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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated the associations of post-diagnostic dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), insulin index (II), and insulin load (IL) with breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality. METHODS: Among 8,932 women with stage I-III breast cancer identified in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) (1980-2010) and NHSII (1991-2011), we prospectively evaluated the associations between post-diagnostic GI, GL, II, and IL, and breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality. Participants completed a validated food frequency questionnaire every four years after diagnosis. RESULTS: During follow-up by 2014 in the NHS and 2015 in the NHSII, 2,523 deaths, including 1,071 from breast cancer were documented. Higher post-diagnostic GL was associated with higher risk of both breast cancer-specific mortality (HRQ5vsQ1=1.33, 95%CI=1.09-1.63; Ptrend=0.008) and all-cause mortality (HRQ5vsQ1=1.26, 95%CI=1.10-1.45; Ptrend=0.0006). Higher all-cause mortality was also observed with higher post-diagnostic GI (HRQ5vsQ1=1.23, 95%CI=1.08-1.40; Ptrend=0.001), II (HRQ5vsQ1=1.20, 95%CI=1.04-1.38; Ptrend=0.005), and IL (HRQ5vsQ1=1.23, 95%CI=1.07-1.42; Ptrend=0.0003). The associations were not modified by insulin receptor or estrogen receptor status of the tumor, or body mass index. CONCLUSION: We found that higher dietary GL, reflecting postprandial glucose response, after a breast cancer diagnosis was associated with higher risk of breast cancer-specific mortality. Higher dietary GI, GL, II, and IL after a breast cancer diagnosis were associated with higher risk of death from any cause. IMPACT: These results suggest that carbohydrate quantity and quality may be important in breast cancer prognosis.

2.
Ther Adv Neurol Disord ; 13: 1756286420970754, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33240397

RESUMO

Background: We explored the effect of teriflunomide on cortical gray matter (CGM) and whole brain (WB) atrophy in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) from the phase III TOPIC study and assessed the relationship between atrophy and risk of conversion to clinically definite MS (CDMS). Methods: Patients (per McDonald 2005 criteria) were randomized 1:1:1 to placebo, teriflunomide 7 mg, or teriflunomide 14 mg for ⩽108 weeks (core study). In the extension, teriflunomide-treated patients maintained their original dose; placebo-treated patients were re-randomized 1:1 to teriflunomide 7 mg or 14 mg. Brain volume was assessed during years 1-2. Results: Teriflunomide 14 mg significantly slowed annualized CGM and WB atrophy versus placebo during years 1-2 [percent reduction: month 12, 61.4% (CGM; p = 0.0359) and 28.6% (WB; p = 0.0286); month 24, 40.2% (CGM; p = 0.0416) and 43.0% (WB; p < 0.0001)]. For every 1% decrease in CGM or WB volume during years 1-2, risk of CDMS conversion increased by 14.5% (p = 0.0004) and 47.3% (p < 0.0001) during years 1-2, respectively, and 6.6% (p = 0.0570) and 35.9% (p = 0.0250) during years 1-5. In patients with the least (bottom quartile) versus most (top quartile) atrophy during years 1-2, risk of CDMS conversion was reduced by 58% (CGM; p = 0.0024) and 58% (WB; p = 0.0028) during years 1-2, and 42% (CGM; p = 0.0138) and 29% (WB; p = 0.1912) during years 1-5. Conclusion: These findings support the clinical relevance of CGM and WB atrophy and early intervention with teriflunomide in CIS.

3.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 364, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this pooled, post hoc analysis of a phase 2 trial and the phase 3 TEMSO, TOWER, and TENERE clinical trials, long-term efficacy and safety of teriflunomide were assessed in subgroups of patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS) defined by prior treatment status. METHODS: Patients were classified according to their prior treatment status in the core and core plus extension periods. In the core period, patients were grouped according to treatment status at the start of the study: treatment naive (no prior disease-modifying therapy [DMT] or DMT > 2 years prior to randomization), previously treated with another DMT (DMT > 6 to ≤24 months prior to randomization), and recently treated with another DMT (DMT ≤6 months prior to randomization). In the core plus extension period, patients were re-baselined to the time of starting teriflunomide 14 mg and grouped according to prior treatment status at that time point. Efficacy endpoints included annualized relapse rate (ARR), probability of confirmed disability worsening (CDW) over 12 weeks, and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score. The incidence of adverse events was also assessed. RESULTS: Most frequently received prior DMTs at baseline were glatiramer acetate and interferon beta-1a across treatment groups. Teriflunomide 14 mg significantly reduced ARR versus placebo in the core period, regardless of prior treatment status. In the core and extension periods, adjusted ARRs were low (0.193-0.284) in patients treated with teriflunomide 14 mg across all subgroups. Probability of CDW by Year 4 was similar across subgroups; by Year 5, the percentage of patients with 12-week CDW was similar in treatment-naive patients and patients recently treated with another DMT (33.9 and 33.7%, respectively). EDSS scores were stable over time in all prior-treatment subgroups. There were no new or unexpected safety signals. Limitations include selective bias due to patient attrition, variability in subgroup size, and lack of magnetic resonance imaging outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy and safety of teriflunomide 14 mg was similar in all patients with relapsing MS, regardless of prior treatment history. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Phase 2 trial core: NCT01487096 ; Phase 2 trial extension: NCT00228163 ; TEMSO core: NCT00134563 ; TEMSO extension: NCT00803049 ; TOWER: NCT00751881 ; TENERE: NCT00883337 .

