Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 40
Filtrar
1.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 23(3): 145-155, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635965

RESUMO

Metabolites are small molecules involved in cellular metabolism where they act as reaction substrates or products. The term 'metabolomics' refers to the comprehensive study of these molecules. The concentrations of metabolites in biological tissues are under genetic control, but this is limited by environmental factors such as diet. In adult mono- and dizygotic twin pairs, we estimated the contribution of genetic and shared environmental influences on metabolite levels by structural equation modeling and tested whether the familial resemblance for metabolite levels is mainly explained by genetic or by environmental factors that are shared by family members. Metabolites were measured across three platforms: two based on proton nuclear magnetic resonance techniques and one employing mass spectrometry. These three platforms comprised 237 single metabolic traits of several chemical classes. For the three platforms, metabolites were assessed in 1407, 1037 and 1116 twin pairs, respectively. We carried out power calculations to establish what percentage of shared environmental variance could be detected given these sample sizes. Our study did not find evidence for a systematic contribution of shared environment, defined as the influence of growing up together in the same household, on metabolites assessed in adulthood. Significant heritability was observed for nearly all 237 metabolites; significant contribution of the shared environment was limited to 6 metabolites. The top quartile of the heritability distribution was populated by 5 of the 11 investigated chemical classes. In this quartile, metabolites of the class lipoprotein were significantly overrepresented, whereas metabolites of classes glycerophospholipids and glycerolipids were significantly underrepresented.

3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 39, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911595

RESUMO

Metabolomics examines the small molecules involved in cellular metabolism. Approximately 50% of total phenotypic differences in metabolite levels is due to genetic variance, but heritability estimates differ across metabolite classes. We perform a review of all genome-wide association and (exome-) sequencing studies published between November 2008 and October 2018, and identify >800 class-specific metabolite loci associated with metabolite levels. In a twin-family cohort (N = 5117), these metabolite loci are leveraged to simultaneously estimate total heritability (h2total), and the proportion of heritability captured by known metabolite loci (h2Metabolite-hits) for 309 lipids and 52 organic acids. Our study reveals significant differences in h2Metabolite-hits among different classes of lipids and organic acids. Furthermore, phosphatidylcholines with a high degree of unsaturation have higher h2Metabolite-hits estimates than phosphatidylcholines with low degrees of unsaturation. This study highlights the importance of common genetic variants for metabolite levels, and elucidates the genetic architecture of metabolite classes.


Assuntos
Sangue/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Análise Química do Sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Metabolômica , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Gêmeos/genética
4.
Nat Med ; 26(1): 110-117, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932804

RESUMO

Progress in high-throughput metabolic profiling provides unprecedented opportunities to obtain insights into the effects of drugs on human metabolism. The Biobanking BioMolecular Research Infrastructure of the Netherlands has constructed an atlas of drug-metabolite associations for 87 commonly prescribed drugs and 150 clinically relevant plasma-based metabolites assessed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance. The atlas includes a meta-analysis of ten cohorts (18,873 persons) and uncovers 1,071 drug-metabolite associations after evaluation of confounders including co-treatment. We show that the effect estimates of statins on metabolites from the cross-sectional study are comparable to those from intervention and genetic observational studies. Further data integration links proton pump inhibitors to circulating metabolites, liver function, hepatic steatosis and the gut microbiome. Our atlas provides a tool for targeted experimental pharmaceutical research and clinical trials to improve drug efficacy, safety and repurposing. We provide a web-based resource for visualization of the atlas (http://bbmri.researchlumc.nl/atlas/).


