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1.
Biotechniques ; 67(3): 118-122, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267764

RESUMO

We have previously reported Hi-Plex, a multiplex PCR methodology for building targeted DNA sequencing libraries that offers a low-cost protocol compatible with high-throughput processing. Here, we detail an improved protocol, Hi-Plex2, that more effectively enables the robust construction of small-to-medium panel-size libraries while maintaining low cost, simplicity and accuracy benefits of the Hi-Plex platform. Hi-Plex2 was applied to three panels, comprising 291, 740 and 1193 amplicons, targeting genes associated with risk for breast and/or colon cancer. We show substantial reduction of off-target amplification to enable library construction for small-to-medium-sized design panels not possible using the previous Hi-Plex chemistry.

2.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(7): e00781, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Muir-Torre syndrome is defined by the development of sebaceous skin lesions in individuals who carry a germline mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutation. Loss of expression of MMR proteins is frequently observed in sebaceous skin lesions, but MMR-deficiency alone is not diagnostic for carrying a germline MMR gene mutation. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing was performed on three MMR-deficient sebaceous lesions from individuals with MSH2 gene mutations (Lynch syndrome) and three MMR-proficient sebaceous lesions from individuals without Lynch syndrome with the aim of characterizing the tumor mutational signatures, somatic mutation burden, and microsatellite instability status. Thirty predefined somatic mutational signatures were calculated for each lesion. RESULTS: Signature 1 was ubiquitous across the six lesions tested. Signatures 6 and 15, associated with defective DNA MMR, were significantly more prevalent in the MMR-deficient lesions from the MSH2 carriers compared with the MMR-proficient non-Lynch sebaceous lesions (mean ± SD=41.0 ± 8.2% vs. 2.3 ± 4.0%, p = 0.0018). Tumor mutation burden was, on average, significantly higher in the MMR-deficient lesions compared with the MMR-proficient lesions (23.3 ± 11.4 vs. 1.8 ± 0.8 mutations/Mb, p = 0.03). All four sebaceous lesions observed in sun exposed areas of the body demonstrated signature 7 related to ultraviolet light exposure. CONCLUSION: Tumor mutational signatures 6 and 15 and somatic mutation burden were effective in differentiating Lynch-related from non-Lynch sebaceous lesions.

3.
Gigascience ; 2018 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30520990

RESUMO

Background: Large-scale computational prediction of protein structures represents a cost-effective alternative to empirical structure determination with particular promise for non-model organisms and neglected pathogens. Conventional sequence-based tools are insufficient to annotate the genomes of such divergent biological systems. Conversely, protein structure tolerates substantial variation in primary amino acid sequence, and is thus a robust indicator of biochemical function. Structural proteomics is poised to become a standard part of pathogen genomics research, however informatic methods are now required to assign confidence in large volumes of predicted structures. Aims: To predict the proteome of a neglected human pathogen, Giardia duodenalis, and stratify predicted structures into high- and lower-confidence categories using a variety of metrics in isolation and combination. Methods: We used the I-TASSER suite to predict structural models for ∼5000 proteins encoded in Giardia duodenalis and identify their closest empirically determined structural homologues in the Protein Data Bank. Models were assigned to high or lower-confidence categories depending on the presence of matching PFAM domains in query and reference peptides. Metrics output from the suite and derived metrics were assessed for their ability to predict the high confidence category individually, and in combination through development of a random forest classifier. Results: We identified 1095 high confidence models including 212 hypothetical proteins. Amino acid identity between query and reference peptides was the greatest individual predictor of high confidence status, however the random forest classifier out-performed any metric in isolation (AUC = 0.977), and identified a subset of 305 high confidence-like models, corresponding to false positive predictions. High confidence models exhibited higher transcriptional abundance, and the classifier generalized across species, indicating the broad utility of this approach for automatically stratifying predicted structures. Additional structure-based clustering was used to cross-check confidence predictions in an expanded family of Nek kinases. Several high confidence-like proteins yielded substantial new insight into mechanisms of redox balance in Giardia duodenalis-a system central to the efficacy of limited anti-giardial drugs. Conclusion: Structural proteomics combined with machine learning can aid genome annotation for genetically divergent organisms including human pathogens, and stratify predicted structures to promote efficient allocation of limited resources for experimental investigatio.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(10)2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30326623

