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1.
Malar J ; 18(1): 270, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria preventive measures, including long-lasting insecticide-treated bet nets (LLINs), indoor residual spraying (IRS), and controlling mosquito breeding sites, are key measures to achieve malaria elimination. Still, compliance with these recommended measures remains a major challenge. By applying a novel and comprehensive model for determinants of malaria prevention behaviour, this study tests how individual perceptions influence the intentions to use malaria preventive measures and explores strategies that stimulate their consistent use. METHODS: The study was carried out in the sectors of Ruhuha and Busoro, Rwanda during October and November 2017, and these were conducted into two phases. Phase one involved a questionnaire survey (N = 742), whereas Phase two employed a qualitative approach that included nine focus group discussions, seven key informant interviews, and three in-depth interviews. RESULTS: The findings of the quantitative study showed that participants very often use LLINs (66.6%), accept IRS (73.9%), and drain stagnant water in case of presence (62%). The intentions to use malaria preventive measures were consistently driven by perceived severity, perceived self-efficacy, perceived response efficacy, and subjective norms, and hindered by perceived barriers. The intentions were also positively associated with the actual use of LLINs, acceptance of IRS, and drainage of stagnant water. There is no evidence that either not having enough LLINs (ownership of at least one bed net in the household, here referred to as availability) or having sufficient LLINs (having one LLIN per two people in the household, here referred to as accessibility) moderated the relationship between behavioural intentions and actual use of LLINs. The qualitative study indicated that participants believed malaria risk to be high and perceived a high mosquito density. They also believed that repetitive malaria episodes are caused by the perceived low effectiveness of anti-malaria medications. Lack of LLINs increased the perceived added value of LLINs, and together with the increased malaria burden increased the perceived response efficacy. Participants highlighted the need to continuously mobilize and engage community members especially those who do not use LLINs when having one, and those who do not accept the spraying activities. CONCLUSION: Malaria prevention interventions should target individual perceptions to enhance consistent use of malaria preventive measures. Three strategies to improve consistent use and acceptance of these measures are highlighted: (1) ensure access to LLINs and regular spraying activities, (2) community mobilization and (3) citizen engagement in malaria prevention activities.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Malária/prevenção & controle , Percepção , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Malária/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Ruanda
2.
J Environ Manage ; 244: 320-327, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129464

RESUMO

This paper examines the effectiveness of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations on the adoption intensity of sustainable agricultural practices (SAPs) among annual crop farmers in Chile. We use the farmers' attitude towards SAPs as a proxy of intrinsic motivation, while extrinsic motivation is represented by an economic incentive to promote the use of SAPs. The policy program we studied is administered by the Chilean Ministry of Agriculture under the name System of Incentives for the Agro-Environmental Sustainability of Degraded Soils (SIRSD-S. Sustainable behaviour was defined as the adoption of (1) minimum tillage, (2) improved fallow, (3) stubble incorporation, (4) use of manure, and (5) use of compost. A count model was estimated that showed that both sources of motivation, and the interaction between them, significantly predicted the adoption of SAPs. Farmers with low levels of intrinsic motivation depended largely on the SIRSD-S to adopt SAPs, while the incentive was ineffective for intrinsically motivated farmers who adopted more SAPs regardless the presence of extrinsic motivation. Finally, the perception of risk of soil erosion and perceived behavioural control of this risk were found to play a positive role in the adoption of SAPs.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros , Motivação , Agricultura , Chile , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
J Econ Entomol ; 112(3): 1005-1010, 2019 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30834937

