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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704655

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to characterize socioeconomic inequalities in the patterns of professionally applied topical fluoride (PATF) in Mexican schoolchildren. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 3029 Mexican schoolchildren. A questionnaire was administered to caregivers to determine sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral variables. The dependent variable was prevalence of PATF, coded as 0 = without PATF and 1 = with PATF, at any point in life, and separately, in the previous year. Various indicators of socioeconomic position were included. Logistic regression was used in the final multivariate analysis. The prevalence of PATF any time in life was 33.8%, while in the previous year it was 11.4%. The variables associated (p < 0.05) with PATF any time in life were child's older age (OR = 1.12), older age when tooth brushing started (OR = 1.57), higher brushing frequency (OR = 1.60), having health insurance [public (OR = 1.61) or private (OR = 1.45)], if family owned a car (OR = 1.29) and better socioeconomic position [parents' education, second (OR = 1.48) and third (OR = 1.75) tertile]. For PATF in the previous year, the variables associated were older age of mother (OR = 1.03), older age when tooth brushing started (OR = 1.99), higher brushing frequency (OR = 1.68), having health insurance [public (OR = 1.62)] and better socioeconomic position (parents' education, second (OR = 1.57) and third (OR = 1.97) tertile). This study suggests the existence of socioeconomic inequalities in PATF, manifested through socioeconomic position, access to health insurance and household having a car. Identifying and addressing PATF inequalities would improve oral health in the child population.

2.
Children (Basel) ; 8(2)2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546186

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the experience and prevalence of dental caries in schoolchildren aged 6-12 years belonging to agricultural manual worker households. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in two groups of schoolchildren: One considered "children of agricultural worker migrant parents" (n = 157) and the other "children of agricultural worker non-migrant parents" (n = 164). Epidemiological indices for dental caries were calculated for primary (dmft) and permanent (DMFT) dentitions, and compared in terms of age, sex, and the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (SOHI). Two binary logistic regression models for caries prevalence in primary and permanent dentitions were generated in Stata. RESULTS: For primary dentition, we observed the following dmft index: Non-migrants = 1.73 ± 2.18 vs. migrants = 1.68 ± 2.14. Additionally, we recorded the following caries prevalence: Non-migrants = 59.1% vs. migrants = 51.3%. For permanent dentition, we observed the following DMFT index: Non-migrants = 0.32 ± 0.81 vs. migrants = 0.29 ± 0.95. Further, we recorded the following caries prevalence: Non-migrants = 17.6% vs. migrants = 12.8%. No differences were observed for either dentition (p > 0.05) in caries indices and their components or in caries prevalence. When both caries indices (dmft and DMFT) were combined, the non-migrant group had a higher level of caries experience than the migrant group (p < 0.05). No relationship (p > 0.05) with migrant status was observed in either multivariate models of caries prevalence. However, age did exhibit an association (p < 0.05) with caries. Only the plaque component of SOHI was associated (p < 0.05) with caries in permanent dentition. CONCLUSIONS: Although over half of school children from agricultural manual worker households had caries in either or both dentitions and a considerable proportion were untreated lesions, the prevalence levels were somewhat lower than other reports from Mexico in similar age groups. No statistically significant differences were found in caries experience or prevalence in either dentition between non-migrant and migrant groups.

3.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 151(4): 276-286, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to compare the experience and distribution of tooth loss in people with and without diabetes. METHODS: The authors conducted a comparative cross-sectional study of patients at a public university. Analysis included medical records of those treated from 2013 through 2017. The dependent and main independent variables were the number of missing teeth and a diagnosis of diabetes, respectively. As covariables, the authors analyzed the sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics, as well as the general and oral health status of patients. A multivariate model based on negative binomial regression was constructed. RESULTS: Of the 3,406 medical records analyzed, 64.2% (n = 2,185) pertained to women, the mean age was 42.45 years, 87.9% did not have diabetes, and 12.1% had received a diagnosis of diabetes. The mean (standard deviation) number of missing teeth was 7.46 (7.89), 7.09 (7.60) in patients without diabetes, and 10.12 (9.32) in patients with diabetes. According to our final multivariate model, the expected mean number of missing teeth was 11.4% higher in patients with diabetes than in those without (P = .006). For every 1-year increase in age, the expected mean number of missing teeth increased by 3.9% (P < .001). Other variables related to tooth loss included occupation, marital status, and type of insurance. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the study indicate that the mean number of missing teeth is higher in people with diabetes and suggest that certain socioeconomic inequalities exist in the area of oral health. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The population needs to be apprised of the impact of diabetes on oral health.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Perda de Dente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , México , Saúde Bucal
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(5): e19061, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000455

