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1.
Atherosclerosis ; 324: 46-51, 2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) has been suggested as a marker of plasma atherogenicity. This study aimed to assess the association between AIP and the rapid progression of coronary atherosclerosis using serial coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). METHODS: A total of 1488 adults (60.9 ± 9.2 years, 58.9% male) who underwent serial CCTA with a median inter-scan period of 3.4 years were included. AIP was defined as the base 10 logarithm of the ratio of the concentrations of triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Rapid plaque progression (RPP) was defined as the change of percentage atheroma volume (PAV) ≥1.0%/year. All participants were divided into three groups based on AIP tertiles. RESULTS: Baseline total PAV (median [interquartile range (IQR)]) (%) (group I [lowest]: 1.91 [0.00, 6.21] vs. group II: 2.82 [0.27, 8.83] vs. group III [highest]: 2.70 [0.41, 7.50]), the annual change of total PAV (median [IQR]) (%/year) (group I: 0.27 [0.00, 0.81] vs. group II: 0.37 [0.04, 1.11] vs. group III: 0.45 [0.06, 1.25]), and the incidence of RPP (group I: 19.7% vs. group II: 27.3% vs. group III: 31.4%) were significantly different among AIP tertiles (all p < 0.05). In multiple logistic regression analysis, the risk of RPP was increased in group III (odds ratio: 1.52, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-2.26; p = 0.042) compared to group I after adjusting for clinical factors and baseline total PAV. CONCLUSIONS: Based on serial CCTA findings, AIP is an independent predictive marker for RPP beyond traditional risk factors.

2.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 204: 106059, 2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Segmentation of the left ventricular (LV) myocardium (Myo) and RV endocardium on cine cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) images represents an essential step for cardiac-function evaluation and diagnosis. In order to have a common reference for comparing segmentation algorithms, several CMR image datasets were made available, but in general they do not include the most apical and basal slices, and/or gold standard tracing is limited to only one of the two ventricles, thus not fully corresponding to real clinical practice. Our aim was to develop a deep learning (DL) approach for automated segmentation of both RV and LV chambers from short-axis (SAX) CMR images, reporting separately the performance for basal slices, together with the applied criterion of choice. METHOD: A retrospectively selected database (DB1) of 210 cine sequences (3 pathology groups) was considered: images (GE, 1.5 T) were acquired at Centro Cardiologico Monzino (Milan, Italy), and end-diastolic (ED) and end-systolic frames (ES) were manually segmented (gold standard, GS). Automatic ED and ES RV and LV segmentation were performed with a U-Net inspired architecture, where skip connections were redesigned introducing dense blocks to alleviate the semantic gap between the U-Net encoder and decoder. The proposed architecture was trained including: A) the basal slices where the Myo surrounded the LV for at least the 50% and all the other slice; B) all the slices where the Myo completely surrounded the LV. To evaluate the clinical relevance of the proposed architecture in a practical use case scenario, a graphical user interface was developed to allow clinicians to revise, and correct when needed, the automatic segmentation. Additionally, to assess generalizability, analysis of CMR images obtained in 12 healthy volunteers (DB2) with different equipment (Siemens, 3T) and settings was performed. RESULTS: The proposed architecture outperformed the original U-Net. Comparing the performance on DB1 between the two criteria, no significant differences were measured when considering all slices together, but were present when only basal slices were examined. Automatic and manually-adjusted segmentation performed similarly compared to the GS (bias±95%LoA): LVEDV -1±12 ml, LVESV -1±14 ml, RVEDV 6±12 ml, RVESV 6±14 ml, ED LV mass 6±26 g, ES LV mass 5±26 g). Also, generalizability showed very similar performance, with Dice scores of 0.944 (LV), 0.908 (RV) and 0.852 (Myo) on DB1, and 0.940 (LV), 0.880 (RV), and 0.856 (Myo) on DB2. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the potential of DL methods for accurate LV and RV contours segmentation and the advantages of dense skip connections in alleviating the semantic gap generated when high level features are concatenated with lower level feature. The evaluation on our dataset, considering separately the performance on basal and apical slices, reveals the potential of DL approaches for fast, accurate and reliable automated cardiac segmentation in a real clinical setting.