RESUMO

Consumption of insects has gained interest because it may provide a more sustainable and healthier alternative for conventional meat. However, in Western societies, insect consumption is met with resistance due to negative attitudes based on fear and disgust. To further understand consumers' willingness to try insect meat, a 2 (meat type: bovine vs. insect) × 2 (product type: common vs. uncommon) experiment was conducted (n = 130). Four food choice factors were expected to mediate the effect of meat type and product type on willingness to try: health, sensory appeal, risk perception, and disgust. Results indicate that meat type had no effect on willingness to try. Relative to bovine meat, insect meat was perceived as both healthier and more disgusting, which could explain the absence of a meat type effect. Unexpectedly, use of insects in common products (burgers) as compared to uncommon products (skewers) was met with a lower willingness to try. Also, common products with insect meat was considered to be less healthy and more disgusting, compared to uncommon products with insect meat.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Asco , Animais , Bovinos , Preferências Alimentares , Insetos , Carne
4.
Public Underst Sci ; 28(2): 218-233, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30458676

RESUMO

In this work, using experiments, we investigate the role of the name of a technology on the informed evaluation of that technology. We argue that a name can influence interpretations by activating cognitive structures. Using genomics-accelerated breeding as a case, we show that the name 'genomics' makes people evaluate related information as similar to genetic modification. Replacing the name 'genomics' with 'natural crossing' causes evaluations similar to those for traditional breeding. The results show that a name can have a strong influence on public attitudes, and we call for more consideration in choosing a name for a technology.

5.
Risk Anal ; 38(7): 1321-1331, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29240986

RESUMO

Societies worldwide are investing considerable resources into the safe development and use of nanomaterials. Although each of these protective efforts is crucial for governing the risks of nanomaterials, they are insufficient in isolation. What is missing is a more integrative governance approach that goes beyond legislation. Development of this approach must be evidence based and involve key stakeholders to ensure acceptance by end users. The challenge is to develop a framework that coordinates the variety of actors involved in nanotechnology and civil society to facilitate consideration of the complex issues that occur in this rapidly evolving research and development area. Here, we propose three sets of essential elements required to generate an effective risk governance framework for nanomaterials. (1) Advanced tools to facilitate risk-based decision making, including an assessment of the needs of users regarding risk assessment, mitigation, and transfer. (2) An integrated model of predicted human behavior and decision making concerning nanomaterial risks. (3) Legal and other (nano-specific and general) regulatory requirements to ensure compliance and to stimulate proactive approaches to safety. The implementation of such an approach should facilitate and motivate good practice for the various stakeholders to allow the safe and sustainable future development of nanotechnology.

6.
Pest Manag Sci ; 74(6): 1478-1493, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29274106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The public's negative attitudes towards household insects drive tolerance for these insects and their control. Tolerance levels are important in integrated pest management (IPM), as are pest knowledge and information. The risk information seeking and processing (RISP) model describes the relationships between personal factors and information-seeking behaviour. We combined IPM and RISP to determine important relationships between factors driving insect tolerance levels and information-seeking behaviour through an online survey and tested whether this model is valid and generally applicable. RESULTS: Relationships between variables from both IPM and RISP models were tested for seven insect species. Tolerance levels were measured with two factors: willingness to pay for pest control and whether insects are tolerated. Willingness to pay for control was positively affected by age, experience, risk perception, insect characteristics, and negative emotions and affected behavioural intention, by influencing information sufficiency and information-seeking behaviour. Tolerability was influenced by perception of insect characteristics and determines whether control measures are taken. CONCLUSION: It was possible to combine the RISP and IPM models. Relevant driving factors were a person's age, experience, risk perception, negative affective responses, tolerance levels, relevant channel beliefs about online forums, information sufficiency and information-seeking behaviour. There was, however, variation in important factors between different insects. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Insetos , Animais , Humanos , Países Baixos , Medição de Risco
7.
Water Res ; 131: 90-99, 2018 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29277081