RESUMO

DNA methylation influences predisposition, development and prognosis for many diseases, including cancer. However, it is not uncommon to encounter samples with incorrect sex labelling or atypical sex chromosome arrangement. Sex is one of the strongest influencers of the genomic distribution of DNA methylation and, therefore, correct assignment of sex and filtering of abnormal samples are essential for the quality control of study data. Differences in sex chromosome copy numbers between sexes and X-chromosome inactivation in females result in distinctive sex-specific patterns in the distribution of DNA methylation levels. In this study, we present a software tool, sEst, which incorporates clustering analysis to infer sex and to detect sex-chromosome abnormalities from DNA methylation microarray data. Testing with two publicly available datasets demonstrated that sEst not only correctly inferred the sex of the test samples, but also identified mislabelled samples and samples with potential sex-chromosome abnormalities, such as Klinefelter syndrome and Turner syndrome, the latter being a feature not offered by existing methods. Considering that sex and the sex-chromosome abnormalities can have large effects on many phenotypes, including diseases, our method can make a significant contribution to DNA methylation studies that are based on microarray platforms.

5.
Genet Med ; 20(10): 1299, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29388942

RESUMO

The abstract to this article contained errors in the Results and Conclusions section. The corrected sections are shown below.

6.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 165, 2018 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29422015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic mutation carriers is modified by risk factors that cluster in families, including genetic modifiers of risk. We considered genetic modifiers of risk for carriers of high-risk mutations in other breast cancer susceptibility genes. METHODS: In a family known to carry the high-risk mutation PALB2:c.3113G>A (p.Trp1038*), whole-exome sequencing was performed on germline DNA from four affected women, three of whom were mutation carriers. RESULTS: RNASEL:p.Glu265* was identified in one of the PALB2 carriers who had two primary invasive breast cancer diagnoses before 50 years. Gene-panel testing of BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2 and RNASEL in the Australian Breast Cancer Family Registry identified five carriers of RNASEL:p.Glu265* in 591 early onset breast cancer cases. Three of the five women (60%) carrying RNASEL:p.Glu265* also carried a pathogenic mutation in a breast cancer susceptibility gene compared with 30 carriers of pathogenic mutations in the 586 non-carriers of RNASEL:p.Glu265* (5%) (p < 0.002). Taqman genotyping demonstrated that the allele frequency of RNASEL:p.Glu265* was similar in affected and unaffected Australian women, consistent with other populations. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that RNASEL:p.Glu265* may be a genetic modifier of risk for early-onset breast cancer predisposition in carriers of high-risk mutations. Much larger case-case and case-control studies are warranted to test the association observed in this report.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Endorribonucleases/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Adulto , Idade de Início , Austrália , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Linhagem , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Med Genet ; 19(1): 12, 2018 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29351780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: FANCM and RECQL have recently been reported as breast cancer susceptibility genes and it has been suggested that they should be included on gene panel tests for breast cancer predisposition. However, the clinical value of testing for mutations in RECQL and FANCM remains to be determined. In this study, we have characterised the spectrum of FANCM and RECQL mutations in women affected with breast or ovarian cancer from South-West Poland and West Ukraine. METHODS: We applied Hi-Plex, an amplicon-based enrichment method for targeted massively parallel sequencing, to screen the coding exons and proximal intron-exon junctions of FANCM and RECQL in germline DNA from unrelated women affected with breast cancer (n = 338) and ovarian cancer (n = 89) from Poland (n = 304) and Ukraine (n = 123). These women were at high-risk of carrying a genetic predisposition to breast and/or ovarian cancer due to a family history and/or early-onset disease. RESULTS: Among 427 women screened, we identified one carrier of the FANCM:c.1972C > T nonsense mutation (0.23%), and two carriers of the frameshift insertion FANCM:c.1491dup (0.47%). None of the variants we observed in RECQL were predicted to be loss-of-function mutations by standard variant effect prediction tools. CONCLUSIONS: Our study of the Polish and Ukrainian populations has identified a carrier frequency of truncating mutations in FANCM consistent with previous reports. Although initial reports suggesting that mutations in RECQL could be associated with increased breast cancer risk included women from Poland and identified the RECQL:c.1667_1667 + 3delAGTA mutation in 0.23-0.35% of breast cancer cases, we did not observe any carriers in our study cohort. Continued screening, both in research and diagnostic settings, will enable the accumulation of data that is needed to establish the clinical utility of including RECQL and FANCM on gene panel tests.