3.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800155

RESUMO

Mitral valve prolapse is a common cardiac condition, with an estimated prevalence between 1% and 3%. Most patients have a benign course, but ever since its initial description mitral valve prolapse has been associated to sudden cardiac death. Although the causal relationship between mitral valve prolapse and sudden cardiac death has never been clearly demonstrated, different factors have been implicated in arrhythmogenesis in patients with mitral valve prolapse. In this work, we offer a comprehensive overview of the etiology and the genetic background, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and we focus on the state-of-the-art imaging-based diagnosis of mitral valve prolapse. Going beyond the classical, well-described clinical factors, such as young age, female gender and auscultatory findings, we investigate multimodality imaging features, such as alterations of anatomy and function of the mitral valve and its leaflets, the structural and contractile anomalies of the myocardium, all of which have been associated to sudden cardiac death.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread worldwide determining dramatic impacts on healthcare systems. Early identification of high-risk parameters is required in order to provide the best therapeutic approach. Coronary, thoracic aorta and aortic valve calcium can be measured from a non-gated chest computer tomography (CT) and are validated predictors of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. However, their prognostic role in acute systemic inflammatory diseases, such as COVID-19, has not been investigated. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to evaluate the association of coronary artery calcium and total thoracic calcium on in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: 1093 consecutive patients from 16 Italian hospitals with a positive swab for COVID-19 and an admission chest CT for pneumonia severity assessment were included. At CT, coronary, aortic valve and thoracic aorta calcium were qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated separately and combined together (total thoracic calcium) by a central Core-lab blinded to patients' outcomes. RESULTS: Non-survivors compared to survivors had higher coronary artery [Agatston (467.76 â€‹± â€‹570.92 vs 206.80 â€‹± â€‹424.13 â€‹mm2, p â€‹< â€‹0.001); Volume (487.79 â€‹± â€‹565.34 vs 207.77 â€‹± â€‹406.81, p â€‹< â€‹0.001)], aortic valve [Volume (322.45 â€‹± â€‹390.90 vs 98.27 â€‹± â€‹250.74 mm2, p â€‹< â€‹0.001; Agatston 337.38 â€‹± â€‹414.97 vs 111.70 â€‹± â€‹282.15, p â€‹< â€‹0.001)] and thoracic aorta [Volume (3786.71 â€‹± â€‹4225.57 vs 1487.63 â€‹± â€‹2973.19 mm2, p â€‹< â€‹0.001); Agatston (4688.82 â€‹± â€‹5363.72 vs 1834.90 â€‹± â€‹3761.25, p â€‹< â€‹0.001)] calcium values. Coronary artery calcium (HR 1.308; 95% CI, 1.046-1.637, p â€‹= â€‹0.019) and total thoracic calcium (HR 1.975; 95% CI, 1.200-3.251, p â€‹= â€‹0.007) resulted to be independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSION: Coronary, aortic valve and thoracic aortic calcium assessment on admission non-gated CT permits to stratify the COVID-19 patients in-hospital mortality risk.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709096

RESUMO

AIMS : To investigate the change in atherosclerotic plaque volume in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and declining renal function, using coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). METHODS AND RESULTS: In total, 891 participants with analysable serial CCTA and available glomerular filtration rate (GFR, derived using Cockcroft-Gault formulae) at baseline (CCTA 1) and follow-up (CCTA 2) were included. CKD was defined as GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Declining renal function was defined as ≥10% drop in GFR from the baseline. Quantitative assessment of plaque volume and composition were performed on both scans. There were 203 participants with CKD and 688 without CKD. CKD was associated with higher baseline total plaque volume, but similar plaque progression, measured by crude (57.5 ± 3.4 vs. 65.9 ± 7.7 mm3/year, P = 0.28) or annualized (17.3 ± 1.0 vs. 19.9 ± 2.0 mm3/year, P = 0.25) change in total plaque volume. There were 709 participants with stable GFR and 182 with declining GFR. Declining renal function was independently associated with plaque progression, with higher crude (54.1 ± 3.2 vs. 80.2 ± 9.0 mm3/year, P < 0.01) or annualized (16.4 ± 0.9 vs. 23.9 ± 2.6 mm3/year, P < 0.01) increase in total plaque volume. In CKD, plaque progression was driven by calcified plaques whereas in patients with declining renal function, it was driven by non-calcified plaques. CONCLUSION: Decline in renal function was associated with more rapid plaque progression, whereas the presence of CKD was not.