RESUMO

To analyze whether a correlation exists between the caries status (Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth, DMFT Index) of the first permanent molars (FPMs) and that of the full permanent dentition of Mexican adolescents, and to propose its use in large epidemiological studies of dental caries.We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1538 adolescents from 12 to 15 years old. Based on a clinical oral examination, we determined the DMFT Indices of their FPMs (FPM-DMFT) and of their full permanent dentition (comprehensive DMFT Index). We explored each FPM to determine whether it was with or without caries, filled, missing or sealed. For our statistical analysis, we used Fisher exact test and Spearman correlation in Stata software.After examining a total of 6157 FPMs, we found that 56.8% of our sample of adolescents had no caries in their 4 FPMs whereas 4.9% experienced caries in all 4. No significant differences emerged by sex (P > .05); however, by age, the older adolescents experienced greater FPM-DMFT (P < .05). Analysis yielded a correlation of r = 0.8693 between the FPM-DMFT and comprehensive DMFT scores (P < .0001) of participants. The underestimation of caries prevalence (DMFT > 0) was 5.4% (48.6% vs 43.2%), while the DMFT Index was underestimated at 0.34 (1.15 vs 0.81).The strong correlation between the FPM-DMFT and comprehensive DMFT Indices suggests that overall caries status can be inferred on the basis of FPM caries status. This evidence is useful when conducting large epidemiological studies such as national surveys.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Dentição Permanente , Dente Molar , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Índice CPO , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Prevalência
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type-2-Diabetes (T2D) and Periodontitis are major inflammatory diseases. However, not much is known about the specific subgingival microbiota in Mexicans with diabetes and metabolic dysbiosis. The aim of this study was to describe the subgingival microbiota of Mexicans with T2D and the different periodontal and metabolic conditions, through "Checkerboard" DNA-DNA hybridization. METHODS: Subjects were divided into two groups-periodontal-health (PH) (PH_non-T2D; n = 59, PH_T2D; n = 14) and generalized-periodontitis (GP) (GP_non-T2D; n = 67, GP_T2D; n = 38). Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) and serum levels of glycated-hemoglobin (HbA1c), total-lipids, triglycerides, total-cholesterol, high-density-lipids, and low-density-lipids were measured for the T2D individuals. Subgingival microbial identification was processed for 40 species through DNA-probes. RESULTS: Subjects with T2D harbored significantly higher mean total levels (PH: p < 0.001, and GP_NS), a lower proportion of "red" complex (GP: p < 0.01), a higher proportion of "yellow" (GP; p < 0.001), and "orange" (GP; p < 0.01) complex than the non-T2D. GP_T2D individuals exhibited a greater proportion of putative-species-Campylobacter gracilis and S. constellatus (p < 0.001), and Parvimonas micra and Prevotella nigrescens (p < 0.01), than GP_non-T2D. T2D individuals with HbA1c > 8% had presented significantly higher mean pocket-depth and higher levels of G. morbillorum (p < 0.05) and those with obesity or dyslipidemia harbored higher levels, prevalence, or proportion of Streptococcus sp., Actinomyces sp., and Capnocytophaga sp. CONCLUSIONS: T2D individuals harbored a particular microbial profile different to non-T2D microbiota. Metabolic control was related to dysbiosis of microbiota-HbA1c>8% related to periodontitis and obesity or dyslipidemia with the predominance of saccharolytic bacteria, irrespective of their periodontal condition.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/microbiologia , Doenças da Gengiva/microbiologia , Microbiota , Periodontite/microbiologia , Adulto , Bactérias/genética , Campylobacter/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(30): e16634, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348316

