocity was obtained by applanation tonometry. Mixed multivariate regression models were used with RRI or pulse wave velocity as independent variables and UNa as dependent variable, adjusting for possible confounders. We included 1002 patients in the analyses with 528 (52.7%) women and mean age of 47.2±17.4. Mean values of UNa and RRI were 141.8±61.1 mmol/24 h and 63.8±5.5%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, UNa was positively associated with RRI (P=0.002) but not with pulse wave velocity (P=0.344). Plasma renin activity and aldosterone did not modify the relationship between UNa and RRI (P=0.087 for interaction). UNa/urinary potassium ratio was positively associated with pulse wave velocity ≥12 m/s (P=0.033). Our results suggest that dietary salt consumption has a direct impact on renal hemodynamic in the adult general population. Alterations in vascular properties likely explain those findings, but inadequate renal vaso-motor response is also possible. Sodium intake could thus potentially be linked to underlying structural systemic damages affecting this population.

3.
4.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(706): 1673-1675, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936546

RESUMO

White coat hypertension is a frequent phenomenon. Its diagnosis is based on 24-hours ambulatory blood pressure monitoring or repeated home blood pressure measurement. It has been recognised now as a hypertension phenotype of which innocence is under debate. Some recent studies have suggested an association with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines put strong emphasis on detecting it and taking it in charge with lifestyle changes in addition to drug treatment in specific situations, to lower cardiovascular risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Hipertensão do Jaleco Branco/complicações , Pressão Sanguínea , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Hipertensão do Jaleco Branco/diagnóstico
5.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(706): 1676-1679, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936547

RESUMO

The kidneys play a central role in the regulation of blood pressure and are also one of the main culprits of arterial hypertension (HT). Renal ultrasound is a valuable diagnostic tool that can provide instant information at the bedside on possible underlying causes and consequences of HT. Its role in the screening for renal artery stenosis is well-known. However, renal ultrasound can also detect abnormalities in renal parenchyma, morphology, or the vascularization of the kidneys, and as such directly influence further diagnostic work-up and treatment. The significance of the renal resistive index and the place of renal ultrasound in the latest international guidelines on HT are reviewed in this article.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Hipertensão/etiologia , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Obstrução da Artéria Renal/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia , Humanos
6.
Hypertension ; 76(2): 350-358, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639894

RESUMO

Pulsatile blood pressure (BP) confers cardiovascular risk. Whether associations of cardiovascular end points are tighter for central systolic BP (cSBP) than peripheral systolic BP (pSBP) or central pulse pressure (cPP) than peripheral pulse pressure (pPP) is uncertain. Among 5608 participants (54.1% women; mean age, 54.2 years) enrolled in nine studies, median follow-up was 4.1 years. cSBP and cPP, estimated tonometrically from the radial waveform, averaged 123.7 and 42.5 mm Hg, and pSBP and pPP 134.1 and 53.9 mm Hg. The primary composite cardiovascular end point occurred in 255 participants (4.5%). Across fourths of the cPP distribution, rates increased exponentially (4.1, 5.0, 7.3, and 22.0 per 1000 person-years) with comparable estimates for cSBP, pSBP, and pPP. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios, expressing the risk per 1-SD increment in BP, were 1.50 (95% CI, 1.33-1.70) for cSBP, 1.36 (95% CI, 1.19-1.54) for cPP, 1.49 (95% CI, 1.33-1.67) for pSBP, and 1.34 (95% CI, 1.19-1.51) for pPP (P<0.001). Further adjustment of cSBP and cPP, respectively, for pSBP and pPP, and vice versa, removed the significance of all hazard ratios. Adding cSBP, cPP, pSBP, pPP to a base model including covariables increased the model fit (P<0.001) with generalized R2 increments ranging from 0.37% to 0.74% but adding a second BP to a model including already one did not. Analyses of the secondary end points, including total mortality (204 deaths), coronary end points (109) and strokes (89), and various sensitivity analyses produced consistent results. In conclusion, associations of the primary and secondary end points with SBP and pulse pressure were not stronger if BP was measured centrally compared with peripherally.