7.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6674144, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33681370

RESUMO

Background: In the United States, functional stress testing is the primary imaging modality for patients with stable symptoms suspected to represent coronary artery disease (CAD). Coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) is excellent at identifying anatomic coronary artery disease (CAD). The application of computational fluid dynamics to coronary CTA allows fractional flow reserve (FFR) to be calculated noninvasively (FFRCT). The relationship of noninvasive stress testing to coronary CTA and FFRCT in real-world clinical practice has not been studied. Methods: We evaluated 206 consecutive patients at Loyola University Chicago with suspected CAD who underwent noninvasive stress testing followed by coronary CTA and FFRCT when indicated. Patients were categorized by stress test results (positive, negative, indeterminate, and equivocal). Duke treadmill score (DTS), METS, exercise duration, and chest pain with exercise were analyzed. Lesions ≥ 50%stenosis were considered positive by coronary CTA. FFRCT < 0.80 was considered diagnostic of ischemia. Results: Two hundred and six patients had paired noninvasive stress test and coronary CTA/FFRCT results. The median time from stress test to coronary CTA was 49 days. Average patient age was 60.3 years, and 42% were male. Of the 206 stress tests, 75% were exercise (70% echocardiographic, 26% nuclear, and 4% EKG). There were no associations of stress test results with CAD > 50% or FFRCT < 0.80 (p = 0.927 and p = 0.910, respectively). Of those with a positive stress test, only 30% (3/10) had CAD > 50% and only 50% (5/10) had FFRCT < 0.80. Chest pain with exercise did not correlate with CAD > 50% or FFRCT < 0.80 (p = 0.66 and p = 0.12, respectively). There were no significant correlations between METS, DTS, or exercise duration and FFRCT (r = 0.093, p = 0.274; r = 0.012, p = 0.883; and r = 0.034, p = 0.680; respectively). Conclusion: Noninvasive stress testing, functional capacity, chest pain with exercise, and DTS are not associated with anatomic or functional CAD using a diagnostic strategy of coronary CTA and FFRCT.

8.
J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr ; 15(2): 180-189, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685845

RESUMO

The purpose of this review is to highlight the most impactful, educational, and frequently downloaded articles published in the Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography (JCCT) for the year 2020. The JCCT reached new records in 2020 for the number of research submissions, published manuscripts, article downloads and social media impressions. The articles in this review were selected by the Editorial Board of the JCCT and are comprised predominately of original research publications in the following categories: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), coronary artery disease, coronary physiology, structural heart disease, and technical advances. The Editorial Board would like to thank each of the authors, peer-reviewers and the readers of JCCT for making 2020 one of the most successful years in its history, despite the challenging circumstances of the global COVID-19 pandemic.

9.
Lancet Digit Health ; 3(1): e20-e28, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left ventricular maximum wall thickness (MWT) is central to diagnosis and risk stratification of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, but human measurement is prone to variability. We developed an automated machine learning algorithm for MWT measurement and compared precision (reproducibility) with that of 11 international experts, using a dataset of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. METHODS: 60 adult patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, including those carrying hypertrophic cardiomyopathy gene mutations, were recruited at three institutes in the UK from August, 2018, to September, 2019: Barts Heart Centre, University College London Hospital (The Heart Hospital), and Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust. Participants had two cardiovascular magnetic resonance scans (test and retest) on the same day, ensuring no biological variability, using four cardiac MRI scanner models represented across two manufacturers and two field strengths. End-diastolic short-axis MWT was measured in test and retest by 11 international experts (from nine centres in six countries) and an automated machine learning method, which was trained to segment endocardial and epicardial contours on an independent, multicentre, multidisease dataset of 1923 patients. Machine learning MWT measurement was done with a method based on solving Laplace's equation. To assess test-retest reproducibility, we estimated the absolute test-retest MWT difference (precision), the coefficient of variation (CoV) for duplicate measurements, and the number of patients reclassified between test and retest according to different thresholds (MWT >15 mm and >30 mm). We calculated the sample size required to detect a prespecified MWT change between pairs of scans for machine learning and each expert. FINDINGS: 1440 MWT measurements were analysed, corresponding to two scans from 60 participants by 12 observers (11 experts and machine learning). Experts differed in the MWT they measured, ranging from 14·9 mm (SD 4·2) to 19·0 mm (4·7; p<0·0001 for trend). Machine learning-measured mean MWT was 16·8 mm (4·1). Machine learning precision was superior, with a test-retest difference of 0·7 mm (0·6) compared with experts, who ranged from 1·1 mm (0·9) to 3·7 mm (2·0; p values for machine learning vs expert comparison ranging from <0·0001 to 0·0073) and a significantly lower CoV than for all experts (4·3% [95% CI 3·3-5·1] vs 5·7-12·1% across experts). On average, 38 (64%) patients were designated as having MWT greater than 15 mm by machine learning compared with 27 (45%) to 50 (83%) patients by experts; five (8%) patients were reclassified in test-retest by machine learning compared with four (7%) to 12 (20%) by experts. With a cutoff point of more than 30 mm for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, three experts would have changed recommendations between tests a total of four times, but machine learning was consistent. Using machine learning, a clinical trial to detect a 2 mm MWT change would need 2·3 times (range 1·6-4·6) fewer patients. INTERPRETATION: In this preliminary study, machine learning MWT measurement in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is superior to human experts with potential implications for diagnosis, risk stratification, and clinical trials. FUNDING: European Regional Development Fund and Barts Charity.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/diagnóstico , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Adulto , Idoso , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco/métodos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563533