Assuntos
Estudos Epidemiológicos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Metaboloma/genética , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fatores de Confusão Epidemiológicos , Endofenótipos , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas
5.
Biol Psychiatry ; 87(5): 409-418, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression has been associated with metabolic alterations, which adversely impact cardiometabolic health. Here, a comprehensive set of metabolic markers, predominantly lipids, was compared between depressed and nondepressed persons. METHODS: Nine Dutch cohorts were included, comprising 10,145 control subjects and 5283 persons with depression, established with diagnostic interviews or questionnaires. A proton nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics platform provided 230 metabolite measures: 51 lipids, fatty acids, and low-molecular-weight metabolites; 98 lipid composition and particle concentration measures of lipoprotein subclasses; and 81 lipid and fatty acids ratios. For each metabolite measure, logistic regression analyses adjusted for gender, age, smoking, fasting status, and lipid-modifying medication were performed within cohort, followed by random-effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: Of the 51 lipids, fatty acids, and low-molecular-weight metabolites, 21 were significantly related to depression (false discovery rate q < .05). Higher levels of apolipoprotein B, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, diglycerides, total and monounsaturated fatty acids, fatty acid chain length, glycoprotein acetyls, tyrosine, and isoleucine and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, acetate, and apolipoprotein A1 were associated with increased odds of depression. Analyses of lipid composition indicators confirmed a shift toward less high-density lipoprotein and more very-low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride particles in depression. Associations appeared generally consistent across gender, age, and body mass index strata and across cohorts with depressive diagnoses versus symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: This large-scale meta-analysis indicates a clear distinctive profile of circulating lipid metabolites associated with depression, potentially opening new prevention or treatment avenues for depression and its associated cardiometabolic comorbidity.

6.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 22(6): 623-636, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666148

RESUMO

The Netherlands Twin Register (NTR) is a national register in which twins, multiples and their parents, siblings, spouses and other family members participate. Here we describe the NTR resources that were created from more than 30 years of data collections; the development and maintenance of the newly developed database systems, and the possibilities these resources create for future research. Since the early 1980s, the NTR has enrolled around 120,000 twins and a roughly equal number of their relatives. The majority of twin families have participated in survey studies, and subsamples took part in biomaterial collection (e.g., DNA) and dedicated projects, for example, for neuropsychological, biomarker and behavioral traits. The recruitment into the NTR is all inclusive without any restrictions on enrollment. These resources - the longitudinal phenotyping, the extended pedigree structures and the multigeneration genotyping - allow for future twin-family research that will contribute to gene discovery, causality modeling, and studies of genetic and cultural inheritance.

7.
Psychiatr Genet ; 29(5): 170-190, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464998

RESUMO

There are substantial differences, or variation, between humans in aggression, with its molecular genetic basis mostly unknown. This review summarizes knowledge on the genetic contribution to variation in aggression with the following three foci: (1) a comprehensive overview of reviews on the genetics of human aggression, (2) a systematic review of genome-wide association studies (GWASs), and (3) an automated tool for the selection of literature based on supervised machine learning. The phenotype definition 'aggression' (or 'aggressive behaviour', or 'aggression-related traits') included anger, antisocial behaviour, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder. The literature search was performed in multiple databases, manually and using a novel automated selection tool, resulting in 18 reviews and 17 GWASs of aggression. Heritability estimates of aggression in children and adults are around 50%, with relatively small fluctuations around this estimate. In 17 GWASs, 817 variants were reported as suggestive (P ≤ 1.0E), including 10 significant associations (P ≤ 5.0E). Nominal associations (P ≤ 1E) were found in gene-based tests for genes involved in immune, endocrine, and nervous systems. Associations were not replicated across GWASs. A complete list of variants and their position in genes and chromosomes are available online. The automated literature search tool produced literature not found by regular search strategies. Aggression in humans is heritable, but its genetic basis remains to be uncovered. No sufficiently large GWASs have been carried out yet. With increases in sample size, we expect aggression to behave like other complex human traits for which GWAS has been successful.


Assuntos
Agressão , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/genética , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/genética , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/genética , Meio Ambiente , Epigenômica , Genômica , Humanos , Herança Multifatorial , Fenótipo , Aprendizado de Máquina Supervisionado
8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11623, 2019 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406173

RESUMO

Telomere shortening has been associated with multiple age-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and dementia. However, the biological mechanisms responsible for these associations remain largely unknown. In order to gain insight into the metabolic processes driving the association of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) with age-related diseases, we investigated the association between LTL and serum metabolite levels in 7,853 individuals from seven independent cohorts. LTL was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and the levels of 131 serum metabolites were measured with mass spectrometry in biological samples from the same blood draw. With partial correlation analysis, we identified six metabolites that were significantly associated with LTL after adjustment for multiple testing: lysophosphatidylcholine acyl C17:0 (lysoPC a C17:0, p-value = 7.1 × 10-6), methionine (p-value = 9.2 × 10-5), tyrosine (p-value = 2.1 × 10-4), phosphatidylcholine diacyl C32:1 (PC aa C32:1, p-value = 2.4 × 10-4), hydroxypropionylcarnitine (C3-OH, p-value = 2.6 × 10-4), and phosphatidylcholine acyl-alkyl C38:4 (PC ae C38:4, p-value = 9.0 × 10-4). Pathway analysis showed that the three phosphatidylcholines and methionine are involved in homocysteine metabolism and we found supporting evidence for an association of lipid metabolism with LTL. In conclusion, we found longer LTL associated with higher levels of lysoPC a C17:0 and PC ae C38:4, and with lower levels of methionine, tyrosine, PC aa C32:1, and C3-OH. These metabolites have been implicated in inflammation, oxidative stress, homocysteine metabolism, and in cardiovascular disease and diabetes, two major drivers of morbidity and mortality.