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dental caries is the most frequent oral disease worldwide and the main cause of tooth loss in children and young adults. One of the most frequently affected areas is the occlusal surfaces of the first permanent molars (FPM) due to their morphological complexity. At present, several preventive treatments can reduce the incidence of this disease in school populations. In Mexico, the most commonly used technologies are those derived from some presentation of fluoride; on the other hand, research on this topic has been limited. OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost-effectiveness of two different methods for preventing the incidence of caries on the FPM of schoolchildren (6-8 years of age) from public primary schools. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a randomized experimental design. Participants will be assigned to two treatment groups of 114 each. In the first group, pit and fissure sealants will be applied, whereas the second group will receive a fluoride varnish. The work will be carried out in schoolchildren that attend public elementary schools in the state of Hidalgo, Mexico. The result variable will be the incidence of caries and the total cost of each of the interventions will be calculated in order to calculate the intervention's cost-effectiveness. CONCLUSION: This work will allow us to compare the cost-effectiveness of the pit and fissure sealants and the fluoride varnish in order to determine which offers the best results.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Fluoretos Tópicos/uso terapêutico , Selantes de Fossas e Fissuras/uso terapêutico , Criança , Análise Custo-Benefício , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Fluoretos Tópicos/administração & dosagem , Fluoretos Tópicos/economia , Humanos , Masculino , México , Selantes de Fossas e Fissuras/economia , Projetos de Pesquisa
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195612

RESUMO

Aim: The objective of this study was to estimate the Out-Of-Pocket Expenditures (OOPEs) incurred by households on dental care, as well as to analyze the sociodemographic, economic, and oral health factors associated with such expenditures. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 763 schoolchildren in Mexico. A questionnaire was distributed to parents to determine the variables related to OOPEs on dental care. The amounts were updated in 2017 in Mexican pesos and later converted to 2017 international dollars (purchasing power parities-PPP US $). Multivariate models were created: a linear regression model (which modeled the amount of OOPEs), and a logistic regression model (which modeled the likelihood of incurring OOPEs). Results: The OOPEs on dental care for the 763 schoolchildren were PPP US $53,578, averaging a PPP of US $70.2 ± 123.7 per child. Disbursements for treatment were the principal item within the OOPEs. The factors associated with OOPEs were the child's age, number of dental visits, previous dental pain, main reason for dental visit, educational level of mother, type of health insurance, household car ownership, and socioeconomic position. Conclusions: The average cost of dental care was PPP US $70.2 ± 123.7. Our study shows that households with higher school-aged children exhibiting the highest report of dental morbidity-as well as those without insurance-face the highest OOPEs. An array of variables were associated with higher expenditures. In general, higher-income households spent more on dental care. However, the present study did not estimate unmet needs across the socioeconomic gradient, and thus, future research is needed to fully ascertain disease burden.


Assuntos
Assistência Odontológica/economia , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Seguro Saúde , Masculino , México , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-6, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035800

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Preterm delivery is a multifactorial health problem that represents a serious public health problem around the world. In recent years, there has been an increase in scientific evidence suggesting associations between oral health status (mainly periodontal disease and tooth loss) and an increased risk of systemic diseases and various adverse pregnancy outcomes. This study explores the association between indicators of oral health and preterm delivery in a sample of Mexican pregnant women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case-control study was carried out with 111 pregnant (36 cases, 75 controls) who received prenatal care and delivered in an obstetric hospital in Pachuca, Mexico. Clinical files were reviewed to obtain the necessary information for the variables studied. The dependent variable was preterm delivery and the independent variables were gingivitis, periodontitis, DMFT index and its components, the number of decayed teeth with pulpal exposure or endodontic lesions, age of the mother, education, alcohol use, smoking status, number of gestations, and sex of the newborn. RESULTS: The average ages were similar between the cases and the controls (24.29 ± 5.42 versus 24.89 ± 5.67, p = .5781). Significant differences were observed with gingivitis (p < .01) and periodontitis (p < .001). In addition, when the severity of gingivitis or periodontitis increased, the percentage of cases of preterm delivery increased (p < .01). The average number of teeth lost was higher among the cases than among the controls (1.33 ± 1.89 versus 0.81 ± 1.82, p < .05). CONCLUSIONS: It was found that gingivitis, periodontitis, and tooth loss were associated with preterm delivery. It is necessary to carry out actions aimed at the preservation of oral health in pregnant patients to avoid adverse results. These findings indicate a likely association, but it needs to be confirmed by large and well-designed studies.