4.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(11): 1513-1525, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the CARD study, cabazitaxel significantly improved radiographic progression-free survival and overall survival versus abiraterone or enzalutamide in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer previously treated with docetaxel and the alternative androgen signalling-targeted inhibitor. Here, we report the quality-of-life outcomes from the CARD study. METHODS: CARD was a randomised, multicentre, open-label, phase 4 study involving 62 clinical sites across 13 European countries. Patients (aged ≥18 years, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status ≤2) with confirmed metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer were randomly assigned (1:1) by means of an interactive voice-web response system to receive cabazitaxel (25 mg/m2 intravenously every 3 weeks, 10 mg daily prednisone, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) versus abiraterone (1000 mg orally once daily plus 5 mg prednisone twice daily) or enzalutamide (160 mg orally daily). Stratification factors were ECOG performance status, time to disease progression on the previous androgen signalling-targeted inhibitor, and timing of the previous androgen signalling-targeted inhibitor. The primary endpoint was radiographic progression-free survival; here, we present more detailed analyses of pain (assessed using item 3 on the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form [BPI-SF]) and symptomatic skeletal events, alongside preplanned patient-reported outcomes, assessed using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (FACT-P) questionnaire and the EuroQoL-5 dimensions, 5 level scale (EQ-5D-5L). Efficacy analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population. Pain response was analysed in the intention-to-treat population with baseline and at least one post-baseline assessment of BPI-SF item 3, and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) were analysed in the intention-to-treat population with baseline and at least one post-baseline assessment of either FACT-P or EQ-5D-5L (PRO population). Analyses of skeletal-related events were also done in the intention-to-treat population. The CARD study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02485691, and is no longer enrolling. FINDINGS: Between Nov 17, 2015, and Nov 28, 2018, of 303 patients screened, 255 were randomly assigned to cabazitaxel (n=129) or abiraterone or enzalutamide (n=126). Median follow-up was 9·2 months (IQR 5·6-13·1). Pain response was observed in 51 (46%) of 111 patients with cabazitaxel and 21 (19%) of 109 patients with abiraterone or enzalutamide (p<0·0001). Median time to pain progression was not estimable (NE; 95% CI NE-NE) with cabazitaxel and 8·5 months (4·9-NE) with abiraterone or enzalutamide (hazard ratio [HR] 0·55, 95% CI 0·32-0·97; log-rank p=0·035). Median time to symptomatic skeletal events was NE (95% CI 20·0-NE) with cabazitaxel and 16·7 months (10·8-NE) with abiraterone or enzalutamide (HR 0·59, 95% CI 0·35-1·01; log-rank p=0·050). Median time to FACT-P total score deterioration was 14·8 months (95% CI 6·3-NE) with cabazitaxel and 8·9 months (6·3-NE) with abiraterone or enzalutamide (HR 0·72, 95% CI 0·44-1·20; log-rank p=0·21). There was a significant treatment effect seen in changes from baseline in EQ-5D-5L utility index score in favour of cabazitaxel over abiraterone or enzalutamide (p=0·030) but no difference between treatment groups for change from baseline in EQ-5D-5L visual analogue scale (p=0·060). INTERPRETATION: Since cabazitaxel improved pain response, time to pain progression, time to symptomatic skeletal events, and EQ-5D-5L utility index, clinicians and patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer can be reassured that cabazitaxel will not reduce quality of life when compared with treatment with a second androgen signalling-targeted inhibitor. FUNDING: Sanofi.