9.
Neurology ; 92(16): e1899-e1911, 2019 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944236

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify a plasma metabolomic biomarker signature for migraine. METHODS: Plasma samples from 8 Dutch cohorts (n = 10,153: 2,800 migraine patients and 7,353 controls) were profiled on a 1H-NMR-based metabolomics platform, to quantify 146 individual metabolites (e.g., lipids, fatty acids, and lipoproteins) and 79 metabolite ratios. Metabolite measures associated with migraine were obtained after single-metabolite logistic regression combined with a random-effects meta-analysis performed in a nonstratified and sex-stratified manner. Next, a global test analysis was performed to identify sets of related metabolites associated with migraine. The Holm procedure was applied to control the family-wise error rate at 5% in single-metabolite and global test analyses. RESULTS: Decreases in the level of apolipoprotein A1 (ß -0.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.16, -0.05; adjusted p = 0.029) and free cholesterol to total lipid ratio present in small high-density lipoprotein subspecies (HDL) (ß -0.10; 95% CI -0.15, -0.05; adjusted p = 0.029) were associated with migraine status. In addition, only in male participants, a decreased level of omega-3 fatty acids (ß -0.24; 95% CI -0.36, -0.12; adjusted p = 0.033) was associated with migraine. Global test analysis further supported that HDL traits (but not other lipoproteins) were associated with migraine status. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic profiling of plasma yielded alterations in HDL metabolism in migraine patients and decreased omega-3 fatty acids only in male migraineurs.


Assuntos
Lipoproteínas HDL/metabolismo , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metaboloma , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Fatores Sexuais
10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(5): 691-706, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388399

RESUMO

C-reactive protein (CRP) is a sensitive biomarker of chronic low-grade inflammation and is associated with multiple complex diseases. The genetic determinants of chronic inflammation remain largely unknown, and the causal role of CRP in several clinical outcomes is debated. We performed two genome-wide association studies (GWASs), on HapMap and 1000 Genomes imputed data, of circulating amounts of CRP by using data from 88 studies comprising 204,402 European individuals. Additionally, we performed in silico functional analyses and Mendelian randomization analyses with several clinical outcomes. The GWAS meta-analyses of CRP revealed 58 distinct genetic loci (p < 5 × 10-8). After adjustment for body mass index in the regression analysis, the associations at all except three loci remained. The lead variants at the distinct loci explained up to 7.0% of the variance in circulating amounts of CRP. We identified 66 gene sets that were organized in two substantially correlated clusters, one mainly composed of immune pathways and the other characterized by metabolic pathways in the liver. Mendelian randomization analyses revealed a causal protective effect of CRP on schizophrenia and a risk-increasing effect on bipolar disorder. Our findings provide further insights into the biology of inflammation and could lead to interventions for treating inflammation and its clinical consequences.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos/genética , Inflamação/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Criança , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquizofrenia/genética , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
11.
Alzheimers Dement ; 14(6): 707-722, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29316447

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Identifying circulating metabolites that are associated with cognition and dementia may improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of dementia and provide crucial readouts for preventive and therapeutic interventions. METHODS: We studied 299 metabolites in relation to cognition (general cognitive ability) in two discovery cohorts (N total = 5658). Metabolites significantly associated with cognition after adjusting for multiple testing were replicated in four independent cohorts (N total = 6652), and the associations with dementia and Alzheimer's disease (N = 25,872) and lifestyle factors (N = 5168) were examined. RESULTS: We discovered and replicated 15 metabolites associated with cognition including subfractions of high-density lipoprotein, docosahexaenoic acid, ornithine, glutamine, and glycoprotein acetyls. These associations were independent of classical risk factors including high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes. Six of the cognition-associated metabolites were related to the risk of dementia and lifestyle factors. DISCUSSION: Circulating metabolites were consistently associated with cognition, dementia, and lifestyle factors, opening new avenues for prevention of cognitive decline and dementia.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Demência/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco
12.
Diabetologia ; 61(1): 117-129, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28936587