7.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(693): 1003-1007, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-255864

RESUMO

ACE2 is not only an enzyme that counters the effects of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) but is also the entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2, the virus of the Covid-19 pandemic. Some experimental data suggest that ACE inhibitors and ARBs increase ACE2 levels, thus raising concerns on their security in Covid-19 positive patients. However, some studies have shown protection by these drugs in lower tract respiratory infections and ARDS. The actual consensus is to continue the treatment with RAAS inhibitors, abrupt withdrawal, especially in patients with cardiac or renal conditions, being hazardous in terms of cardiovascular outcomes, except in patients hospitalized in intensive care with hemodynamic instability. This position statement is actually unanimous among all international learned societies.


Assuntos
Aldosterona , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Angiotensinas , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Peptidil Dipeptidase A , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/fisiologia , Renina , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiologia
8.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(693): 1003-1007, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401442

RESUMO

ACE2 is not only an enzyme that counters the effects of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) but is also the entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2, the virus of the Covid-19 pandemic. Some experimental data suggest that ACE inhibitors and ARBs increase ACE2 levels, thus raising concerns on their security in Covid-19 positive patients. However, some studies have shown protection by these drugs in lower tract respiratory infections and ARDS. The actual consensus is to continue the treatment with RAAS inhibitors, abrupt withdrawal, especially in patients with cardiac or renal conditions, being hazardous in terms of cardiovascular outcomes, except in patients hospitalized in intensive care with hemodynamic instability. This position statement is actually unanimous among all international learned societies.


Assuntos
Aldosterona , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Angiotensinas , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Peptidil Dipeptidase A , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/fisiologia , Renina , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiologia
9.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 128, 2020 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Optimal clinical care of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) requires collaboration between primary care physicians (PCPs) and nephrologists. We undertook a randomised trial to determine the impact of superimposed nephrologist care compared to guidelines-directed management by PCPs in CKD patients after hospital discharge. METHODS: Stage 3b-4 CKD patients were enrolled during a hospitalization and randomised in two arms: Co-management by PCPs and nephrologists (interventional arm) versus management by PCPs with written instructions and consultations by nephrologists on demand (standard care). Our primary outcome was death or rehospitalisation within the 2 years post-randomisation. Secondary outcomes were: urgent renal replacement therapy (RRT), decline of renal function and decrease of quality of life at 2 years. RESULTS: From November 2009 to the end of June 2013, we randomised 242 patients. Mean follow-up was 51 + 20 months. Survival without rehospitalisation, GFR decline and elective dialysis initiation did not differ between the two arms. Quality of life was also similar in both groups. Compared to randomised patients, those who either declined to participate in the study or were previously known by nephrologists had a worse survival. CONCLUSION: These results do not demonstrate a benefit of a regular renal care compared to guided PCPs care in terms of survival or dialysis initiation in CKD patients. Increased awareness of renal disease management among PCPs may be as effective as a co-management by PCPs and nephrologists in order to improve the prognosis of moderate-to-severe CKD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered on June 29, 2009 in clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00929760) and adheres to CONSORT 2010 guidelines.