9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(11): e14875, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882692

RESUMO

Dental caries-a highly prevalent public health problem in preschoolers and school children-is the main cause of premature dental loss during childhood, and this may be related to loss of space in the posterior sector. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether interproximal caries and premature tooth loss (D and/or E) are risk factors for loss of space in the posterior sector.A comparative cross-sectional study (split-mouth type) was performed in schoolchildren (6-8 years old). Seventeen gypsum models were evaluated. These children presented with unilateral loss of a dental organ or interproximal caries (teeth D and/or E) and without such affectations on the other side. Measurements were made with a digital Vernier caliper. The dependent variable was the difference (loss of space, mm) between the control and case sides. The independent variables were type of affectation (interproximal caries or tooth loss), sex, age, arcade, and number of interproximal surfaces affected.The mean age was 6.82 ±â€Š0.44 years and 64.7% were boys. The average space loss was 1.09 ±â€Š0.18 mm (control vs case; P < .0001). A greater loss of space was observed among those who lost a dental organ than those with interproximal caries (P = .0119). A correlation was observed between the variable loss of space and the number of interproximal surfaces affected (r = 0.5712, P = .0166).Interproximal caries and tooth loss were risk factors for loss of space in the posterior segment in this sample of Mexican schoolchildren.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/complicações , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Cárie Dentária/diagnóstico , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Perda de Dente/classificação , Perda de Dente/complicações , Dente Decíduo/fisiopatologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28800094

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and associated factors of visits to the dentist in the last year by Nicaraguan schoolchildren to receive professionally applied topical fluoride (PATF). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was designed in children from public schools in the city of León, Nicaragua, were included. A series of socioeconomic, sociodemographic, and behavioural variables were collected through a questionnaire. The dependent variable was the visit to the dentist to receive professionally applied topical fluoride in the last year, which was dichotomised as (0) Did not receive PATF and (1) Yes received PATF. In the statistical analysis, binary logistic regression was used. RESULTS: The mean age of the students included was 9 years, and 49.9% were girls. The prevalence of visits to the dentist in the last year to receive PATF was 3.1%. In the multivariate model, the associated characteristics (p < 0.05) were: female (OR = 2.73, 95% CI = 1.34-4.50); the positive attitude of the mother to the oral health of her child (OR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.03-4.50); and the best socioeconomic position (OR = 2.68, 95% CI = 1.36-5.31). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of visits to the dentist in the last year to receive professionally applied topical fluoride was very low (3.1%). The results of the socioeconomic position suggest the existence of certain inequalities in oral health. It is necessary to implement policies and programs aimed at improving this scenario.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Fluoretos Tópicos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Assistência Odontológica , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Nicarágua , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Sci Rep ; 6: 36383, 2016 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27805027

RESUMO

Dental demineralization was determined in patients at three time points during fixed orthodontic treatment. A multiple cross-sectional study included 108 patients divided into three different groups: (1) beginning of orthodontic treatment; (2) one year into treatment; and (3) two years into treatment. Demineralization was estimated using a DIAGNOdent pen. We obtained data from multiple tooth-by-tooth demineralization readings combined with salivary pH and patients' oral hygienic and dietary behaviors. A t-test for independent samples and Spearman´s correlation were performed. No demineralizations differences were found between the initial stage and one year into treatment. Between one and two years small differences were observed, but demineralization increased between the initial stage and second treatment year, predominating in upper right central incisors (p = 0.056), upper left lateral incisors (p = 0.040), both upper canines (p = 0.055 and p = 0.040, respectively) and first left premolars (p = 0.034 and p = 0.053, respectively). We did not find associations between oral hygiene and dietary behaviours or salivary pH. In conclusion, demineralization occurred in first year of treatment and increased during second year, predominating in the upper arch and the left side mainly in upper right central incisors, upper left lateral incisors, both upper canines, and first left premolars.


Assuntos
Braquetes Ortodônticos/efeitos adversos , Desmineralização do Dente/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Higiene Bucal , Fatores de Risco , Saliva/química , Desmineralização do Dente/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Med Sci Monit ; 20: 843-52, 2014 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24852266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine if edentulism, controlling for other known factors, is associated with subjective self-report health status (SRH) in Mexican adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We examined the SRH of 13 966 individuals 35 years and older, using data from the National Survey of Performance Assessment, a cross-sectional study that is part of the technical collaboration between the Ministry of Health of Mexico and the World Health Organization, which used the survey instrument and sampling strategies developed by WHO for the World Health Survey. Sociodemographic, socioeconomic, medical, and behavioral variables were collected using questionnaires. Self-reported health was our dependent variable. Data on edentulism were available from 20 of the 32 Mexican states. A polynomial logistic regression model adjusted for complex sampling was generated. RESULTS: In the SRH, 58.2% reported their health status as very good/good, 33.8% said they had a moderate health status, and 8.0% reported that their health was bad/very bad. The association between edentulism and SRH was modified by age and was significant only for bad/very bad SRH. Higher odds of reporting moderate health or poor/very poor health were found in women, people with lower socio-economic status and with physical disabilities, those who were not physically active, or those who were underweight or obese, those who had any chronic disease, and those who used alcohol. CONCLUSIONS: The association of edentulism with a self-report of a poor health status (poor/very poor) was higher in young people than in adults. The results suggest socioeconomic inequalities in SRH. Inequality was further confirmed among people who had a general health condition or a disability. Dentists and health care professionals need to recognize the effect of edentulism on quality of life among elders people.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Boca Edêntula/epidemiologia , Autorrelato , Adulto , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Análise Multivariada , Fatores Socioeconômicos
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 11(3): 3169-84, 2014 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24642844