8.
Fam Cancer ; 17(1): 91-100, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28616688

RESUMO

In colorectal cancers (CRCs) with tumour mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency, genes involved in the host immune response that contain microsatellites in their coding regions, including beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), can acquire mutations that may alter the immune response, tumour progression and prognosis. We screened the coding microsatellites within B2M for somatic mutations in MMR-deficient CRCs and adenomas to determine associations with tumour subtypes, clinicopathological features and survival. Incident MMR-deficient CRCs from Australasian Colorectal Cancer Family Registry (ACCFR) and the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study participants (n = 144) and 63 adenomas from 41 MMR gene mutation carriers from the ACCFR were screened for somatic mutations within five coding microsatellites of B2M. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for overall survival by B2M mutation status were estimated using Cox regression, adjusting for age at CRC diagnosis, sex, AJCC stage and grade. B2M mutations occurred in 30 (20.8%) of the 144 MMR-deficient CRCs (29% of the MLH1-methylated, 17% of the Lynch syndrome and 9% of the suspected Lynch CRCs). No B2M mutations were identified in the 63 adenomas tested. B2M mutations differed by site, stage, grade and lymphocytic infiltration although none reached statistical significance (p > 0.05). The HR for overall survival for B2M mutated CRC was 0.65 (95% CI 0.29-1.48) compared with B2M wild-type. We observed differences in B2M mutation status in MMR-deficient CRC by tumour subtypes, site, stage, grade, immune infiltrate and for overall survival that warrant further investigation in larger studies before B2M mutation status can be considered to have clinical utility.

9.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1712: 53-70, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29224068

RESUMO

Hi-Plex is a suite of methods to enable simple, accurate, and cost-effective highly multiplex PCR-based targeted sequencing (Nguyen-Dumont et al., Biotechniques 58:33-36, 2015). At its core is the principle of using gene-specific primers (GSPs) to "seed" (or target) the reaction and universal primers to "drive" the majority of the reaction. In this manner, effects on amplification efficiencies across the target amplicons can, to a large extent, be restricted to early seeding cycles. Product sizes are defined within a relatively narrow range to enable high-specificity size selection, replication uniformity across target sites (including in the context of fragmented input DNA such as that derived from fixed tumor specimens (Nguyen-Dumont et al., Biotechniques 55:69-74, 2013; Nguyen-Dumont et al., Anal Biochem 470:48-51, 2015), and application of high-specificity genetic variant calling algorithms (Pope et al., Source Code Biol Med 9:3, 2014; Park et al., BMC Bioinformatics 17:165, 2016). Hi-Plex offers a streamlined workflow that is suitable for testing large numbers of specimens without the need for automation.