11.
Hypertension ; 75(4): 1133-1139, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114854

RESUMO

The association of blood pressure (BP) with manganese-an essential trace element required for human health-remains poorly studied. In 734 randomly recruited Swiss participants (mean age, 47.5 years; 51.4% women), we related ambulatory BP to 2 biomarkers, plasma manganese (pMn) and the urinary manganese (uMn) excretion. To allow for diurnal variation, we assessed BP and uMn over 24 hours and during wakefulness and sleep, using split urine samples. Twenty-four-hour, daytime, and nighttime systolic/diastolic BPs averaged 119.8/78.1, 123.8/81.2, and 107.0/68.3 mm Hg; the corresponding median uMn were 199.5, 83.0, and 51.5 µmol and median pMn, 0.52 µg/L. In analyses dichotomized by the median of the biomarkers, greater pMn was associated with higher 24-hour systolic/diastolic BP (+4.1/+2.3 mm Hg; P≤0.0003), greater daytime uMn with lower daytime BP (-3.5/-1.9 mm Hg; P≤0.0067), and greater nighttime uMn with higher nighttime BP (+2.9/+1.2 mm Hg; P≤0.046). In multivariable-adjusted analyses, significance (P≤0.030) was retained for the positive association of 24-hour and daytime diastolic BP with pMn and for systolic BP in relation to uMn at night. The association sizes for a 2-fold increment in the biomarkers amounting to 0.77 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.08-1.47 mm Hg), 0.97 (CI, 0.20-1.76) and 1.33 (CI, 0.20-2.50 mm Hg), respectively. In conclusion, there were positive associations between diastolic BP and pMn over 24 hours and during daytime and between systolic BP and uMn at night.

12.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1099: 26-38, 2020 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986274

RESUMO

Kidney transplantation is one of the renal replacement options in patients suffering from end-stage renal disease (ESRD). After a transplant, patient follow-up is essential and is mostly based on immunosuppressive drug levels control, creatinine measurement and kidney biopsy in case of a rejection suspicion. The extensive analysis of metabolite levels offered by metabolomics might improve patient monitoring, help in the surveillance of the restoration of a "normal" renal function and possibly also predict rejection. The longitudinal follow-up of those patients with repeated measurements is useful to understand changes and decide whether an intervention is necessary. The time modality, therefore, constitutes a specific dimension in the data structure, requiring dedicated consideration for proper statistical analysis. The handling of specific data structures in metabolomics has received strong interest in recent years. In this work, we demonstrated the recently developed ANOVA multiblock OPLS (AMOPLS) to efficiently analyse longitudinal metabolomic data by considering the intrinsic experimental design. Indeed, AMOPLS combines the advantages of multilevel approaches and OPLS by separating between and within individual variations using dedicated predictive components, while removing most uncorrelated variations in the orthogonal component(s), thus facilitating interpretation. This modelling approach was applied to a clinical cohort study aiming to evaluate the impact of kidney transplantation over time on the plasma metabolic profile of graft patients and donor volunteers. A dataset of 266 plasma metabolites was identified using an LC-MS multiplatform analytical setup. Two separate AMOPLS models were computed: one for the recipient group and one for the donor group. The results highlighted the benefits of transplantation for recipients and the relatively low impacts on blood metabolites of donor volunteers.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Transplante de Rim , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Metabolômica , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(4)2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774122

RESUMO

CONTEXT: α-klotho is an integral membrane protein that serves as a coreceptor for fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) in conjunction with cognate fibroblast growth factor receptors. Proteolytic cleavage sheds the ectodomain of α-klotho (soluble α-klotho) as an endocrine substance into blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid. OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship of soluble α-klotho to mineral metabolism in the general population with mainly preserved kidney function. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of the associations between soluble α-klotho with laboratory markers of markers of mineral metabolism in a population-based cohort. SETTING: Three centers in Switzerland including 1128 participants. MEASURES: Soluble full-length α-klotho levels by a specific immunoassay and markers of mineral metabolism. RESULTS: The median serum level of soluble α-klotho was 15.0 pmol/L. Multivariable analyses using α-klotho as the outcome variable revealed a sex-by-PTH interaction: In men, PTH was positively associated with α-klotho levels, whereas this association was negative in women. Plasma phosphate associated with soluble α-klotho levels in an age-dependent manner, changing from a positive association in young adults gradually to a negative association in the elderly. The decline of 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D3 levels in parallel to the gradual impairment of kidney function was greatly attenuated in the setting of high circulating soluble α-klotho levels. CONCLUSIONS: Soluble α-klotho level is associated with plasma phosphate in an age-dependent manner and with PTH in a sex-dependent manner. Furthermore, our data reveal soluble α-klotho as a modulator of 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D3 levels in individuals with preserved renal function.