RESUMO

Oral diseases are a major burden on individuals and health systems. The aim of this study was to determine whether consumption of tobacco and alcohol were associated with the prevalence of oral/dental problems in Mexican adults. Using data from the National Performance Evaluation Survey 2003, a cross-sectional study part of the World Health Survey, dental information from a representative sample of Mexico (n = 22,229, N = 51,155,740) was used to document self-reported oral/dental problems in the 12 months prior to the survey. Questionnaires were used to collect information related to sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and other risk factors. Three models were generated for each age group (18-30, 31-45 and 46-98 years). The prevalence of oral/dental conditions was 25.7%. Adjusting for sex, schooling, socioeconomic position, diabetes, and self-reported health, those who used tobacco (sometimes or daily) (OR = 1.15, p = 0.070; OR = 1.24, p < 0.01; and OR = 1.16, p < 0.05, for each age group respectively) or alcohol (moderate or high) (OR = 1.26, p < 0.001; OR = 1.18, p < 0.01 and OR = 1.30, p < 0.001, for each age group respectively) had a higher risk of reporting oral/dental problems. Because tobacco and alcohol use were associated with self-reported oral/dental problems in one out of four adults, it appears advisable to ascertain how direct is such link; more direct effects would lend greater weight to adopting measures to reduce consumption of tobacco and alcohol for the specific purpose of improving oral health.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Doenças Estomatognáticas/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Doenças Estomatognáticas/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Periodontol ; 85(3): 406-16, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23895250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The possible association between oral infection and chronic inflammation and cardiovascular disease risk has been studied intensively. The present study is designed to determine the strength of association between edentulism and angina pectoris in Mexican adults aged 35 years and older. METHODS: Using the tools and sampling strategies of the World Health Survey of the World Health Organization, cross-sectional data were collected in Mexico in the National Performance Assessment Survey (probabilistic, multistage, and cluster sampling). Dental information was available for 20 of the 32 states of Mexico. Angina and edentulism are self-reported in this study. Statistical analysis was performed using binary logistic regression adjusting for complex samples. RESULTS: A total of 13,966 participants, representing a population of 29,853,607 individuals, were included. Of the complete study population, 3,052,263 (10.2%) were completely toothless, and 673,810 (2.3%) were diagnosed with angina pectoris. After adjusting for smoking, alcohol consumption, diabetes, body mass index, and sex, the effect of edentulism on angina was modified by age (interaction), being more marked in the younger age group (odds ratio [OR] = exp(2.5597) =12.93) than in the older individuals surveyed (OR = exp(2.5597 + (-0.0334)) =12.51). Additionally, low physical activity (OR = 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03 to 2.22) and higher socioeconomic status (OR = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.90) were more likely to be associated with angina pectoris. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the results of this study, conducted in a representative sample of Mexican adults, suggest that an association exists between edentulism and angina pectoris. Additional studies are necessary to elucidate the underlying mechanism for this association.