Assuntos
Primers do DNA/química , DNA/química , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Biblioteca Gênica , Variação Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/economia , Desnaturação de Ácido Nucleico , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Análise de Sequência de DNA/economia , Software
10.
Genet Med ; 20(8): 890-895, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29120461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germ-line mutations in the exonuclease domains of the POLE and POLD1 genes are associated with an increased, but yet unquantified, risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: We identified families with POLE or POLD1 variants by searching PubMed for relevant studies prior to October 2016 and by genotyping 669 population-based CRC cases diagnosed in patients under 60 years of age, from the Australasian Colorectal Cancer Family Registry. We estimated the age-specific cumulative risks (penetrance) using a modified segregation analysis. RESULTS: We observed 67 CRCs (mean age at diagnosis = 50.2 (SD = 13.8) years) among 364 first- and second-degree relatives from 41 POLE families, and 6 CRCs (mean age at diagnosis = 39.7 (SD = 6.83) years) among 69 relatives from 9 POLD1 families. We estimated risks of CRC up to the age of 70 years (95% confidence interval) for males and females, respectively, to be 28% (95% CI, 10­42%) and 21% (95% CI, 7­33%) for POLE mutation carriers and 90% (95% CI, 33­99%) and 82% (95% CI, 26­99%) for POLD1 mutation carriers. CONCLUSION: CRC risks for POLE mutation carriers are sufficiently high to warrant consideration of colonoscopy screening and implementation of management guidelines recommended for MSH6 mutation carriers in cases of Lynch syndrome. Refinement of estimates of CRC risk for POLD1 carriers is needed; however, clinical management recommendations could follow those made for POLE carriers.

11.
Fam Cancer ; 17(3): 345-349, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29052111

RESUMO

Loss-of-function germline mutations in the PALB2 gene are associated with an increase of breast cancer risk. The purpose of this study was to characterise the spectrum of PALB2 mutations in women affected with breast or ovarian cancer from South-West Poland and West Ukraine. We applied Hi-Plex, an amplicon-based enrichment method for targeted massively parallel sequencing, to screen the coding exons and proximal intron-exon junctions of PALB2 in germline DNA from unrelated women affected with breast cancer (n = 338) and ovarian cancer (n = 89) from Poland (n = 304) and Ukraine (n = 123). These women were at high-risk of carrying a genetic predisposition to breast and/or ovarian cancer due to a family history and/or early-onset disease. Targeted-sequencing identified two frameshift deletions: PALB2:c.509_510del; p.R170Ifs in three women affected with breast cancer and PALB2:c.172_175del;p.Q60Rfs in one woman affected with ovarian cancer. A number of other previously described missense (some predicted to be damaging by PolyPhen-2 and CADD) and synonymous mutations were also identified in this population. This study is consistent with previous reports that PALB2:c.509_510del and PALB2:c.172_175del are recurrent mutations associated with breast cancer predisposition in Polish women with a family history of the disease. Our study contributes to the accumulating evidence indicating that PALB2 should be included in genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility in these populations to enhance risk assessment and management of women at high-risk of developing breast cancer. This data could also contribute to ongoing work that is assessing the possible association between ovarian cancer risk and PALB2 mutations for which there is currently no evidence.