14.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 35(3): 495-502, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is high in patients starting dialysis and could be related to modifications of calcification inducers and inhibitors by dialysis, promoting cardiovascular events. The impact of dialysis initiation on serum calcification propensity evolution and arterial stiffness is unknown. We therefore prospectively determined the evolution of the one-half maximal transition time (T50) value and its main determinants as well as pulse wave velocity over the first 3 months of dialysis initiation. METHODS: We analysed the evolution of T50, fetuin-A and mineral metabolism parameters before dialysis initiation (M0) and monthly until Month 3 (M3) in incident patients starting haemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD) in two tertiary Swiss university hospitals. Arterial stiffness was assessed by pulse tonometry at M0 and M3 and biological parameters were compared between M0 and M3 and before/after HD. Linear mixed models were used to assess parameter evolution over time, taking into account repeated measures and other influencing variables. RESULTS: Forty-six patients on HD and 12 on PD were followed. Among them, 45 were male (78%) with a median age of 67 years (25th-75th quartile range 54-77). T50 significantly increased between M0 and M3 from 183 (120-266) to 246 min (175-330) (P < 0.001). Fetuin-A, calcium and magnesium also increased while phosphate decreased. Factors associated with T50 changes over time were fetuin-A, phosphate and magnesium (P < 0.001). Fetuin-A changes were associated with inflammation-related factors (albumin, C-reactive protein) but not calcium and phosphate levels. Arterial stiffness was not significantly modified over 3 months. PD and HD initiation showed similar trends. CONCLUSIONS: Dialysis initiation significantly improves calcification propensity and fetuin-A levels. These modifications do not explain the high mortality related to dialysis initiation. The clinical relevance of using T50 values to initiate dialysis awaits further studies.


Assuntos
Calcificação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Calcinose/prevenção & controle , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Diálise Renal/métodos , Idoso , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Calcinose/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Magnésio/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfatos/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(662): 1625-1628, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508914

RESUMO

The salt sensitivity of the blood pressure (SSBP) is defined as a rise or fall in blood pressure induced by a change in sodium intake. There is an interindividual variation and no strong diagnostic criteria exist to date. The SSBP may lead to underestimation of the beneficial effect of sodium restriction in some patients in meta-analyzes. High sodium intake in salt sensitive patients results in an increase in the prevalence of hypertension and target organ damage. The etiology seems to be a failure of one or more natriuretic mechanisms. Some environmental, genetic and epidemiological factors increase its susceptibility. Per se, SSBP cannot be treated, but its identification may help in preventing hypertension and adapt the treatment in some populations.


Assuntos
Variação Biológica Individual , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico
17.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(662): 1629-1632, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508915

RESUMO

Arterial hypertension (HT) affects hundreds millions of people suffering from chronic kidney disease: it could be a cause or a consequence. HT can aggravate their prognosis and then lead to a very high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. HT must be systematically screened and optimally taken care of. However, general practitioners actually lack unambiguous guidelines regarding patients with kidney diseases. This article underlines the necessity and modalities of a precise diagnosis, and aims to discuss the last studies supporting new and better therapeutic targets. The pathophysiological aspects of HT in chronic kidney diseases are also discussed.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/terapia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Humanos , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Fatores de Risco
18.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(18): e013558, 2019 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510823