Assuntos
Angina Pectoris/epidemiologia , Boca Edêntula/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atividade Motora , Vigilância da População , Saúde da População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/epidemiologia , Classe Social , Saúde da População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Med Sci Monit ; 19: 1019-26, 2013 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24247119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our study aimed to evaluate the effect of various risk indicators for dental caries on primary teeth of Nicaraguan children (from Leon, Nicaragua) ages 6 to 9, using the negative binomial regression model. MATERIAL/METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out to collect clinical, demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral data from 794 schoolchildren ages 6 to 9 years, randomly selected from 25 schools in the city of León, Nicaragua. Clinical examinations for dental caries (dmft index) were performed by 2 trained and standardized examiners. Socio-demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral data were self-reported using questionnaires. Multivariate negative binomial regression (NBR) analysis was used. RESULTS: Mean age was 7.49 ± 1.12 years. Boys accounted for 50.1% of the sample. Mean dmft was 3.54 ± 3.13 and caries prevalence (dmft >0) was 77.6%. In the NBR multivariate model (p<0.05), for each year of age, the expected mean dmft decreased by 7.5%. Brushing teeth at least once a day and having received preventive dental care in the last year before data collection were associated with declines in the expected mean dmft by 19.5% and 69.6%, respectively. Presence of dental plaque increased the expected mean dmft by 395.5%. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of students with caries in this sample was high. We found associations between dental caries in the primary dentition and dental plaque, brushing teeth at least once a day, and having received preventive dental care. To improve oral health, school programs and/or age-appropriate interventions need to be developed based on the specific profile of caries experience and the associated risk indicators.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Placa Dentária/patologia , Dente Decíduo/patologia , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Cárie Dentária/etiologia , Cárie Dentária/patologia , Placa Dentária/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nicarágua/epidemiologia , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Rev Invest Clin ; 65(2): 141-9, 2013.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23844532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tooth extractions are one of the most common procedures in oral surgery. The objective of this study was to identify the reasons for tooth extraction in adult patients seeking care at teaching dental clinics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 331 subjects between 18 and 85 (45.37 +/- 13.85) years of age seeking dental care in dental clinics of the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, from January 2009 to December, 2009. Data pertaining to age, sex, tooth number and the reason for extraction according to Kay & Blinkhorn were analyzed with non-parametric tests. RESULTS: 779 extractions were undertaken. The main reason for extraction was dental caries (43.1%), periodontal disease (PD) (27.9%), and prosthetic reasons (21.5%). There was no significant difference across sex for reasons of extraction (p > 0.05). Significant differences (p < 0.001) were found for age (extraction due to periodontal disease increased with age); in patients attending in a single visit vs. patients attending a series of dental appointments (caries reasons were more common in patients having a single appointment vs. PD in those attending a series of appointments); for type of teeth (upper, posterior, and molars were extracted primarily because of caries, while lower, anterior and incisors were more often extracted because of PD). CONCLUSIONS: Dental caries was the most common reason for tooth extraction, followed by periodontal disease. Differences in the reasons for extraction were observed across patient characteristics and type of tooth.


Assuntos
Dentição Permanente , Extração Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
17.
Gac Med Mex ; 148(3): 218-26, 2012.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22820354

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to quantify the influence of some of the predisposing, enabling, and healthcare need variables on dental health services utilization (DHSU) among Mexican adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional analytical study including 1,538 Mexican teenagers 12 and 15 years of age. The dependent variable was DHSU in the previous 12 months. Data were collected through a questionnaire and included demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral factors. The study included an oral examination. The analysis included nonparametric statistics and a logistic regression model. RESULTS: Of the 1,538 adolescents, 688 were 12 years old and 850 were 15 years old. Girls accounted for 49.9%. The prevalence of DHSU was 15%. In the final model we found that having moved at least once from the community in which the child was born was associated with DHSU (OR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.10-1.40; p > 0.05), just as it was observed for purchasing purified water for home consumption instead of relying on piped water supplies (OR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.03-2.25), higher educational attainment of the mother (OR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.02-1.91) and of the father (OR: 1.87; 95% CI: 1.09-3.19). Having more sound teeth (OR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.94-0.98), and having at least one tooth with caries (OR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.01-1.18) were also associated with DHSU (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The percentage of subjects with DHSU in the prior 12 months was low compared with other studies. Our identification of the variables associated with DHSU (often surrogates of socioeconomic position) indicated the existence of oral health inequalities and the need to develop strategies to reduce the gaps identified.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Saúde da População Rural
18.
Med. oral patol. oral cir. bucal (Internet) ; 17(5): 807-813, sept. 2012. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-103124