12.
Elife ; 62017 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28825401

RESUMO

Neural injury triggers swift responses from glia, including glial migration and phagocytic clearance of damaged neurons. The transcriptional programs governing these complex innate glial immune responses are still unclear. Here, we describe a novel injury assay in adult Drosophila that elicits widespread glial responses in the ventral nerve cord (VNC). We profiled injury-induced changes in VNC gene expression by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and found that responsive genes fall into diverse signaling classes. One factor, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), is induced in Drosophila ensheathing glia responding to severed axons. Interestingly, glial induction of MMP-1 requires the highly conserved engulfment receptor Draper, as well as AP-1 and STAT92E. In MMP-1 depleted flies, glia do not properly infiltrate neuropil regions after axotomy and, as a consequence, fail to clear degenerating axonal debris. This work identifies Draper-dependent activation of MMP-1 as a novel cascade required for proper glial clearance of severed axons.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila/fisiologia , Metaloproteinase 1 da Matriz/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Neuroglia/fisiologia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/fisiopatologia , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/metabolismo
13.
Hum Genomics ; 11(1): 10, 2017 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28511696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic variant effect prediction algorithms are used extensively in clinical genomics and research to determine the likely consequences of amino acid substitutions on protein function. It is vital that we better understand their accuracies and limitations because published performance metrics are confounded by serious problems of circularity and error propagation. Here, we derive three independent, functionally determined human mutation datasets, UniFun, BRCA1-DMS and TP53-TA, and employ them, alongside previously described datasets, to assess the pre-eminent variant effect prediction tools. RESULTS: Apparent accuracies of variant effect prediction tools were influenced significantly by the benchmarking dataset. Benchmarking with the assay-determined datasets UniFun and BRCA1-DMS yielded areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves in the modest ranges of 0.52 to 0.63 and 0.54 to 0.75, respectively, considerably lower than observed for other, potentially more conflicted datasets. CONCLUSIONS: These results raise concerns about how such algorithms should be employed, particularly in a clinical setting. Contemporary variant effect prediction tools are unlikely to be as accurate at the general prediction of functional impacts on proteins as reported prior. Use of functional assay-based datasets that avoid prior dependencies promises to be valuable for the ongoing development and accurate benchmarking of such tools.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Mutação , Software , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Genes BRCA1 , Genes p53 , Humanos
14.
Fam Cancer ; 16(3): 411-416, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28063109

RESUMO

An apparently balanced t(2;3)(q37.3;q13.2) translocation that appears to segregate with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has indicated potential areas to search for the elusive genetic basis of clear cell RCC. We applied Hi-Plex targeted sequencing to analyse germline DNA from 479 individuals affected with clear cell RCC for this breakpoint translocation and genetic variants in neighbouring genes on chromosome 2, ACKR3 and COPS8. While only synonymous variants were found in COPS8, one of the missense variants in ACKR3:c.892C>T, observed in 4/479 individuals screened (0.8%), was predicted likely to damage ACKR3 function. Identification of causal genes for RCC has potential clinical utility, where risk assessment and risk management can offer better outcomes, with surveillance for at-risk relatives and nephron sparing surgery through earlier intervention.


Assuntos
Complexo do Signalossomo COP9/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Proteínas/genética , Receptores CXCR/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Genom Data ; 11: 43-45, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27942458

RESUMO

Constitutional biological processes involve the generation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The production of such breaks and their subsequent resolution are also highly relevant to neurodegenerative diseases and cancer, in which extensive DNA fragmentation has been described Stephens et al. (2011), Blondet et al. (2001). Tchurikov et al. Tchurikov et al. (2011, 2013) have reported previously that frequent sites of DSBs occur in chromosomal domains involved in the co-ordinated expression of genes. This group report that hot spots of DSBs in human HEK293T cells often coincide with H3K4me3 marks, associated with active transcription Kravatsky et al. (2015) and that frequent sites of DNA double-strand breakage are likely to be relevant to cancer genomics Tchurikov et al. (2013, 2016) . Recently, they applied a RAFT (rapid amplification of forum termini) protocol that selects for blunt-ended DSB sites and mapped these to the human genome within defined co-ordinate 'windows'. In this paper, we re-analyse public RAFT data to derive sites of DSBs at the single-nucleotide level across the built genome for human HEK293T cells (https://figshare.com/s/35220b2b79eaaaf64ed8). This refined mapping, combined with accessory ENCODE data tracks and ribosomal DNA-related sequence annotations, will likely be of value for the design of clinically relevant targeted assays such as those for cancer susceptibility, diagnosis, treatment-matching and prognostication.