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Circulating metabolites have been shown to reflect metabolic changes during the development of type 2 diabetes. In this study we examined the association of metabolite levels and pairwise metabolite ratios with insulin responses after glucose, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and arginine stimulation. We then investigated if the identified metabolite ratios were associated with measures of OGTT-derived beta cell function and with prevalent and incident type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We measured the levels of 188 metabolites in plasma samples from 130 healthy members of twin families (from the Netherlands Twin Register) at five time points during a modified 3 h hyperglycaemic clamp with glucose, GLP-1 and arginine stimulation. We validated our results in cohorts with OGTT data (n = 340) and epidemiological case-control studies of prevalent (n = 4925) and incident (n = 4277) diabetes. The data were analysed using regression models with adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS: There were dynamic changes in metabolite levels in response to the different secretagogues. Furthermore, several fasting pairwise metabolite ratios were associated with one or multiple clamp-derived measures of insulin secretion (all p < 9.2 × 10-7). These associations were significantly stronger compared with the individual metabolite components. One of the ratios, valine to phosphatidylcholine acyl-alkyl C32:2 (PC ae C32:2), in addition showed a directionally consistent positive association with OGTT-derived measures of insulin secretion and resistance (p ≤ 5.4 × 10-3) and prevalent type 2 diabetes (ORVal_PC ae C32:2 2.64 [ß 0.97 ± 0.09], p = 1.0 × 10-27). Furthermore, Val_PC ae C32:2 predicted incident diabetes independent of established risk factors in two epidemiological cohort studies (HRVal_PC ae C32:2 1.57 [ß 0.45 ± 0.06]; p = 1.3 × 10-15), leading to modest improvements in the receiver operating characteristics when added to a model containing a set of established risk factors in both cohorts (increases from 0.780 to 0.801 and from 0.862 to 0.865 respectively, when added to the model containing traditional risk factors + glucose). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: In this study we have shown that the Val_PC ae C32:2 metabolite ratio is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and measures of insulin secretion and resistance. The observed effects were stronger than that of the individual metabolites and independent of known risk factors.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Arginina/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Feminino , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
13.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 20(2): 108-118, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28238293

RESUMO

Sequence-based association studies are at a critical inflexion point with the increasing availability of exome-sequencing data. A popular test of association is the sequence kernel association test (SKAT). Weights are embedded within SKAT to reflect the hypothesized contribution of the variants to the trait variance. Because the true weights are generally unknown, and so are subject to misspecification, we examined the efficiency of a data-driven weighting scheme. We propose the use of a set of theoretically defensible weighting schemes, of which, we assume, the one that gives the largest test statistic is likely to capture best the allele frequency-functional effect relationship. We show that the use of alternative weights obviates the need to impose arbitrary frequency thresholds. As both the score test and the likelihood ratio test (LRT) may be used in this context, and may differ in power, we characterize the behavior of both tests. The two tests have equal power, if the weights in the set included weights resembling the correct ones. However, if the weights are badly specified, the LRT shows superior power (due to its robustness to misspecification). With this data-driven weighting procedure the LRT detected significant signal in genes located in regions already confirmed as associated with schizophrenia - the PRRC2A (p = 1.020e-06) and the VARS2 (p = 2.383e-06) - in the Swedish schizophrenia case-control cohort of 11,040 individuals with exome-sequencing data. The score test is currently preferred for its computational efficiency and power. Indeed, assuming correct specification, in some circumstances, the score test is the most powerful test. However, LRT has the advantageous properties of being generally more robust and more powerful under weight misspecification. This is an important result given that, arguably, misspecified models are likely to be the rule rather than the exception in weighting-based approaches.