RESUMO

Background: Diverse variables are implicated in the pathogenesis of gingival recession; more detailed knowledge about the relationship between the clinical presentation of gingival recession and assorted risk indicators may lead to improved patient monitoring, early intervention, and subsequent prevention. The objective was to evaluate clinically gingival recession in a homogeneous Mexican adult male population and to determine the strength of association with related factors. Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a largely homogeneous group in terms of ethnic background, socioeconomic status, gender, occupation, and medical/dental insurance, in Campeche, Mexico. Periodontal examinations were undertaken to determine diverse clinical dental variables. All periodontal clinical examinations were assessed using the Florida Probe System, a dental chair and one examiner. Questionnaires were used to collect diverse risk indicators. Statistical analyses were undertaken with negative binomial regression models. Results: The mean number of sites with gingival recession per subject was 6.73±5.81; the prevalence was 87.6%. In the negative binomial regression model we observed that for (i) each year of age, and (ii) each percentage unit of increase in sites with plaque, and (iii) with suppuration, mean sites with gingival recession increased 2.9%, 1.0% and 13.0%, respectively. Having a spouse was associated with gingival recession. Conclusions: We observed association between gingival recession, and sociodemographic and clinical parameters. Patients need to be educated about risk indicators for gingival recession as well as the preventive maneuvers that may be implemented to minimize its occurrence. The potential of improved oral self-care to prevent a largely benign condition such as gingival recession is important, given the associated disorders that may ensue root exposure, such as root caries and root hypersensitivity (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Retração Gengival/epidemiologia , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Assistência Odontológica , México/epidemiologia , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice Periodontal , Fatores de Risco
19.
Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal ; 17(5): e807-13, 2012 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22549678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diverse variables are implicated in the pathogenesis of gingival recession; more detailed knowledge about the relationship between the clinical presentation of gingival recession and assorted risk indicators may lead to improved patient monitoring, early intervention, and subsequent prevention. The objective was to evaluate clinically gingival recession in a homogeneous Mexican adult male population and to determine the strength of association with related factors. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a largely homogeneous group in terms of ethnic background, socioeconomic status, gender, occupation, and medical/dental insurance, in Campeche, Mexico. Periodontal examinations were undertaken to determine diverse clinical dental variables. All periodontal clinical examinations were assessed using the Florida Probe System, a dental chair and one examiner. Questionnaires were used to collect diverse risk indicators. Statistical analyses were undertaken with negative binomial regression models. RESULTS: The mean number of sites with gingival recession per subject was 6.73±5.81; the prevalence was 87.6%. In the negative binomial regression model we observed that for (i) each year of age, and (ii) each percentage unit of increase in sites with plaque, and (iii) with suppuration, mean sites with gingival recession increased 2.9%, 1.0% and 13.0%, respectively. Having a spouse was associated with gingival recession. CONCLUSIONS: We observed association between gingival recession, and sociodemographic and clinical parameters. Patients need be educated about risk indicators for gingival recession as well as the preventive maneuvers that may be implemented to minimize its occurrence. The potential of improved oral self-care to prevent a largely benign condition such as gingival recession is important, given the associated disorders that may ensue root exposure, such as root caries and root hypersensitivity.


Assuntos
Retração Gengival/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , México , Fatores de Risco
20.
Cir Cir ; 80(4): 339-44, 2012.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23374381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) is the most common craniofacial anomaly. OBJECTIVE: to determine the incidence of cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) in patients born in the Hospital "Dr. Aurelio Valdivieso" in the city of Oaxaca between 2008 and 2010. METHODS: A retrospective, cross-sectional study on all live births with non-syndromic orofacial cleft was realized. The variables included were CL/P presence, sex, and birth year. Clinical records of CL/P subjects were reviewed and clefts classified according to Kernahan and Stark. Tables were generated to present data. RESULTS: The total number of live births (LB) was 24,043 for the 2008 to 2010 period. In 2008, 9 cases (rate 1.01 per 1,000 LB) were identified: 7 boys and 2 girls. In 2009, there were 4 cases (rate 0.54 per 1,000 LB), 3 boys and 1 girl. In 2010, there were 11 cases (rate 1.42 per 1,000 LB), 7 boys and 4 girls. The total for the period 2008-2010 were 24 cases (rate 1.00 per 1,000 LB), 17 boys and 7 girls. Incidence rate was higher among male than among female. As for the distribution according to Kernahan and Stark classification, there were 4 boys and 3 girls in group "C", 10 boys and 4 girls in group "D", and only 3 boys in group "E"; not a single case in groups "A" and "B". CONCLUSIONS: The incidence for the period was 1.00 per 1,000 LB. The CL/P was more frequent in boys for each year included in the study.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial/epidemiologia , Fissura Palatina/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais Gerais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo
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