16.
Genom Data ; 10: 19-21, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27656414

RESUMO

DNA breakage arises during a variety of biological processes, including transcription, replication and genome rearrangements. In the context of disease, extensive fragmentation of DNA has been described in cancer cells and during early stages of neurodegeneration (Stephens et al., 2011 Stephens et al. (2011) [5]; Blondet et al., 2001 Blondet et al. (2001) [1]). Stults et al. (2009) Stults et al. (2009) [6] reported that human rDNA gene clusters are hotspots for recombination and that rDNA restructuring is among the most common chromosomal alterations in adult solid tumours. As such, analysis of rDNA regions is likely to have significant prognostic and predictive value, clinically. Tchurikov et al. (2015a, 2016) Tchurikov et al. (2015a, 2016) [7], [9] have made major advances in this direction, reporting that sites of human genome double-strand breaks (DSBs) occur frequently at sites in rDNA that are tightly linked with active transcription - the authors used a RAFT (rapid amplification of forum termini) protocol that selects for blunt-ended sites. They reported the relative frequency of these rDNA DSBs within defined co-ordinate 'windows' of varying size and made these data (as well as the relevant 'raw' sequencing information) available to the public (Tchurikov et al., 2015b). Assay designs targeting rDNA DSB hotspots will benefit greatly from the publication of break sites at greater resolution. Here, we re-analyse public RAFT data and make available rDNA DSB co-ordinates to the single-nucleotide level.

17.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 17: 165, 2016 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27083325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previously, we described ROVER, a DNA variant caller which identifies genetic variants from PCR-targeted massively parallel sequencing (MPS) datasets generated by the Hi-Plex protocol. ROVER permits stringent filtering of sequencing chemistry-induced errors by requiring reported variants to appear in both reads of overlapping pairs above certain thresholds of occurrence. ROVER was developed in tandem with Hi-Plex and has been used successfully to screen for genetic mutations in the breast cancer predisposition gene PALB2. ROVER is applied to MPS data in BAM format and, therefore, relies on sequence reads being mapped to a reference genome. In this paper, we describe an improvement to ROVER, called UNDR ROVER (Unmapped primer-Directed ROVER), which accepts MPS data in FASTQ format, avoiding the need for a computationally expensive mapping stage. It does so by taking advantage of the location-specific nature of PCR-targeted MPS data. RESULTS: The UNDR ROVER algorithm achieves the same stringent variant calling as its predecessor with a significant runtime performance improvement. In one indicative sequencing experiment, UNDR ROVER (in its fastest mode) required 8-fold less sequential computation time than the ROVER pipeline and 13-fold less sequential computation time than a variant calling pipeline based on the popular GATK tool. UNDR ROVER is implemented in Python and runs on all popular POSIX-like operating systems (Linux, OS X). It requires as input a tab-delimited format file containing primer sequence information, a FASTA format file containing the reference genome sequence, and paired FASTQ files containing sequence reads. Primer sequences at the 5' end of reads associate read-pairs with their targeted amplicon and, thus, their expected corresponding coordinates in the reference genome. The primer-intervening sequence of each read is compared against the reference sequence from the same location and variants are identified using the same algorithm as ROVER. Specifically, for a variant to be 'called' it must appear at the same location in both of the overlapping reads above user-defined thresholds of minimum number of reads and proportion of reads. CONCLUSIONS: UNDR ROVER provides the same rapid and accurate genetic variant calling as its predecessor with greatly reduced computational costs.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Algoritmos , Biologia Computacional , Primers do DNA , Genoma Humano , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Software
18.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 17: 98, 2016 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26911705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation at a gene promoter region has the potential to regulate gene transcription. Patterns of methylation over multiple CpG sites in a region are often complex and cell type specific, with the region showing multiple allelic patterns in a sample. This complexity is commonly obscured when DNA methylation data is summarised as an average percentage value for each CpG site (or aggregated across CpG sites). True representation of methylation patterns can only be fully characterised by clonal analysis. Deep sequencing provides the ability to investigate clonal DNA methylation patterns in unprecedented detail and scale, enabling the proper characterisation of the heterogeneity of methylation patterns. However, the sheer amount and complexity of sequencing data requires new synoptic approaches to visualise the distribution of allelic patterns. RESULTS: We have developed a new analysis and visualisation software tool "Methpat", that extracts and displays clonal DNA methylation patterns from massively parallel sequencing data aligned using Bismark. Methpat was used to analyse multiplex bisulfite amplicon sequencing on a range of CpG island targets across a panel of human cell lines and primary tissues. Methpat was able to represent the clonal diversity of epialleles analysed at specific gene promoter regions. We also used Methpat to describe epiallelic DNA methylation within the mitochondrial genome. CONCLUSIONS: Methpat can summarise and visualise epiallelic DNA methylation results from targeted amplicon, massively parallel sequencing of bisulfite converted DNA in a compact and interpretable format. Unlike currently available tools, Methpat can visualise the diversity of epiallelic DNA methylation patterns in a sample.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Humanos
19.
Gigascience ; 4: 55, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26613017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is a complex epigenetic marker that can be analyzed using a wide variety of methods. Interpretation and visualization of DNA methylation data can mask complexity in terms of methylation status at each CpG site, cellular heterogeneity of samples and allelic DNA methylation patterns within a given DNA strand. Bisulfite sequencing is considered the gold standard, but visualization of massively parallel sequencing results remains a significant challenge. FINDINGS: We created a program called Methpat that facilitates visualization and interpretation of bisulfite sequencing data generated by massively parallel sequencing. To demonstrate this, we performed multiplex PCR that targeted 48 regions of interest across 86 human samples. The regions selected included known gene promoters associated with cancer, repetitive elements, known imprinted regions and mitochondrial genomic sequences. We interrogated a range of samples including human cell lines, primary tumours and primary tissue samples. Methpat generates two forms of output: a tab-delimited text file for each sample that summarizes DNA methylation patterns and their read counts for each amplicon, and a HTML file that summarizes this data visually. Methpat can be used with publicly available whole genome bisulfite sequencing and reduced representation bisulfite sequencing datasets with sufficient read depths. CONCLUSIONS: Using Methpat, complex DNA methylation data derived from massively parallel sequencing can be summarized and visualized for biological interpretation. By accounting for allelic DNA methylation states and their abundance in a sample, Methpat can unmask the complexity of DNA methylation and yield further biological insight in existing datasets.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Software , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Neoplasias/genética , Especificidade de Órgãos
20.
Anal Chem ; 87(8): 4104-9, 2015 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25818563