Assuntos
Androstenos/administração & dosagem , Feniltioidantoína/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Taxoides/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Antagonistas de Androgênios/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Androgênios/efeitos adversos , Androgênios/genética , Androstenos/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Feniltioidantoína/administração & dosagem , Feniltioidantoína/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Qualidade de Vida , Taxoides/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(6): 1613-1630, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adherence to a healthy diet has been associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases. Identifying nutritional biomarkers of diet quality may be complementary to traditional questionnaire-based methods and may provide insights concerning disease mechanisms and prevention. OBJECTIVE: To identify metabolites associated with diet quality assessed via the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) and its components. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used FFQ data and plasma metabolomic profiles, mostly lipid related, from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS, n = 1460) and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS, n = 1051). Linear regression models assessed associations of the AHEI and its components with individual metabolites. Canonical correspondence analyses (CCAs) investigated overlapping patterns between AHEI components and metabolites. Principal component analysis (PCA) and explanatory factor analysis were used to consolidate correlated metabolites into uncorrelated factors. We used stepwise multivariable regression to create a metabolomic score that is an indicator of diet quality. RESULTS: The AHEI was associated with 83 metabolites in the NHS and 96 metabolites in the HPFS after false discovery rate adjustment. Sixty-three of these significant metabolites overlapped between the 2 cohorts. CCA identified "healthy" AHEI components (e.g., nuts, whole grains) and metabolites (n = 27 in the NHS and 33 in the HPFS) and "unhealthy" AHEI components (e.g., red meat, trans fat) and metabolites (n = 56 in the NHS and 63 in the HPFS). PCA-derived factors composed of highly saturated triglycerides, plasmalogens, and acylcarnitines were associated with unhealthy AHEI components while factors composed of highly unsaturated triglycerides were linked to healthy AHEI components. The stepwise regression analysis contributed to a metabolomics score as a predictor of diet quality. CONCLUSION: We identified metabolites associated with healthy and unhealthy eating behaviors. The observed associations were largely similar between men and women, suggesting that metabolomics can be a complementary approach to self-reported diet in studies of diet and chronic disease.

6.
Reprod Toxicol ; 95: 45-50, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407881

RESUMO

Leflunomide is contraindicated in pregnant women, yet human data from leflunomide-exposed pregnancies do not indicate an embryofetal toxicity signal. The objective of the present analysis was to report pregnancy outcomes for leflunomide-exposed pregnancies in clinical trials and in the post-marketing setting. Pregnancy outcomes are summarized from leflunomide clinical trials and the post-marketing setting. The data cut-off was 31 December 2017. Of 1167 pregnancies reported in female patients exposed to leflunomide, 587 had a known outcome. Of these, 337 (57.4%) were reported prospectively and 250 (42.6%) were reported retrospectively. Of the 587 pregnancies with a known outcome (which involved 15 sets of twins), there were 333 (56.7%) live births, with 285 (48.6%) full-term births and 48 (8.2%) pre-term births. Birth defects were reported in 44 babies/fetuses/embryos from 587 pregnancies, with 2 reporting at least 3 minor defects and 20 reporting major defects. Major defects were reported in 3 of 337 (0.9%) prospectively-reported pregnancies; 1 major birth defect occurred in a live birth, and 2 were electively terminated due to a detected fetal anomaly. Two of the babies/fetuses/embryos, a live birth and an electively aborted baby/fetus/embryo, from 206 prospectively-reported pregnancies exposed to leflunomide during the first trimester experienced major defects. Birth defects showed no specific patterns and were distributed evenly across organ systems. Outcomes were consistent with the general population. These findings do not suggest an embryofetal toxicity signal for leflunomide, which is consistent with previous findings from leflunomide-exposed pregnancies.