RESUMO

In the last 20 years coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) gained a pivotal role in the evaluation of patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) as finally recognized by the ESC guidelines on stable CAD. Technological advances have progressively improved the temporal resolution of CT scanners, contemporary reducing acquisition time, radiation dose and contrast volume needed for the whole heart volume acquisition, further expanding the role of cardiac CT beyond coronary anatomy evaluation. Aim of the present review is to discuss use and benefit of cardiac CT for the planning and preparation of VT ablation.

11.
Radiol Med ; 126(3): 365-379, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33629237

RESUMO

Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) has emerged as new mainstream technique for the evaluation of patients with cardiac diseases, providing unique information to support clinical decision-making. This document has been developed by a joined group of experts of the Italian Society of Cardiology and Italian society of Radiology and aims to produce an updated consensus statement about the current state of technology and clinical applications of CMR. The writing committee consisted of members and experts of both societies who worked jointly to develop a more integrated approach in the field of cardiac radiology. Part 1 of the document will cover ischemic heart disease, congenital heart disease, cardio-oncology, cardiac masses and heart transplant.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca/normas , Consenso , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Transplante de Coração , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/normas , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiologia , Cardiotoxicidade/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Neoplasias Cardíacas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico por imagem , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Prognóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico por imagem , Sociedades Médicas
12.
Atherosclerosis ; 321: 30-38, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33636676

RESUMO

Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) represents the fat depot located between the myocardium and the visceral pericardial layer. Far from being an inert tissue, EAT has been recognized as secreting a large amount of bioactive molecules called adipokines, which have numerous exocrine and paracrine effects. Recent evidence demonstrates that pericoronary adipose tissue (PCAT) - the EAT directly surrounding the coronary arteries - has a complex bidirectional interaction with the underlying vascular wall. While in normal conditions this mutual cross-talk helps maintain the homeostasis of the vascular wall, dysfunctional PCAT produces deleterious pro-inflammatory adipokines involved in atherogenesis. Importantly, PCAT inflammation has been associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) and major cardiovascular events. This review aims to provide an overview of the imaging techniques used to assess EAT, with a specific focus on cardiac computed tomography (CCT), which has become the key modality in this field. In contrast to echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), CCT is not only able to visualize and precisely quantify EAT, but also to assess the coronary arteries and the PCAT simultaneously. In recent years, several papers have shown the utility of using CCT-derived PCAT attenuation as a surrogate measure of coronary inflammation. This noninvasive imaging biomarker may potentially be used to monitor patient responses to new antinflammatory drugs for the treatment of CAD.

13.
Int J Cardiol ; 331: 322-328, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571560

RESUMO

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (MR) is a multiparametric, non-ionizing, non-invasive imaging technique, which represents the imaging gold standard to study cardiac anatomy, function and tissue characterization. Faced with a wide range of clinical application, in this review we aim to provide a comprehensive guide for clinicians about MR safety, contraindications and image quality. Starting from the physical interactions of the static magnetic fields, gradients and radiofrequencies with the human body, we will describe the most common metal and electronic devices which are allowed (MR-safe), allowed under limited conditions (MR-conditional) or contraindicated (MR-unsafe). Moreover, some conditions potentially affecting image quality and patient comfort will be mentioned, including arrhythmias, claustrophobia, and poor breath-hold capacity. Finally, we will discuss the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of current gadolinium-based contrast agents, their contraindications and their potential acute and chronic adverse effects, as well as the safety issue concerning the use of vasodilating/inotropic agents in stress cardiac MR.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33451974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current study aimed to examine the independent prognostic value of whole-heart atherosclerosis progression by serial coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). METHODS: The multi-center PARADIGM study includes patients undergoing serial CCTA for symptomatic reasons, ≥2 years apart. Whole-heart atherosclerosis was characterized on a segmental level, with co-registration of baseline and follow-up CCTA, and summed to per-patient level. The independent prognostic significance of atherosclerosis progression for MACE (non-fatal myocardial infarction [MI], death, unplanned coronary revascularization) was examined. Patients experiencing interval MACE were not omitted. RESULTS: The study population comprised 1166 patients (age 60.5 â€‹± â€‹9.5 years, 54.7% male) who experienced 139 MACE events during 8.2 (IQR 6.2, 9.5) years of follow up (15 death, 5 non-fatal MI, 119 unplanned revascularizations). Whole-heart percent atheroma volume (PAV) increased from 2.32% at baseline to 4.04% at follow-up. Adjusted for baseline PAV, the annualized increase in PAV was independently associated with MACE: OR 1.23 (95% CI 1.08, 1.39) per 1 standard deviation increase, which was consistent in multiple subpopulations. When categorized by composition, only non-calcified plaque progression associated independently with MACE, while calcified plaque did not. Restricting to patients without events before follow-up CCTA, those with future MACE showed an annualized increase in PAV of 0.93% (IQR 0.34, 1.96) vs 0.32% (IQR 0.02, 0.90), P â€‹< â€‹0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Whole-heart atherosclerosis progression examined by serial CCTA is independently associated with MACE, with a prognostic threshold of 1.0% increase in PAV per year.

15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6678029, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33511208

RESUMO

The recently published 2019 guidelines on chronic coronary syndromes (CCS) focus on the need for noninvasive imaging modalities to accurately establish the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) and assess the risk of clinical scenario occurrence. Appropriate patient management should rely on controlling symptoms, improving prognosis, and guiding each therapeutic strategy as well as monitoring disease progress. Among the noninvasive imaging modalities, cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has gained broad acceptance in past years due to its unique features in providing a complete assessment of CAD through data on cardiac anatomy and function and myocardial viability, with high spatial and temporal resolution and without ionizing radiation. In detail, evaluation of the presence and extent of myocardial ischemia through stress CMR (S-CMR) has shown a high rule-in power in detecting functionally significant coronary artery stenosis in patients suspected of CCS. Moreover, S-CMR technique may add significant prognostic value, as demonstrated by different studies which have progressively evidenced the valuable power of this multiparametric imaging modality in predicting adverse cardiac events. The latest scientific progress supports a greater expansion of S-CMR with improvement of quantitative myocardial perfusion analysis, myocardial strain, and native mapping within the same examination. Although further study is warranted, these techniques, which are currently mostly restricted to the research field, are likely to become increasingly prevalent in the clinical setting with the scope of increasing accuracy in the selection of patients to be sent to invasive revascularization. This review investigates the diagnostic and prognostic role of S-CMR in the context of CAD, by analysing a strong, long-standing, scientific evidence together with an appraisal of new advanced techniques which may potentially enrich CAD management in the next future.

16.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245565, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Several studies reported a high incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE) among patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, but detailed data about clinical characteristics, risk factors of these patients and prognostic role of PE are still lacking. We aim to evaluate the occurrence of pulmonary embolism among patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and to describe their risk factors, clinical characteristics, and in-hospital clinical outcomes. METHODS: This is a multicenter Italian study including 333 consecutive SARS-CoV-2 patients admitted to seven hospitals from February 22 to May 15, 2020. All the patients underwent computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) for PE detection. In particular, CTPA was performed in case of inadequate response to high-flow oxygen therapy (Fi02≥0.4 to maintain Sp02≥92%), elevated D-dimer (>0.5µg/mL), or echocardiographic signs of right ventricular dysfunction. Clinical, laboratory and radiological data were also analyzed. RESULTS: Among 333 patients with laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and undergoing CTPA, PE was detected in 109 (33%) cases. At CTPA, subsegmental, segmental, lobar and central thrombi were detected in 31 (29%), 50 (46%), 20 (18%) and 8 (7%) cases, respectively. In-hospital death occurred in 29 (27%) patients in the PE-group and in 47 (21%) patients in the non-PE group (p = 0.25). Patients in PE-group had a low rate of traditional risk factors and deep vein thrombosis was detected in 29% of patients undergoing compression ultrasonography. In 71% of cases with documented PE, the thrombotic lesions were located in the correspondence of parenchymal consolidation areas. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a low rate of risk factors for venous thromboembolism, PE is present in about 1 out 3 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia undergoing CTPA for inadequate response to oxygen therapy, elevated D-dimer level, or echocardiographic signs of right ventricular dysfunction. In most of the cases, the thromboses were located distally in the pulmonary tree and were mainly confined within pneumonia areas.


Assuntos
/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Doença Aguda , Idoso , /diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Embolia Pulmonar/sangue , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores de Risco , /isolamento & purificação
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454260

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to identify distinct patient groups and their association with outcome based on the patient similarity network using quantitative coronary plaque characteristics from coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). BACKGROUND: Coronary CTA can noninvasively assess coronary plaques quantitatively. METHODS: Patients who underwent 2 coronary CTAs at a minimum of 24 months' interval were analyzed (n = 1,264). A similarity Mapper network of patients was built by topological data analysis (TDA) based on the whole-heart quantitative coronary plaque analysis on coronary CTA to identify distinct patient groups and their association with outcome. RESULTS: Three distinct patient groups were identified by TDA, and the patient similarity network by TDA showed a closed loop, demonstrating a continuous trend of coronary plaque progression. Group A had the least coronary plaque amount (median 12.4 mm3 [interquartile range (IQR): 0.0 to 39.6 mm3]) in the entire coronary tree. Group B had a moderate coronary plaque amount (31.7 mm3 [IQR: 0.0 to 127.4 mm3]) with relative enrichment of fibrofatty and necrotic core (32.6% [IQR: 16.7% to 46.2%] and 2.7% [IQR: 0.1% to 6.9%] of the total plaque, respectively) components. Group C had the largest coronary plaque amount (187.0 mm3 [IQR: 96.7 to 306.4 mm3]) and was enriched for dense calcium component (46.8% [IQR: 32.0% to 63.7%] of the total plaque). At follow-up, total plaque volume, fibrous, and dense calcium volumes increased in all groups, but the proportion of fibrofatty component decreased in groups B and C, whereas the necrotic core portion decreased in only group B (all p < 0.05). Group B showed a higher acute coronary syndrome incidence than other groups (0.3% vs. 2.6% vs. 0.6%; p = 0.009) but both group B and C had a higher revascularization incidence than group A (3.1% vs. 15.5% vs. 17.8%; p < 0.001). Incorporating group information from TDA demonstrated increase of model fitness for predicting acute coronary syndrome or revascularization compared with that incorporating clinical risk factors, percentage diameter stenosis, and high-risk plaque features. CONCLUSIONS: The TDA of quantitative whole-heart coronary plaque characteristics on coronary CTA identified distinct patient groups with different plaque dynamics and clinical outcomes. (Progression of AtheRosclerotic PlAque DetermIned by Computed TomoGraphic Angiography Imaging [PARADIGM]; NCT02803411).

19.
Acad Radiol ; 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33487539

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: Takotsubo syndrome (TS) is a transient and often misdiagnosed form of left ventricular dysfunction. Acute myocarditis (AM) is usually included in TS differential diagnosis. The aim of this study is to assess the role of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging coupled with tissue-tracking technique (CMR-TT) and parametric mappings analysis in discriminating between TS and AM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled three groups: patients with TS (n = 12), patients with AM (n = 14), and 10 healthy controls. All the patients had a comprehensive CMR examination, including the assessment of global and segmental longitudinal strain, circumferential strain, radial strain (RS), and parametric mapping. RESULTS: The analysis of variance was used to compare the different groups. In TS patients, basal RS, global T1 mapping, global T2 mapping, mid T2 mapping, apical T1 and T2 mapping were statistically significantly different compared with the other groups. MANCOVA analysis confirmed that the association between myocardial strain data and parametric mapping was independent on age and sex. Apical T1 and T2 mapping proved to have a good performance in differentiating TS from AM (area under the curves of 0.908 and 0.879, respectively). CONCLUSION: Basal RS and apical tissue mapping analysis are the most advanced CMR-derived parameters in making a differential diagnosis between TS and AM.

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