RESUMO

Current sanitation systems are inherently limited in their ability to address the new challenges for (waste)water management that arise from the rising demand to restore resource cycles. These challenges include removal of micropollutants, water (re)use, and nutrient recovery. New opportunities to address these challenges arise from new sanitation, a system innovation that combines elements of source separation, local treatment and reuse, and less use of water. New sanitation is applied, but not yet widespread, in several residential areas in Europe. Implementation is hindered by the lack of insight into the general public's willingness to engage in new sanitation, and the resulting uncertainty about this among decision makers and other stakeholders in wastewater management. Using value-belief-norm theory as a conceptual lens, this paper addresses the individual motivations (pro-environmental personal norms) and personal drivers (benefits) and barriers (risks) for acceptance of new sanitation by the Dutch general public. The results of an online survey (N = 338) indicated that both pro-environmental personal norms and risk and benefit perceptions predict consumers' willingness to accept new sanitation. More specifically, they showed that consumer acceptance is driven by perceived risks relating to the housing market and the need to change behavior, but also by environmental benefits. Overall, new sanitation was favorably evaluated by respondents: 64% indicated that they would likely use new sanitation if they were owner-occupiers. The results of this explorative study are discussed in light of the development of novel sanitation systems that are sensitive to perceptions of end-users and other key stakeholders.


Assuntos
Saneamento/métodos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Tomada de Decisões , Política Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Opinião Pública , Inquéritos e Questionários , Abastecimento de Água/economia
8.
BMC Public Health ; 17(1): 900, 2017 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29178900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Performing a tick check after visiting nature is considered the most important preventive measure to avoid contracting Lyme disease. Checking the body for ticks after visiting nature is the only measure that can fully guarantee whether one has been bitten by a tick and provides the opportunity to remove the tick as soon as possible, thereby greatly reducing the chance of contracting Lyme disease. However, compliance to performing the tick check is low. In addition, most previous studies on determinants of preventive measures to avoid Lyme disease lack a clear definition and/or operationalization of the term "preventive measures". Those that do distinguish multiple behaviors including the tick check, fail to describe the systematic steps that should be followed in order to perform the tick check effectively. Hence, the purpose of this study was to identify determinants of systematically performing the tick check, based on social cognitive theory. METHODS: A cross-sectional self-administered survey questionnaire was filled out online by 508 respondents (Mage = 51.7, SD = 16.0; 50.2% men; 86.4% daily or weekly nature visitors). Bivariate correlations and multivariate regression analyses were conducted to identify associations between socio-cognitive determinants (i.e. concepts related to humans' intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to perform certain behavior), and the tick check, and between socio-cognitive determinants and proximal goal to do the tick check. RESULTS: The full regression model explained 28% of the variance in doing the tick check. Results showed that performing the tick check was associated with proximal goal (ß = .23, p < 0.01), self-efficacy (ß = .22, p < 0.01), self-evaluative outcome expectations (ß = .21, p < 0.01), descriptive norm (ß = .16, p < 0.01), and experience (ß = .13, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Our study is among the first to examine the determinants of systematic performance of the tick check, using an extended version of social cognitive theory to identify determinants. Based on the results, a number of practical recommendations can be made to promote the performance of the tick check.


Assuntos
Doença de Lyme/prevenção & controle , Autocuidado/psicologia , Autoexame , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Teoria Psicológica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Carrapatos
9.
Meat Sci ; 128: 15-23, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28167401

RESUMO

The current study investigated the determinants of consumers' intention to purchase meat from mobile slaughter units (MSU). The theory of planned behavior (TPB) and the value belief norm theory (VBN) were used as conceptual lenses to guide this investigation. We conducted a survey among 329 respondents in the Netherlands who buy meat for themselves and/or for others. The results indicated that (1) TPB and VBN explain a high proportion of the variance in consumers' intention to buy MSU meat, and that (2) an extended TPB that includes peoples' attitude, personal norm, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control turned out to be the best model to predict willingness to buy MSU meat. Further implications for future research and practice are discussed.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Comportamento do Consumidor , Teoria da Decisão , Preferências Alimentares , Indústria de Embalagem de Carne/métodos , Carne/análise , Veículos Automotores , Bem-Estar do Animal/economia , Bem-Estar do Animal/tendências , Animais , Bovinos , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Redução de Custos , Tomada de Decisões , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Intenção , Carne/economia , Indústria de Embalagem de Carne/economia , Indústria de Embalagem de Carne/instrumentação , Indústria de Embalagem de Carne/tendências , Modelos Psicológicos , Veículos Automotores/economia , Países Baixos , Normas Sociais , Percepção Social , Valores Sociais , Sus scrofa
10.
Risk Anal ; 36(8): 1615-29, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26849482