RESUMO

Background Increased renal resistive index (RRI) has been associated with target organ damage as well as renal and cardiovascular outcomes. Matrix Gla (γ-carboxyglutamate) protein (MGP) is a strong inhibitor of soft tissue calcification. Its inactive form (dephospho-uncarboxylated MGP [dp-ucMGP]) has been associated with vascular stiffness, cardiovascular outcomes, and mortality. In this study, we hypothesized that high levels of dp-ucMGP were associated with increased RRI. Methods and Results We recruited participants via a multicenter family-based cross-sectional study in Switzerland. Levels of dp-ucMGP were measured in plasma by sandwich ELISA. RRI was measured by Doppler ultrasound in 3 segmental arteries in both kidneys. We used mixed regression models to assess the relationship between dp-ucMGP and RRI. We adjusted for common determinants of RRI as well as renal function and cardiovascular risk factors. We included 1006 participants in our analyses: 526 women and 480 men. Mean values were 0.44±0.20 nmol/L for dp-ucMGP and 64±5% for RRI. After multivariable adjustment, dp-ucMGP was positively associated with RRI (P=0.001). In subgroup analysis by age tertiles, this association was not significant in the youngest age group (<38 years; P=0.62), whereas it was significant in older age groups (38-55 and >55 years; P=0.016 and P<0.001, respectively). Conclusions Levels of dp-ucMGP are positively and independently associated with RRI after adjustment for common determinants of RRI, cardiovascular risk factors, and renal function. The stronger association among older adults is probably due, in part, to age-related arterial stiffness. RRI thus seems to reflect the global atherosclerotic burden in a general adult population.

19.
Kidney Int ; 96(4): 890-905, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301888

RESUMO

Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) regulates phosphate homeostasis, and its early rise in patients with chronic kidney disease is independently associated with all-cause mortality. Since inflammation is characteristic of chronic kidney disease and associates with increased plasma FGF23 we examined whether inflammation directly stimulates FGF23. In a population-based cohort, plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was the only inflammatory cytokine that independently and positively correlated with plasma FGF23. Mouse models of chronic kidney disease showed signs of renal inflammation, renal FGF23 expression and elevated systemic FGF23 levels. Renal FGF23 expression coincided with expression of the orphan nuclear receptor Nurr1 regulating FGF23 in other organs. Antibody-mediated neutralization of TNF normalized plasma FGF23 and suppressed ectopic renal Fgf23 expression. Conversely, TNF administration to control mice increased plasma FGF23 without altering plasma phosphate. Moreover, in Il10-deficient mice with inflammatory bowel disease and normal kidney function, plasma FGF23 was elevated and normalized upon TNF neutralization. Thus, the inflammatory cytokine TNF contributes to elevated systemic FGF23 levels and also triggers ectopic renal Fgf23 expression in animal models of chronic kidney disease.

20.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 149: w20090, 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154659

RESUMO

The objectives were to determine urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in day and night samples collected over a 24-hour period and evaluate the usual dietary iodine intake distribution from this collection. We propose a method by which the prevalence of inadequacy can be calculated from a single 24-hour collection, reducing the burden on participants and the study costs. The samples from 1128 participants were collected between 2009 and 2013 within the framework of the Swiss Kidney Project on Genes observational cohort study; 1024 samples were suitable for statistical evaluation of iodine analysis. Participants were over 18, resident in Switzerland and of European ancestry. Over 24 hours, urine was collected as night-time (bedtime until and including first morning urine) and day-time (the remainder) samples. Associations with variables, in particular to estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), were investigated using mixed models. The 24-hour median UICs were 73 and 96 µg/l for women (n = 542) and men (n = 482), respectively; 24-hour median intakes (derived from the corresponding excretion) were 127 and 156 µg/d, respectively. Day and night excretions were normalised to 24-hour excretion values and the usual intake distribution calculated by the US National Cancer Institute method. The Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method was used to calculate the prevalence of inadequacy, estimated at 14% for women and 4% for men; above the target of 2-3%. We conclude that segregating 24-hour urine into day and night collections is sufficient to determine the prevalence of iodine inadequacy in the population and reduces the burden on participants by sparing a second 24-hour collection. No association between iodine intake and eGFR was found.


Assuntos
Biometria/métodos , Iodo/deficiência , Iodo/urina , Recomendações Nutricionais , Estatística como Assunto/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência , Valores de Referência , Suíça/epidemiologia
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