RESUMO

The metabolic fate of a compound can often determine the success of a new drug lead. Thus, significant effort is directed toward identifying the metabolites formed from a given molecule. Here, an automated and nontargeted procedure is introduced for detecting drug metabolites without authentic metabolite standards via the use of stable isotope labeling, liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS), and high-performance computing. LC/MS of blood plasma extracts from rats that were administered a 1:1 mixture of acetaminophen (APAP) and (13)C6-APAP resulted in mass spectra that contained "twin" ions for drug metabolites that were not detected in control spectra (i.e., no APAP administered). Because of the development of a program (high-resolution twin-ion metabolite extraction; HiTIME) that can identify twin-ions in high-resolution mass spectra without centroiding (i.e., reduction of mass spectral peaks to single data points), 9 doublets corresponding to APAP metabolites were identified. This is nearly twice that obtained by use of existing programs that make use of centroiding to reduce computational cost under these conditions with a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. By a manual search for all reported APAP metabolite ions, no additional twin-ion signals were assigned. These data indicate that all the major metabolites of APAP and multiple low-abundance metabolites (e.g., acetaminophen hydroxy- and methoxysulfate) that are rarely reported were detected. This methodology can be used to detect drug metabolites without prior knowledge of their identity. HiTIME is freely available from https://github.com/bjpop/HiTIME .


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/sangue , Automação , Metodologias Computacionais , Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Acetaminofen/química , Acetaminofen/metabolismo , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Marcação por Isótopo , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
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