Assuntos
Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Modelos Genéticos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Simulação por Computador , Pesquisa Empírica , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Antígenos HLA/genética , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Proteínas/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Software , Suécia , Valina-tRNA Ligase/genética
14.
PLoS One ; 12(1): e0167742, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28107422

RESUMO

An increasing number of genome-wide association (GWA) studies are now using the higher resolution 1000 Genomes Project reference panel (1000G) for imputation, with the expectation that 1000G imputation will lead to the discovery of additional associated loci when compared to HapMap imputation. In order to assess the improvement of 1000G over HapMap imputation in identifying associated loci, we compared the results of GWA studies of circulating fibrinogen based on the two reference panels. Using both HapMap and 1000G imputation we performed a meta-analysis of 22 studies comprising the same 91,953 individuals. We identified six additional signals using 1000G imputation, while 29 loci were associated using both HapMap and 1000G imputation. One locus identified using HapMap imputation was not significant using 1000G imputation. The genome-wide significance threshold of 5×10-8 is based on the number of independent statistical tests using HapMap imputation, and 1000G imputation may lead to further independent tests that should be corrected for. When using a stricter Bonferroni correction for the 1000G GWA study (P-value < 2.5×10-8), the number of loci significant only using HapMap imputation increased to 4 while the number of loci significant only using 1000G decreased to 5. In conclusion, 1000G imputation enabled the identification of 20% more loci than HapMap imputation, although the advantage of 1000G imputation became less clear when a stricter Bonferroni correction was used. More generally, our results provide insights that are applicable to the implementation of other dense reference panels that are under development.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Projeto HapMap , Humanos
15.
Nat Genet ; 49(1): 139-145, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27918533

RESUMO

Genetic risk factors often localize to noncoding regions of the genome with unknown effects on disease etiology. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) help to explain the regulatory mechanisms underlying these genetic associations. Knowledge of the context that determines the nature and strength of eQTLs may help identify cell types relevant to pathophysiology and the regulatory networks underlying disease. Here we generated peripheral blood RNA-seq data from 2,116 unrelated individuals and systematically identified context-dependent eQTLs using a hypothesis-free strategy that does not require previous knowledge of the identity of the modifiers. Of the 23,060 significant cis-regulated genes (false discovery rate (FDR) ≤ 0.05), 2,743 (12%) showed context-dependent eQTL effects. The majority of these effects were influenced by cell type composition. A set of 145 cis-eQTLs depended on type I interferon signaling. Others were modulated by specific transcription factors binding to the eQTL SNPs.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/genética , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , RNA Mensageiro/sangue , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Mensageiro/genética
16.
Nat Genet ; 49(1): 131-138, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27918535

RESUMO

Most disease-associated genetic variants are noncoding, making it challenging to design experiments to understand their functional consequences. Identification of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) has been a powerful approach to infer the downstream effects of disease-associated variants, but most of these variants remain unexplained. The analysis of DNA methylation, a key component of the epigenome, offers highly complementary data on the regulatory potential of genomic regions. Here we show that disease-associated variants have widespread effects on DNA methylation in trans that likely reflect differential occupancy of trans binding sites by cis-regulated transcription factors. Using multiple omics data sets from 3,841 Dutch individuals, we identified 1,907 established trait-associated SNPs that affect the methylation levels of 10,141 different CpG sites in trans (false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05). These included SNPs that affect both the expression of a nearby transcription factor (such as NFKB1, CTCF and NKX2-3) and methylation of its respective binding site across the genome. Trans methylation QTLs effectively expose the downstream effects of disease-associated variants.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Doença/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo
17.
Am J Hum Genet ; 99(4): 917-927, 2016 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27616482

RESUMO

Here we present a method of genome-wide inferred study (GWIS) that provides an approximation of genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary statistics for a variable that is a function of phenotypes for which GWAS summary statistics, phenotypic means, and covariances are available. A GWIS can be performed regardless of sample overlap between the GWAS of the phenotypes on which the function depends. Because a GWIS provides association estimates and their standard errors for each SNP, a GWIS can form the basis for polygenic risk scoring, LD score regression, Mendelian randomization studies, biological annotation, and other analyses. GWISs can also be used to boost power of a GWAS meta-analysis where cohorts have not measured all constituent phenotypes in the function. We demonstrate the accuracy of a BMI GWIS by performing power simulations and type I error simulations under varying circumstances, and we apply a GWIS by reconstructing a body mass index (BMI) GWAS based on a weight GWAS and a height GWAS. Furthermore, we apply a GWIS to further our understanding of the underlying genetic structure of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia and their relation to educational attainment. Our analyses suggest that the previously reported genetic correlation between schizophrenia and educational attainment is probably induced by the observed genetic correlation between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and the previously reported genetic correlation between bipolar disorder and educational attainment.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fenótipo , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Estatura/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal/genética , Escolaridade , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Menarca , Metanálise como Assunto , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Projetos de Pesquisa , Esquizofrenia/genética
18.
Metabolomics ; 12: 137, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27524956