RESUMO

The results of a survey and an experiment show that experiential uncertainty-people's experience of uncertainty in risk contexts-plays a moderating role in individuals' risk-related demand for government regulation and trust in risk-managing government institutions. First, descriptions of risks were presented to respondents in a survey (N = 1,017) and their reactions to questions about experiential uncertainty, risk perception, and demand for government regulation were measured, as well as levels of risk-specific knowledge. When experiential uncertainty was high, risk perceptions had a positive relationship with demand for government regulation of risk; no such relationship showed under low experiential uncertainty. Conversely, when people experience little experiential uncertainty, having more knowledge about the risk topic involved was associated with a weaker demand for government regulation of risk. For people experiencing uncertainty, this relationship between knowledge and demand for regulation did not emerge. Second, in an experiment (N = 120), experiential uncertainty and openness in risk communication were manipulated to investigate effects on trust. In the uncertainty condition, the results showed that open versus nonopen government communication about Q-fever-a zoonosis-led to higher levels of trust in the government agency, but not in in the control condition. Altogether, this research suggests that only when people experience relatively little uncertainty about the risk, knowledge provision may preclude them from demanding government action. Also, only when persons experience uncertainty are stronger risk perceptions associated with a demand for government regulation, and they are affected by openness of risk communication in forming institutional trust.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Governo , Confiança , Incerteza , Humanos , Risco
11.
Biotechnol J ; 9(8): 997-9, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24919762

RESUMO

Low public acceptance hinders the successful introduction of biotechnological innovations, such as genetically modified foods or vaccinations against infectious diseases. Earlier studies indicated that a lack of knowledge is not a key barrier to acceptance. This was confirmed in the current study, which examined an integrated theoretical model tested among 579 participants from the Dutch public. The results suggest that communication strategies should instead target attitudes, social norms, and risk perceptions, and appeal to people's tendency (or lack thereof) to be innovative.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Biotecnologia/legislação & jurisprudência , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Opinião Pública
12.
Pers Soc Psychol Bull ; 33(10): 1435-47, 2007 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17933738

RESUMO

The present research examines the impact of achievement goals on task-related information exchange. Studies 1 and 2 reveal that relative to those with mastery goals or no goal, individuals pursuing performance goals were less open in their information giving to exchange partners. Study 2 further clarifies this effect of achievement goals by showing that performance goals generate an exploitation orientation toward information exchange. Furthermore, relative to individuals with mastery goals or no goal, people pursuing performance goals enhanced their task performance by utilizing more high-quality information obtained from their exchange partner (Study 1) and protected their task performance by more rigorously disregarding received low-quality information (Study 2).


Assuntos
Logro , Comunicação , Metas , Comportamento de Ajuda , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa , Autorrevelação
13.
J Appl Psychol ; 92(3): 840-7, 2007 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17484563

RESUMO

This multisource field study applied belongingness theory to examine whether thwarted belonging, defined as the perceived discrepancy between one's desired and actual levels of belonging with respect to one's coworkers, predicts interpersonal work behaviors that are self-defeating. Controlling for demographic variables, job type, justice constructs, and trust in organization in a multilevel regression analysis using data from 130 employees of a clinical chemical laboratory and their supervisors, the authors found that employees who perceive greater levels of desired coworker belonging than actual levels of coworker belonging were more likely to engage in interpersonally harmful and less likely to engage in interpersonally helpful behaviors. Implications for the application of belongingness theory to explain self-defeating behaviors in organizations are discussed.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Avaliação de Desempenho Profissional , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Interpessoais , Cultura Organizacional , Autoimagem , Comportamento Social , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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