7.
Cancer Res ; 80(6): 1357-1367, 2020 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969373

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer has few known risk factors, hampering identification of high-risk women. We assessed the association of prediagnostic plasma metabolites (N = 420) with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer, including both borderline and invasive tumors. A total of 252 cases and 252 matched controls from the Nurses' Health Studies were included. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI), comparing the 90th-10th percentile in metabolite levels, using the permutation-based Westfall and Young approach to account for testing multiple correlated hypotheses. Weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA; n = 10 metabolite modules) and metabolite set enrichment analysis (n = 23 metabolite classes) were also evaluated. An increase in pseudouridine levels from the 10th to the 90th percentile was associated with a 2.5-fold increased risk of overall ovarian cancer (OR = 2.56; 95% CI, 1.48-4.45; P = 0.001/adjusted P = 0.15); a similar risk estimate was observed for serous/poorly differentiated tumors (n = 176 cases; comparable OR = 2.38; 95% CI, 1.33-4.32; P = 0.004/adjusted P = 0.55). For nonserous tumors (n = 34 cases), pseudouridine and C36:2 phosphatidylcholine plasmalogen had the strongest statistical associations (OR = 9.84; 95% CI, 2.89-37.82; P < 0.001/adjusted P = 0.07; and OR = 0.11; 95% CI, 0.03-0.35; P < 0.001/adjusted P = 0.06, respectively). Five WGCNA modules and 9 classes were associated with risk overall at FDR ≤ 0.20. Triacylglycerols (TAG) showed heterogeneity by tumor aggressiveness (case-only heterogeneity P < 0.0001). The TAG association with risk overall and serous tumors differed by acyl carbon content and saturation. In summary, this study suggests that pseudouridine may be a novel risk factor for ovarian cancer and that TAGs may also be important, particularly for rapidly fatal tumors, with associations differing by structural features. SIGNIFICANCE: Pseudouridine represents a potential novel risk factor for ovarian cancer and triglycerides may be important particularly in rapidly fatal ovarian tumors.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Pseudouridina/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/sangue , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Seguimentos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/sangue , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Pseudouridina/metabolismo , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
8.
Int J Cancer ; 146(10): 2756-2772, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443135

RESUMO

The association of dietary fat intake with ovarian cancer risk has been inconsistent across populations. We examined dietary fat intake, overall and by type and ovarian cancer risk in two prospective cohort studies. We assessed long-term dietary fat intake among Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHSII participants using food frequency questionnaires administered every 2-4 years beginning in 1984 and 1991, respectively. We examined cumulative energy-adjusted intake of total fat, specific types of fat (animal, vegetable, saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and trans fat) and cholesterol. We identified 700 ovarian cancer cases in NHS and 196 in NHSII with dietary information. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate associations between intake and ovarian cancer risk. Dietary fat intake changed over time in both cohorts and was lower in NHS than NHSII. Higher cumulative average intakes of animal fat and cholesterol were significantly positively associated with risk of ovarian cancer in NHS (relative risk [RR] comparing extreme quartiles = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.20, 2.06 and 1.35, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.69, respectively), but not in NHSII. Other dietary fat sources were not clearly associated with risk in either population. We did not observe clear associations between dietary fat and ovarian cancer risk in two large prospective cohort studies.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
9.
Mult Scler ; 26(7): 829-836, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Teriflunomide is contraindicated in pregnancy. Some pregnancies have occurred despite guidance to use effective contraception. OBJECTIVES: To report outcomes of pregnancies occurring in teriflunomide clinical trials and the post-marketing setting. METHODS: Outcomes are summarized for pregnancies in teriflunomide monotherapy clinical trials and the post-marketing setting (data cutoff: December 2017). RESULTS: Of 437 confirmed teriflunomide-exposed pregnancies, 222 had known outcomes (70 from clinical trials; 152 from the post-marketing setting); 161 were reported prospectively and 61 retrospectively. There were 107 (48.2%) live births, 63 (28.4%) elective abortions, 47 (21.2%) spontaneous abortions, 3 (1.4%) ectopic pregnancies, 1 (0.5%) stillbirth, and 1 (0.5%) maternal death leading to fetal death. Four birth defects were reported among cases with known pregnancy outcome: ureteropyeloectasia (only defect considered major); congenital hydrocephalus; ventricular septal defect; and malformation of right foot valgus. A case of cystic hygroma was identified on antenatal ultrasound (pregnancy outcome unknown). One elective abortion followed prenatal diagnosis of fetal anomaly (blighted ovum). The risk of major birth defects in prospectively reported live birth/stillbirth outcomes was 3.6% (1/28) in clinical trials and 0.0% (0/51) in post-marketing reports. CONCLUSIONS: Outcomes were consistent with the general population. Current human data do not indicate a teratogenic signal in teriflunomide-exposed pregnancies.

10.
Mult Scler ; 26(10): 1207-1216, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Teriflunomide 14 mg significantly reduced brain volume loss (BVL) and confirmed disability worsening (CDW) compared with placebo in the TEMSO core study. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between BVL from Baseline to Year 2 in the TEMSO core study and long-term CDW (Year 7) in the TEMSO long-term extension (NCT00803049). METHODS: Structural Image Evaluation using Normalization of Atrophy determined BVL. Long-term CDW was assessed by Expanded Disability Status Scale confirmed for 12 and 24 weeks. An additional analysis evaluated the relative contribution of BVL (Year 2) and other outcomes as potential mediators of the effect of teriflunomide 14 mg on 12-week CDW. RESULTS: Patients with the least BVL were significantly less likely to have 12- and 24-week CDW at Year 7 compared with patients with the most BVL. A mediation analysis revealed that BVL (Year 2) explained 51.3% of the treatment effect on CDW; new or enlarging T2w lesions over 2 years explained 30.8%, and relapses in the first 2 years explained 38.5%. CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight the potential predictive value of BVL earlier in the disease course on long-term disability outcomes. The mediation analysis suggests that teriflunomide may prevent disability worsening largely through its effects on BVL.

11.
Mult Scler ; 26(9): 1083-1092, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Phase 3 studies, teriflunomide reduced relapse rates and disability progression compared with placebo; however, decreases in lymphocyte counts were also observed. OBJECTIVE: To describe the effect of long-term teriflunomide treatment on lymphocyte counts and infection rates among patients in pooled analyses of Phase 3 core and extension studies. METHODS: Four randomized trials (TEMSO, TOWER, TENERE, and TOPIC) compared teriflunomide 7 mg or 14 mg treatment with either placebo and/or subcutaneous interferon (IFN) ß-1a 44 µg in patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) (or first clinical episode suggestive of MS in TOPIC). RESULTS: In 1895, patients ever exposed to teriflunomide, mean (standard deviation) absolute lymphocyte counts declined from Week 0 (1.89 (0.59)) to Week 24 (1.67 (0.52)) and then remained stable thereafter. In the core plus extension studies (up to 10.7 years), 7.3% and 2.2% experienced Grade 1 and Grade 2 lymphopenia, respectively. Infections were reported in 56.9% of patients without lymphopenia, 60.9% with Grade 1 lymphopenia, and 54.8% with Grade 2 lymphopenia. Serious infections occurred in 3.7%, 4.3%, and 7.1%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Long-term risk of lymphopenia and infections in patients who continue to receive teriflunomide is low, demonstrating a limited impact on adaptive and innate immunity.

12.
Psychosom Med ; 81(9): 833-840, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592935

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Low social integration and divorce/widowhood are chronic psychosocial stressors that may affect health. When assessed after cancer diagnosis, they have been associated with poorer survival, but their role in cancer development, particularly ovarian cancer (OvCA), is less understood. We investigated whether social integration and marital status were related to OvCA risk in a large population-based study. METHODS: Women from the Nurses' Health Study completed the Berkman-Syme Social Network Index and reported their marital status every 4 years starting in 1992 (N = 72,206), and were followed up until 2012 (20-year follow-up period). Multivariate Cox regression models estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of OvCA risk, considering relevant potential confounders, in lagged analyses whereby psychosocial indicators were assessed 4 to 8 years (n = 436 cases) and 8 to 12 years (n = 306 cases) before diagnosis to account for the effects of prediagnostic symptoms on social measures. Secondary analyses evaluated the stability of and cumulative exposure to these social factors on OvCA risk. RESULTS: Being socially isolated versus integrated was related to an increased OvCA risk 8 to 12 years later (HR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.07-2.13), but not 4 to 8 years later. Compared with married women, OvCA risk was significantly higher in widowed but not in separated/divorced individuals, with both time periods (e.g., 8-12 years later: HRwidowed = 1.57 [95% CI = 1.15-2.14] versus HRseparated/divorced = 1.13 [95% CI = 0.74-1.72]). Estimates were comparable or stronger when investigating stability in and cumulative effects of social indicators. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest higher OvCA risk among socially isolated and widowed women, particularly when such psychosocial stressors were experienced a decade before diagnosis or were sustained over time.


Assuntos
Estado Civil/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Integração Social , Isolamento Social , Rede Social , Adulto , Idoso , Divórcio/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Viuvez/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Cancer Res ; 79(20): 5442-5451, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462430

RESUMO

Growing epidemiologic evidence supports chronic inflammation as a mechanism of ovarian carcinogenesis. An association between a circulating marker of inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP), and ovarian cancer risk has been consistently observed, yet, potential heterogeneity of this association by tumor and patient characteristics has not been adequately explored. In this study, we pooled data from case-control studies nested within six cohorts in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium (OC3) to examine the association between CRP and epithelial ovarian cancer risk overall, by histologic subtype and by participant characteristics. CRP concentrations were measured from prediagnosis serum or plasma in 1,091 cases and 1,951 controls. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to estimate ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI). When CRP was evaluated using tertiles, no associations with ovarian cancer risk were observed. A 67% increased ovarian cancer risk was found for women with CRP concentrations >10 mg/L compared with <1 mg/L (OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.12-2.48). A CRP concentration >10 mg/L was positively associated with risk of mucinous (OR = 9.67; 95% CI = 1.10-84.80) and endometrioid carcinoma (OR = 3.41; 95% CI = 1.07-10.92), and suggestively positive, although not statistically significant, for serous (OR = 1.43; 95% CI = 0.82-2.49) and clear cell carcinoma (OR = 2.05; 95% CI = 0.36-11.57; P heterogeneity = 0.20). Heterogeneity was observed with oral contraceptive use (P interaction = 0.03), where the increased risk was present only among ever users (OR = 3.24; 95% CI = 1.62-6.47). This study adds to the existing evidence that CRP plays a role in ovarian carcinogenesis and suggests that inflammation may be particularly implicated in the etiology of endometrioid and mucinous carcinoma. SIGNIFICANCE: C-reactive protein is involved in ovarian carcinogenesis, and chronic inflammation may be particularly implicated in the etiology of mucinous and endometrioid carcinomas.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Carcinoma/sangue , Proteínas de Neoplasias/sangue , Neoplasias Ovarianas/sangue , Idoso , Carcinogênese , Carcinoma/classificação , Carcinoma/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Intervalos de Confiança , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Inflamação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(7): 779-790, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049751

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Associations between psychosocial factors and biomarkers are increasingly investigated in studies of cancer incidence and mortality. Documenting optimal data/biospecimen collection protocols and scale properties are fundamental for elucidating the impact of psychosocial factors on biologic systems and ultimately cancer development/progression. METHODS: Between 2013 and 2014, 233 Nurses' Health Study II women (mean age: 60.6) participated in the Mind-Body Study. Participants completed a detailed online psychosocial assessment and provided hair, toenail, timed saliva over 1 day, urine and fasting blood twice, 1 year apart. Additionally, two separate microbiome collections for stool and saliva were conducted between the psychosocial assessments. We assessed correlations between various psychosocial measures and evaluated their 1-year reproducibility using intraclass correlations (ICC). RESULTS: Compliance with the protocols was high among participants. Psychosocial measures showed moderate-to-high reproducibility over 1 year (ICCs = 0.51-0.81). There was clear clustering of psychosocial factors according to whether they were querying positive (e.g., optimism, mastery, mindfulness) or negative (e.g., anxiety, depression, discrimination) emotion-related or social constructs. CONCLUSION: Results suggest feasibility for self-administered collection of various biospecimens and moderate-to-high reproducibility of psychosocial factors. The Mind-Body Study provides a unique resource for assessing inter-relationships between psychosocial factors and biological processes linked with long-term health outcomes, including carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Ansiedade/microbiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/metabolismo , Depressão/microbiologia , Jejum/sangue , Jejum/urina , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Microbiota , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Unhas/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Projetos de Pesquisa , Saliva/química , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/microbiologia
15.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 31: 157-164, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The demographics and management of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) differ across geographical regions, but it is unclear whether/how these differences affect treatment outcomes. The aim of this post-hoc analysis was to assess teriflunomide use and patient-reported outcomes in the United States (US) and the rest of the world (ROW) in the phase 4 Teri-PRO study (NCT01895335). METHODS: In the phase 4, real-world, Teri-PRO study, patients with relapsing forms of MS received teriflunomide for 48 weeks according to local labeling. The primary endpoint was treatment satisfaction measured using the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication Version 1.4 (TSQM 1.4). Secondary endpoints included scores on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Multiple Sclerosis Performance Scale (MSPS), and Patient-Determined Disease Steps (PDDS), and occurrence of adverse events. Primary and secondary endpoints were assessed at baseline and Week 48. An exploratory subgroup analysis assessed PROs in the black patient population. RESULTS: The US and ROW groups included 545 and 455 patients, respectively. The mean age of patients in the ROW group was lower, they had a shorter mean time since first symptoms of MS, and had lower mean EDSS scores at baseline, compared with the US group (all p < 0.0001). Black patients made up 9% of US patients vs 0.2% of ROW patients. TSQM global satisfaction scores and effectiveness, side effects, and convenience subscale scores were significantly improved from baseline to Week 48 (all p < 0.0001). Disability measures were stable from baseline to Week 48 for both groups, despite different baseline level scores between the two groups. The overall proportion of patients who experienced an AE was similar across both groups. Fewer patients in the US group vs the ROW group reported hair thinning (16.1% vs 31.2%). Black patients showed comparable baseline demographics and disease characteristics and similar change over time in PROs compared with the overall US group. CONCLUSION: Patient differences observed at baseline between the US and ROW groups suggest variation in teriflunomide prescribing practices in the real-world Teri-PRO study. Improvement in treatment satisfaction and stability of disability measures were comparable between patients in the US and ROW. This suggests that teriflunomide was effective despite differences in baseline demographics and possible cultural and management differences between these geographical regions.


Assuntos
Crotonatos/uso terapêutico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/tratamento farmacológico , Toluidinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(4): 751-759, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30647065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although particulate matter (PM) has not been consistently associated with breast cancer risk, two studies have reported harmful associations for breast cancer survival. We examined PM exposures and breast cancer survival in two U.S.-based prospective cohort studies. METHODS: The Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHSII are cohorts with detailed data on medical history, lifestyle factors, and causes of death. Women with Stage I-III breast cancer (n = 8,936) were followed through June 2014. Residential PM was estimated using spatio-temporal models. We performed Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HR) of breast cancer-specific mortality and all-cause mortality for 10 µg/m3 increases in post-diagnosis PM. RESULTS: There were 1,211 breast cancer-specific deaths. Overall, PM was not associated with breast cancer-specific mortality [PM2.5: HR, 1.09; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.87-1.36; PM2.5-10: HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.85-1.24; PM10: HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.89-1.24], but was associated with modest increases in all-cause mortality (PM2.5: HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.96-1.30; PM2.5-10: HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.00-1.24; PM10: HR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01-1.18). However, among participants with Stage I disease, PM2.5 was associated with higher breast cancer-specific mortality (HR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.11-2.43). CONCLUSIONS: PM was not associated with breast cancer-specific death overall; however, higher PM was associated with all-cause mortality. Higher PM2.5 was associated with higher breast cancer-specific mortality among patients with Stage I breast cancer even after adjustment. IMPACT: Studies on ambient PM and breast cancer survival demonstrate that PM2.5 may have broader health effects than previously recognized and warrants further research on breast tumor progression.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 111(2): 137-145, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29860330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aspirin use is associated with reduced risk of several cancers. A pooled analysis of 12 case-control studies showed a 10% decrease in ovarian cancer risk with regular aspirin use, which was stronger for daily and low-dose users. To prospectively investigate associations of analgesic use with ovarian cancer, we analyzed data from 13 studies in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium (OC3). METHODS: The current study included 758 829 women who at study enrollment self-reported analgesic use, among whom 3514 developed ovarian cancer. Using Cox regression, we assessed associations between frequent medication use and risk of ovarian cancer. Dose and duration were also evaluated. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Women who used aspirin almost daily (≥6 days/wk) vs infrequent/nonuse experienced a 10% reduction in ovarian cancer risk (rate ratio [RR] = 0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.82 to 1.00, P = .05). Frequent use (≥4 days/wk) of aspirin (RR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.88 to 1.03), nonaspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs; RR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.90 to 1.11), or acetaminophen (RR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.88 to 1.24) was not associated with risk. Daily acetaminophen use (RR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.65, P = .05) was associated with elevated ovarian cancer risk. Risk estimates for frequent, long-term (10+ years) use of aspirin (RR = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.98 to 1.34) or nonaspirin NSAIDs (RR = 1.19, 95% CI = 0.84 to 1.68) were modestly elevated, although not statistically significantly so. CONCLUSIONS: This large, prospective analysis suggests that women who use aspirin daily have a slightly lower risk of developing ovarian cancer (∼10% lower than infrequent/nonuse)-similar to the risk reduction observed in case-control analyses. The observed potential elevated risks for 10+ years of frequent aspirin and NSAID use require further study but could be due to confounding by medical indications for use or variation in drug dosing.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/prevenção & controle , Medição de Risco/métodos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Int J Cancer ; 145(1): 58-69, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30561796

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer risk factors differ by histotype; however, within subtype, there is substantial variability in outcomes. We hypothesized that risk factor profiles may influence tumor aggressiveness, defined by time between diagnosis and death, independent of histology. Among 1.3 million women from 21 prospective cohorts, 4,584 invasive epithelial ovarian cancers were identified and classified as highly aggressive (death in <1 year, n = 864), very aggressive (death in 1 to < 3 years, n = 1,390), moderately aggressive (death in 3 to < 5 years, n = 639), and less aggressive (lived 5+ years, n = 1,691). Using competing risks Cox proportional hazards regression, we assessed heterogeneity of associations by tumor aggressiveness for all cases and among serous and endometrioid/clear cell tumors. Associations between parity (phet = 0.01), family history of ovarian cancer (phet = 0.02), body mass index (BMI; phet ≤ 0.04) and smoking (phet < 0.01) and ovarian cancer risk differed by aggressiveness. A first/single pregnancy, relative to nulliparity, was inversely associated with highly aggressive disease (HR: 0.72; 95% CI [0.58-0.88]), no association was observed for subsequent pregnancies (per pregnancy, 0.97 [0.92-1.02]). In contrast, first and subsequent pregnancies were similarly associated with less aggressive disease (0.87 for both). Family history of ovarian cancer was only associated with risk of less aggressive disease (1.94 [1.47-2.55]). High BMI (≥35 vs. 20 to < 25 kg/m2 , 1.93 [1.46-2.56] and current smoking (vs. never, 1.30 [1.07-1.57]) were associated with increased risk of highly aggressive disease. Results were similar within histotypes. Ovarian cancer risk factors may be directly associated with subtypes defined by tumor aggressiveness, rather than through differential effects on histology. Studies to assess biological pathways are warranted.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Paridade , Gravidez , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia
19.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(4): 1262-1274, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30371783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies suggest a strong link between poor habitual sleep quality and increased cardiovascular disease risk. However, the underlying mechanisms are not entirely clear. Metabolomic profiling may elucidate systemic differences associated with sleep quality that influence cardiometabolic health. METHODS: We explored cross-sectional associations between sleep quality and plasma metabolites in a nested case-control study of coronary heart disease (CHD) in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI; n = 1956) and attempted to replicate the results in an independent sample from the Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII; n = 209). A sleep-quality score (SQS) was derived from self-reported sleep problems asked in both populations. Plasma metabolomics were assayed using LC-MS with 347 known metabolites. General linear regression was used to identify individual metabolites associated with continuous SQS (false-discovery rate <0.05). Using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) algorithms, a metabolite score was created from replicated metabolites and evaluated with CHD risk in the WHI. RESULTS: After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, body mass index (BMI) and smoking, we identified 69 metabolites associated with SQS in the WHI (59 were lipids). Of these, 16 were replicated in NHSII (15 were lipids), including 6 triglycerides (TAGs), 4 phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs), 3 phosphatidylcholines (PCs), 1 diglyceride (DAG), 1 lysophosphatidylcholine and N6-acetyl-L-lysine (a product of histone acetylation). These metabolites were consistently higher among women with poorer sleep quality. The LASSO selection resulted in a nine-metabolite score (TAGs 45: 1, 48: 1, 50: 4; DAG 32: 1; PEs 36: 4, 38: 5; PCs 30: 1, 40: 6; N6-acetyl-L-lysine), which was positively associated with CHD risk (odds ratio per SD increase in the score: 1.16; 95% confidence interval: 1.05, 1.28; p = 0.0003) in the WHI after adjustment for matching factors and conventional CHD risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in lipid metabolites may be an important pathogenic pathway linking poor habitual sleep quality and CHD risk.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/metabolismo , Lipidômica , Pós-Menopausa , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/metabolismo , Sono/fisiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromatografia Líquida , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Lipídeos/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Fatores de Risco , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/sangue , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/complicações
20.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 111(7): 700-708, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hormone receptor signaling is critical in the progression of breast cancers, although the role of the androgen receptor (AR) remains unclear, particularly for estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors. This study assessed AR protein expression as a prognostic marker for breast cancer mortality. METHODS: This study included 4147 pre- and postmenopausal women with invasive breast cancer from the Nurses' Health Study (diagnosed 1976-2008) and Nurses' Health Study II (1989-2008) cohorts. AR protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and scored through pathologist review and as a digitally quantified continuous measure. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of breast cancer mortality were estimated from Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for patient, tumor, and treatment covariates. RESULTS: Over a median 16.5 years of follow-up, there were 806 deaths due to breast cancer. In the 7 years following diagnosis, AR expression was associated with a 27% reduction in breast cancer mortality overall (multivariable HR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.58 to 0.91) a 47% reduction for ER+ cancers (HR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.41 to 0.69), and a 62% increase for ER- cancers (HR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.18 to 2.22) (P heterogeneity < .001). A log-linear association was observed between AR expression and breast cancer mortality among ER- cancers (HR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.26 per each 10% increase in AR), although no log-linear association was observed among ER+ cancers. CONCLUSIONS: AR expression was associated with improved prognosis in ER+ tumors and worse prognosis in ER- tumors in the first 5-10 years postdiagnosis. These findings support the continued evaluation of AR-targeted therapies for AR+/ER- breast cancers.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Adulto , Mama/metabolismo , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Receptores de Progesterona/genética
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