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Metabolic changes have been frequently associated with Huntington's disease (HD). At the same time peripheral blood represents a minimally invasive sampling avenue with little distress to Huntington's disease patients especially when brain or other tissue samples are difficult to collect. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the levels of 163 metabolites in HD patient and control serum samples in order to identify disease related changes. Additionally, we integrated the metabolomics data with our previously published next generation sequencing-based gene expression data from the same patients in order to interconnect the metabolomics changes with transcriptional alterations. METHODS: This analysis was performed using targeted metabolomics and flow injection electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in 133 serum samples from 97 Huntington's disease patients (29 pre-symptomatic and 68 symptomatic) and 36 controls. RESULTS: By comparing HD mutation carriers with controls we identified 3 metabolites significantly changed in HD (serine and threonine and one phosphatidylcholine-PC ae C36:0) and an additional 8 phosphatidylcholines (PC aa C38:6, PC aa C36:0, PC ae C38:0, PC aa C38:0, PC ae C38:6, PC ae C42:0, PC aa C36:5 and PC ae C36:0) that exhibited a significant association with disease severity. Using workflow based exploitation of pathway databases and by integrating our metabolomics data with our gene expression data from the same patients we identified 4 deregulated phosphatidylcholine metabolism related genes (ALDH1B1, MBOAT1, MTRR and PLB1) that showed significant association with the changes in metabolite concentrations. CONCLUSION: Our results support the notion that phosphatidylcholine metabolism is deregulated in HD blood and that these metabolite alterations are associated with specific gene expression changes.

19.
Sci Rep ; 6: 25671, 2016 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27164557

RESUMO

It is well known that most schizophrenia patients smoke cigarettes. There are different hypotheses postulating the underlying mechanisms of this comorbidity. We used summary statistics from large meta-analyses of plasma cotinine concentration (COT), Fagerström test for nicotine dependence (FTND) and schizophrenia to examine the genetic relationship between these traits. We found that schizophrenia risk scores calculated at P-value thresholds of 5 × 10(-3) and larger predicted FTND and cigarettes smoked per day (CPD), suggesting that genes most significantly associated with schizophrenia were not associated with FTND/CPD, consistent with the self-medication hypothesis. The COT risk scores predicted schizophrenia diagnosis at P-values of 5 × 10(-3) and smaller, implying that genes most significantly associated with COT were associated with schizophrenia. These results implicated that schizophrenia and FTND/CPD/COT shared some genetic liability. Based on this shared liability, we identified multiple long non-coding RNAs and RNA binding protein genes (DA376252, BX089737, LOC101927273, LINC01029, LOC101928622, HY157071, DA902558, RBFOX1 and TINCR), protein modification genes (MANBA, UBE2D3, and RANGAP1) and energy production genes (XYLB, MTRF1 and ENOX1) that were associated with both conditions. Further analyses revealed that these shared genes were enriched in calcium signaling, long-term potentiation and neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathways that played a critical role in cognitive functions and neuronal plasticity.


Assuntos
Cotinina/sangue , Medição de Risco/métodos , Esquizofrenia/genética , Tabagismo/genética , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/sangue , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Tabagismo/sangue
20.
Nat Commun ; 7: 11122, 2016 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27005778

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have identified numerous loci linked with complex diseases, for which the molecular mechanisms remain largely unclear. Comprehensive molecular profiling of circulating metabolites captures highly heritable traits, which can help to uncover metabolic pathophysiology underlying established disease variants. We conduct an extended genome-wide association study of genetic influences on 123 circulating metabolic traits quantified by nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics from up to 24,925 individuals and identify eight novel loci for amino acids, pyruvate and fatty acids. The LPA locus link with cardiovascular risk exemplifies how detailed metabolic profiling may inform underlying aetiology via extensive associations with very-low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride metabolism. Genetic fine mapping and Mendelian randomization uncover wide-spread causal effects of lipoprotein(a) on overall lipoprotein metabolism and we assess potential pleiotropic consequences of genetically elevated lipoprotein(a) on diverse morbidities via electronic health-care records. Our findings strengthen the argument for safe LPA-targeted intervention to reduce cardiovascular risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Lipoproteína(a)/genética , Metabolômica/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Lipoproteínas VLDL/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA