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1.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 28(10): 987-1001, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30143408

RESUMO

AIM: We examined the association between diet quality and diabetes and major cardiometabolic risks among adults in China. METHODS AND RESULTS: We developed the China Dietary Guideline Index (CDGI) based on the 2007 Chinese dietary guidelines and tailored the Alternate Healthy Eating Index 2010 (which we call the tAHEI) to assess diet quality. Our analysis linked the dietary intake and covariates measured in 2006 with CM risk factors measured in 2009. We used diet data the longitudinal China Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 collected in 3 consecutive 24-h recalls from 4440 adults aged 18 to 65 to calculate both the tAHEI and the CDGI scores. We performed multivariable logistic regressions to analyze the association of each 2006 score with diabetes, abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, and lipid-related cardiometabolic risk factors in 2009. After we adjusted for potential confounders, adults in the top quintile compared with the bottom quintile of the tAHEI scores showed 36% lower odds of high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (odds ratio [OR] 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.46, 0.90] in men and 33% lower odds (OR 0.67; 95% CI 0.49, 0.91) in women, while the CDGI scores showed 35% lower odds of high LDL-C (OR 0.65; 95% CI 0.46, 0.92) in men only. Further, the CDGI scores indicated 55% lower odds of diabetes in the top versus the bottom quintile (OR 0.45; 95% CI 0.23, 0.87) in men only, whereas a null association was observed for the tAHEI scores for both sexes. Both index scores showed null associations with other cardiometabolic risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Chinese diets that scored high on both the CDGI and the tAHEI showed similarly negative associations with high LDL-C risk, whereas only CDGI score was negatively related to diabetes risk in men.

2.
Obes Rev ; 19(8): 1028-1064, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29691969

RESUMO

The Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region faces a major diet-related health problem accompanied by enormous economic and social costs. The shifts in diet are profound: major shifts in intake of less-healthful low-nutrient-density foods and sugary beverages, changes in away-from-home eating and snacking and rapid shifts towards very high levels of overweight and obesity among all ages along with, in some countries, high burdens of stunting. Diet changes have occurred in parallel to, and in two-way causality with, changes in the broad food system - the set of supply chains from farms, through midstream segments of processing, wholesale and logistics, to downstream segments of retail and food service (restaurants and fast food chains). An essential contribution of this piece is to marry and integrate the nutrition transition literature with the literature on the economics of food system transformation. These two literatures and debates have been to date largely 'two ships passing in the night'. This review documents in-depth the recent history of rapid growth and transformation of that broad food system in LAC, with the rapid rise of supermarkets, large processors, fast food chains and food logistics firms. The transformation is the story of a 'double-edged sword', showing its links to various negative diet side trends, e.g. the rise of consumption of fast food and highly processed food, as well as in parallel, to various positive trends, e.g. the reduction of the cost of food, de-seasonalization, increase of convenience of food preparation reducing women's time associated with that and increase of availability of some nutritious foods like meat and dairy. We view the transformation of the food system, as well as certain aspects of diet change linked to long-run changes in employment and demographics (e.g. the quest for convenience), as broad parameters that will endure for the next decades without truly major regulatory and fiscal changes. We then focus in on what are the steps that are being and can be taken to curb the negative effects on diet of these changes. We show that countries in LAC are already among the global leaders in initiating demand-related solutions via taxation and marketing controls. But we also show that this is only a small step forward. To shift LAC's food supply towards prices that incentivize consumption of healthier diets and demand away from the less healthy component is not simple and will not happen immediately. We must be cognizant that ultimately, food industry firms must be incentivized to market the components of healthy diets. This will primarily need to be via selective taxes and subsidies, marketing controls, as well as food quality regulations, consumer education and, in the medium term, consumers' desires to combine healthier foods with their ongoing quest for convenience in the face of busy lives. In the end, the food industry in LAC will orient itself towards profitable solutions, ie those demanded by the broad mass of consumers.

3.
Pediatr Obes ; 13(4): 247-255, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28508580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have indicated that snacking is contributing to increased calorie intake of American children and that the energy density of snacks in US diets has increased in recent decades. OBJECTIVE: Examine short-term and long-term trends in the energy density and food sources of snacks for US children from 1977 to 2014, and examine whether trends differ between socio-demographic groups. METHODS: We used data collected from eight nationally representative surveys of food intake in 49,952 US children age 2-18 years, between 1977 and 2014. Overall patterns of snacking, trends in energy intake from snacking, trends in food and beverage sources and energy density of snacks across race-ethnic, age, gender, education and income groups were examined. RESULTS: In all socio-demographic groups, there was a significant increase in per capita energy intake deriving from snacks from 1977 to 2014 (P < 0.01). Salty snack intake doubled over the study period, and sugar-sweetened beverage intake decreased overall from 1977 to 2014 but increased in Non-Hispanic Blacks. Non-Hispanic Blacks had the largest increase in per capita intake from foods as a snack from 1977 to 2014. Children in the lowest poverty level and household education groups had more than 100% increase in calorie intake from snacks from 1977 to 2014. CONCLUSIONS: We found that snacking behaviour in the USA differs between race-ethnic, household education, gender and income groups, yet snacking remains a significant component of children's diets and the foods consumed at these snacks are not the types of foods recommended by the US dietary guidelines.


Assuntos
Dieta/tendências , Ingestão de Energia , Lanches , Adolescente , Bebidas/análise , Bebidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dieta/etnologia , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Alimentos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Política Nutricional , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Edulcorantes/administração & dosagem , Estados Unidos
4.
Obes Rev ; 18 Suppl 2: 19-27, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28741906

RESUMO

Childhood obesity rates in Latin America are among the highest in the world. This paper examines and evaluates the many efforts underway in the region to reduce and prevent further increases in obesity, identifies and discusses unique research challenges and opportunities in Latin America, and proposes a research agenda in Latin America for the prevention of childhood obesity and concomitant non-communicable diseases. Identified research gaps include biological challenges to healthy growth across the life cycle, diet and physical activity dynamics, community interventions promoting healthy child growth, and rigorous evaluation of national food and activity programs and regulatory actions. Addressing these research gaps is critical to advance the evidence-based policy and practice in childhood obesity tailored to the Latin American context that will be effective in addressing obesity.


Assuntos
Exercício , Promoção da Saúde , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Pesquisa , Criança , Humanos , América Latina
5.
Obes Rev ; 18 Suppl 2: 7-18, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28741907

RESUMO

The prevalence of overweight and obesity is rapidly increasing among Latin American children, posing challenges for current healthcare systems and increasing the risk for a wide range of diseases. To understand the factors contributing to childhood obesity in Latin America, this paper reviews the current nutrition status and physical activity situation, the disparities between and within countries and the potential challenges for ensuring adequate nutrition and physical activity. Across the region, children face a dual burden of undernutrition and excess weight. While efforts to address undernutrition have made marked improvements, childhood obesity is on the rise as a result of diets that favour energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and the adoption of a sedentary lifestyle. Over the last decade, changes in socioeconomic conditions, urbanization, retail foods and public transportation have all contributed to childhood obesity in the region. Additional research and research capacity are needed to address this growing epidemic, particularly with respect to designing, implementing and evaluating the impact of evidence-based obesity prevention interventions.


Assuntos
Dieta , Exercício , Estado Nutricional , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Magreza/etiologia
6.
Pediatr Obes ; 12(2): 146-154, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27059293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Taxing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been proposed as a strategy to combat child obesity. Yet it is unclear how a tax on SSBs might influence the overall quality of diet in preschool children. Thus, we use simulated price increases and the 2010 Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010) to explore the relationship between SSB taxes and diet quality in preschool children. METHODS: Price and purchase data from the 2009-2012 Nielsen Homescan Panel and a two-part marginal effects model were used to estimate relative changes in purchases with a 20% increase in the price of SSBs. Demand elasticities were applied to dietary intake data for children ages 2-5 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2009-2010 and 2011-2012) to estimate the impact of a 20% SSB tax on dietary intake and quality (HEI-2010). RESULTS: A 20% increase in the price of SSBs was associated with lower total caloric intake (-28 kcal d-1 , p < 0.01), caloric intake from juice drinks (-20 kcal d-1 , p < 0.01), added sugars (-4.1 servings d-1 , p = 0.03), refined grains (-0.63 servings d-1 , p < 0.01) and total meat (-0.56 servings d-1 , p < 0.01). Beneficial decreases in empty calories and refined grains were offset by unfavourable changes in fatty acid profile, total protein, vegetables and fruit, such that total HEI scores (0-100 range) were not meaningfully changed with a 20% increase in SSB price (difference: -0.85, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: A 20% tax on SSBs could decrease caloric intake, and intakes of added sugars and SSBs, but may not improve diet quality as an isolated intervention among US preschool children.


Assuntos
Bebidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Edulcorantes/economia , Impostos/estatística & dados numéricos , Bebidas/economia , Pré-Escolar , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Dieta Saudável/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estados Unidos
7.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 71(4): 486-493, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27677363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: This study investigates secular trends in diet quality distribution and related socioeconomic disparity from 1991 to 2011 in the Chinese adult population. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The analysis uses the 1991-2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey data on 13 853 participants (6876 men and 6977 women) aged 18-65 with 56 319 responses. Dietary assessment was carried out over a 3-day period with 24-h recalls combined with a household food inventory. We tailored Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 (named as tAHEI) to measure diet quality and performed quantile regression to investigate shifts in tAHEI scores at different percentiles and used mixed-effect linear regression to examine average diet quality trend and potential sociodemographic disparity. RESULTS: The energy-adjusted mean tAHEI scores increased from 36.9 (36.7-37.1) points in 1991 to 50.3 (50.1-50.5) in 2011 for men (P<0.001) and from 35.6 (35.4-35.8) to 46.9 (46.7-47.1) for women (P<0.001). The covariate-adjusted score of polyunsaturated fatty acids increased by 6.8 (6.6, 7.0) and 7.0 (6.9, 7.2), and the score of long-chain (ω-3) fats increased by 5.3 (5.2, 5.4) and 5.3 (5.2, 5.5) in men and women, respectively, whereas the cereal fiber and red meat scores decreased slightly. Increasing tAHEI score occurred across the entire distribution, and diet quality transition varied across sociodemographic groups. CONCLUSIONS: Chinese diet quality is far from optimal, with moderate improvement over a 21-year period. Findings suggest that nutritional intervention should give priority to low-income, low-urbanized communities and southern provincial adults with low diet quality in China.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/tendências , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , China , Dieta/normas , Registros de Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Análise de Regressão , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Pediatr Obes ; 12(5): 422-430, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27273455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: China has the world's highest diabetes prevalence, which along with hypertension and inflammation continues to grow particularly among children. Little is known about the strength of the association of these cardiometabolic risk factors between parents and their children; thus, the potential of household-based strategies to reduce risk is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to examine the parent-child association for haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), blood pressure (BP) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in a large, geographically diverse Chinese sample. METHODS: In 940 parent-child pairs (children aged 7-17 years) who participated in the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey, we measured each individual's HbA1c and CRP using fasting blood and BP. We used sex-specific random-effects linear regression to examine the parent-child association for these risk factors, accounting for within-family clustering. RESULTS: Child's HbA1c was positively associated with parental HbA1c. Beta coefficients ranged from 0.06 (95% CI 0.03-0.12) for father-daughter to 0.43 (95% CI 0.28-0.58) for mother-son pairs. We also detected a positive mother-daughter association for BP and positive father-child associations for CRP. CONCLUSION: The statistically significant parent-child association for HbA1c, BP and CRP in Chinese families suggests that household-based interventions could be useful for confronting the high rates of diabetes, hypertension and inflammation in China.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Criança , China , Características da Família , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
9.
Pediatr Obes ; 11(1): 47-53, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25728132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has been previously reported that total energy intake among US preschool children (ages 2-5 years) decreased between 2003-2004 and 2009-2010. However, little is known about how intakes of beverages among US preschoolers (ages 2-5 years) changed from 2003-2004 to 2011-2012. OBJECTIVES: This paper examines changes in intakes of key beverages during this period, as well as how eating location (at home or away from home) and source (store vs. others) may have contributed to these changes. METHODS: Cross-sectional day one dietary data among children ages 2-5 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, 2009-2010 and 2011-2012 were used. Survey-weighted mean intakes by survey year, eating location and source were computed for total sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), milks, 100% juice, low/no-calorie beverages, 10 key beverages, total beverages and total foods. Means were compared using two-tailed z-tests with Bonferroni corrections (α < 0.05). RESULTS: Between 2003-2004 and 2011-2012, among 2-5 year olds, total caloric intake fell by 132 kcal d(-1) , with intakes of beverages falling by 55 kcal d(-1) . Decreases in intakes of total SSBs (-57 kcal d(-1) ), fruit-flavoured or juice drinks containing <100% juice (juice drinks) (-37 kcal d(-1) ), caloric soft drinks (-13 kcal d(-1) ) and >1% fat, low-sugar milk (-42 kcal d(-1) ) were among the major changes. By eating location, total beverage intake at home fell by 73 kcal d(-1) . By source, total beverage intake from stores fell by 106 kcal d(-1) . Changes in intakes occurred primarily between 2003-2004 and 2009-2010, as there were no significant differences in beverage intakes between 2009-2010 and 2011-2012. Intakes of total calories (+49 kcal d(-1) ) and calories from foods (+53 kcal d(-1) ) trended upward between 2009-2010 and 2011-2012, but changes were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest improvements in the diets of preschoolers between 2003-2004 and 2009-2010, of which stores were a major contributor.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Animais , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Leite , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Edulcorantes , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 69(12): 1323-9, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26130296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Coincident with economic development, China has experienced a marked transition from undernutrition to overweight/obesity over the last few decades. We aimed to explore the burden of under- and overnutrition and nutrient adequacy among 2-12-year-old Chinese children. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We included anthropometry, dietary intake and biomarkers from 2-12-year-olds who participated in the 2009-2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (n=1191 in 2009; n=1648 in 2011). Dietary intakes were compared with the 2013 Chinese Dietary Recommended Intakes. RESULTS: In 2011, ~19% of 2-6-year-old children were underweight, 4% were stunted, 10% were overweight and 12% were obese. Among 7-12-year-old children, stunting was almost 0%, whereas ~21% were underweight, 13% were overweight and 6% were obese in 2011. Overweight and obesity were more prevalent among children from urban areas and higher income households. In particular, 2-6-year-old children from urban areas and higher income households experienced the highest increase in obesity from 2009 to 2011 (P<0.05). Children from urban areas and higher income households had overall higher intakes of total daily energy and most macro- and micronutrients (P<0.05). However, a significant proportion of children did not meet the recommendations for important micronutrients. CONCLUSIONS: Underweight and stunting currently coexist with overweight and obesity among Chinese children <12-year-old. We found critical disparities in the prevalence of under- and overweight/obesity, as well as in nutrient intakes and dietary adequacies between children from different incomes, revealing that the burden of childhood under- and overnutrition may constitute a public health concern in modern China.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Hipernutrição/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Energia , Características da Família , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/complicações , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Micronutrientes/análise , Avaliação Nutricional , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Hipernutrição/complicações , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Prevalência , População Rural , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Magreza/epidemiologia , Magreza/etiologia , População Urbana
11.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 69(12): 1306-12, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25944180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Little is known about whether waist circumference (WC) has increased disproportionately relative to body mass index (BMI) around the world. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Data came from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994 and 2007-2010), Health Survey for England (1992-1993 and 2008-2009); the Mexican Nutrition Survey (1999) and the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS 2012); and the China Health and Nutrition Survey (1993 and 2011). Country- and sex-stratified (for the United States, also race-/ethnicity-stratified) multivariable linear regressions were used to estimate mean difference in WC over time relative to BMI at specified overweight and obesity cutoff points, adjusting for age and survey year. RESULTS: Although mean WC and BMI shifted upward over time in all age-sex subpopulations in all four countries, trends in overweight prevalence were less consistent. However, WC relative to BMI increased at varying magnitudes across all countries and subpopulations, except US Black men. The magnitude of increase was largest for women in the youngest age group (20-29 years), particularly for women in Mexico (+6.6 cm, P<0.0001) and China (+4.6 cm, P<0.0001) (holding BMI constant at 25 kg/m(2)). For men, the increase was primarily evident among Chinese men (+4.8 cm, P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: WC has increased disproportionately over time relative to overall body mass across the United States, England, Mexico and China, particularly among young women, with the largest increases occurring in the middle-income countries of Mexico and China. These patterns are potentially a cause for concern especially for countries undergoing rapid economic and nutritional transitions.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Pediatr Obes ; 10(6): 428-35, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25558987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most studies of childhood malnutrition in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) focus on children <5 years, with few focusing on adolescence, a critical stage in development. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate recent trends in the prevalence of under- and overweight among girls (15-18 years) in LMICs. METHODS: Data are from Demographic and Health Surveys (53 countries) and national surveys conducted in Indonesia, China, Vietnam, Brazil and Mexico. The most recent surveys with sample sizes ≥50 when stratified by rural-urban status were included: 46.6% of countries had a survey conducted in the past 5 years, while the most recent survey for 10.3% of countries was over 10 years old. The overall rural sample size was 94,857 and urban sample size was 81,025. Under- and overweight were defined using the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) sex- and age-specific body mass index cut points. RESULTS: South Asia had the highest prevalence of underweight; nearly double that of East Asia and the Pacific and sub-Saharan Africa, and increasing annually by 0.66% in rural areas. Latin America and the Caribbean had the highest regional prevalence of overweight in both rural and urban settings, and this prevalence is increasing annually by about 0.50%. In urban areas, 38% of countries had both an under- and overweight prevalence ≥10%. CONCLUSIONS: There is substantial variation across and within regions in the burden of under- and overweight, with increasing dual burdens in urban areas. Innovative public health interventions capable of addressing both ends of the malnutrition spectrum are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Magreza/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Pobreza , Prevalência
13.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 38(12): 1503-10, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24813367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are correlated, the relationship between WC and BMI may have changed over time. OBJECTIVES: To describe temporal trends in BMI and WC distributions and quantify the increase in WC at a given BMI over time. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Data on adults aged 20-59 years from two waves (1993 and 2009) of the China Health and Nutrition Survey were used in a pooled cross-sectional analysis. Quantile regression examined age-adjusted temporal trends in the distributions of BMI and WC. Linear regression examined changes in mean WC over time, adjusting for BMI, age at survey and survey year. All models were stratified by gender. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in BMI and WC over time, particularly at the 95th quantile: on average, men had 2.8 kg m(-2) (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.4, 3.3) and women 1.5 kg m(-)(2) (95% CI: 1.1, 2.0) higher BMI in 2009 compared with their counterparts in 1993. WC increased by 9.0 cm (95% CI: 7.5, 10.1) and 5.0 cm (95% CI: 3.4, 6.6) for men and women, respectively. On average, men and women had a 3.2 cm (95% CI: 2.8, 3.7) and 2.1 cm (95% CI: 1.7, 2.5) higher WC in 2009 compared with their counterparts in 1993, holding BMI and age constant. WC adjusted for BMI increased to a larger extent among obese versus lean individuals and among younger versus older women. CONCLUSIONS: For both genders, BMI and WC increased significantly over time, with particularly greatest increase in magnitude in the upper tail of the BMI and WC distributions. Furthermore, WC at equivalent BMIs was higher in 2009, compared with their counterparts in 1993. Our findings suggest that even if BMI remained constant from 1993 to 2009, adults in 2009 might be at increased cardiometabolic risk as a result of their higher WC.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade Abdominal/sangue , Obesidade Abdominal/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 24(8): 869-76, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24795160

RESUMO

AIM: We examined the longitudinal association between red meat (RM) consumption and the risk of abdominal obesity in Chinese adults. METHODS AND RESULTS: Our data are from 16,822 adults aged 18-75 in the China Health and Nutrition Survey from 1993 to 2011. We assessed RM intake with three 24-h dietary recalls. We defined abdominal obesity as a waist circumference (WC) ≥85 centimeters (cm) for men and ≥80 cm for women. Multilevel mixed-effect regression models showed that men experienced WC increases of 0.74 cm (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.39-1.09) from a higher total intake of fresh RM and 0.59 cm (95% CI: 0.24-0. 95) from a higher intake of fatty fresh RM but 0.14 cm (95% CI: -0.39 to 0.66) from a higher intake of lean fresh RM in the top quartile versus non-consumers when adjusted for potential confounders. In contrast, after additional adjustment for baseline WC, the odds ratios of abdominal obesity in men were attenuated for total fresh RM (1.25 [95% CI: 1.06-1.47]) and fatty fresh RM (1.22 [95% CI: 1.03-1.44]) but were still not affected by lean fresh RM (0.95 [95% CI: 0.75-1.22]). Women also showed a positive association of fatty fresh RM intake with abdominal obesity. CONCLUSION: Greater intake of fatty fresh RM was significantly associated with higher WC (men only) and abdominal obesity risk in Chinese adults. The gender-specific differential association of fatty versus lean fresh RM warrants further study.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Gorduras na Dieta , Carne , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , China , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Estudos Prospectivos , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 18(3): 234-42, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24626749

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We examined trends from 1977-2010 in calorie, macronutrient, and food group intake among US adults 55 and older. DESIGN: Cross-sectional time series. SETTING: A nationally representative sample of the US non-institutionalized population. PARTICIPANTS: Older Americans aged ≥55 years (n=18,603) from four surveys of dietary intake in 1977-1978, 1989-1991, 1994-1996, and 2005-2010. MEASUREMENTS: Dietary intake was assessed using one 24-hour recall. Multivariable linear regression models were used to determine adjusted per capita mean energy and macronutrient intake for each survey year. Interactions were used to examine differences by race/ethnicity, gender, and generation. The top five food group contributors to total calorie intake were identified for each year. RESULTS: Mean total calorie intake increased significantly among older Americans from 1977-2010. Increases in carbohydrate intake (43% to 49% of total calories) were coupled with decreases in total fat intake (from 40% to 34%) while saturated fat (11%) remained constant. Corresponding shifts in food group intake were observed, as red meat intake greatly declined while bread and grain desserts became dominant calorie sources. Calorie intake was significantly higher for whites compared to blacks from 1994-2010. Cohort analysis indicated a shift from decreasing caloric intake with age to relatively stable calorie intake despite increasing age in more recent cohorts. CONCLUSION: Increases in total calorie intake from 1977-2010, coupled with the finding that more recent generations did not show the expected age-related decrease in caloric consumption, raise concerns about obesity risk among older Americans. Additionally, despite declines across time in total fat intake, saturated fat intake continues to exceed recommendations, and shifts toward increased consumption of grain-based desserts suggest that high discretionary calorie intake by older Americans might make it difficult to meet nutrient requirements while staying within energy needs.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Energia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Carboidratos da Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta , Grão Comestível , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Necessidades Nutricionais , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Obes Rev ; 15 Suppl 1: 2-7, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24341753

RESUMO

The China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) began in 1989 with the goal of creating a multilevel method of data collection from individuals and households and their communities to understand how the wide-ranging social and economic changes in China affect a wide array of nutrition and health-related outcomes. Initiated with a partial sample in 1989, the full survey runs from 1991 to 2011, and this issue documents the CHNS history. The CHNS cohort includes new household formation and replacement communities and households; all household members are studied. Furthermore, in-depth community data are collected. The sample began with eight provinces and added a ninth, Heilongjiang, in 1997 and three autonomous cities, Beijing, Shanghai, and Chongqing, in 2011. The in-depth community contextual measures have allowed us to create a unique measure of urbanicity that captures major dimensions of modernization across all 288 communities currently in the CHNS sample. The standardized, validated urbanicity measure captures the changes in 12 dimensions: population density; economic activity; traditional markets; modern markets; transportation infrastructure; sanitation; communications; housing; education; diversity; health infrastructure; and social services. Each is based on numerous measures applicable to each dimension. They are used jointly and separately in hundreds of studies.


Assuntos
Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Saúde Pública , China/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Características da Família , Feminino , Seguimentos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/organização & administração , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos
17.
Obes Rev ; 15 Suppl 1: 8-15, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24341754

RESUMO

This study uses unique official data to document nutritional changes in the 1949-1992 period. In 1949, widespread famine, high mortality and low life expectancy dominated. Economic progress was uneven; however, the longer term food supply changed greatly, and hunger was conquered. Diet composition shifted greatly over this period. Cereal consumption, already high, increased from 541.2 g d(-1) (70.0% coarse grains) in 1952 to 645.9 g d(-1) (15.9% coarse grains) in 1992. Consumption of animal-source foods, half of which were pork and pork products, tripled from 30.0 to 103.0 g d(-1). The proportion of energy intake from fat tripled from 7.6% to 22.5%, and that from carbohydrates decreased from 83.0% to 65.8% over the same period. Physical activity was high in all domains, but shifts were beginning to occur (e.g. the initial mechanization of work and the expansion of biking). Nutritional improvement was uneven, including increased undernutrition in the 1959-1962 period and a remarkable rebound and continued improvement thereafter. Overweight emerged only after 1982. Shifts in diet, activity and body composition in 1949-1992 set the stage for major shifts in nutrition in the subsequent decades.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Hipernutrição/epidemiologia , Urbanização , Adolescente , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , História do Século XX , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Desnutrição/complicações , Desnutrição/economia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Hipernutrição/complicações , Hipernutrição/economia , Urbanização/tendências
18.
Obes Rev ; 15 Suppl 1: 16-26, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24341755

RESUMO

China's food consumption patterns and eating and cooking behaviours changed dramatically between 1991 and 2011. Macronutrient composition has shifted towards fats, and protein and sodium intakes remain high and potassium intake low. The rapid decline in intake of coarse grains and, later, of refined grains and increases in intake of edible oils and animal-source foods accompanied by major eating and cooking behaviour shifts are leading to what might be characterized as an unhealthy Western type of diet, often based on traditional recipes with major additions and changes. The most popular animal-source food is pork, and consumption of poultry and eggs is increasing. The changes in cooking and eating styles include a decrease in the proportion of food steamed, baked, or boiled, and an increase in snacking and eating away from home. Prior to the last decade, there was essentially no snacking in China except for hot water or green tea. Most recently, the intake of foods high in added sugar has increased. The dietary shifts are affected greatly by the country's urbanization. The future, as exemplified by the diet of the three mega cities, promises major growth in consumption of processed foods and beverages.


Assuntos
Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Urbanização , Adolescente , Adulto , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Dieta/tendências , Fast Foods , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Transição Epidemiológica , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Valor Nutritivo , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
Obes Rev ; 15 Suppl 1: 37-48, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24341757

RESUMO

China has experienced a transition from a history of undernutrition to a rapid increase in obesity. The China Health and Nutrition Survey, an ongoing longitudinal, household-based survey of urban and rural residents of nine provinces, documents these changes using measured height and weight across 53,298 observations from 18,059 participants collected from 1991 to 2011. Adult overweight (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 25 kg/m(2)) prevalence nearly tripled from 1991 (11.7%) to 2009 (29.2%), with significant cohort and age-related effects (stronger in males). Among youth, quantile regression reveals changes across the BMI distribution. By 2009, approximately 12% of children and adolescents were overweight, and 3% of 7-11-year-olds and 1% of 12-17-year-olds were obese (International Obesity Taskforce BMI 25 and 30 kg/m(2) equivalents, respectively). In 1991-2000, urbanicity was strongly and positively associated with BMI, but in 2000-2011, trends were similar across rural and urban areas. Among women, the burden has shifted to lower educated women (the reverse is true for males, as overweight was higher in men of higher education). Our findings highlight the importance of preventive measures early in the life cycle to reduce weight gain.


Assuntos
Obesidade , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Urbanização , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo
20.
Obes Rev ; 15 Suppl 1: 49-59, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24341758

RESUMO

Strong secular declines in physical activity, increased fat and salt intake, and increased obesity, especially abdominal obesity, mark China's recent nutrition transition. The China Health and Nutrition 2009 Survey collected anthropometry, blood pressure and fasting blood samples from more than 9,000 individuals ≥ 7 years of age. We focus on elevated blood pressure and plasma markers of diabetes, inflammation and dyslipidemia. We used international definitions of cardiometabolic risk and estimated age- and sex-specific prevalence ratios for each outcome for high waist circumference or overweight. We used logistic regression to assess each risk factor's association with diet, physical activity, overweight and abdominal obesity. Cardiometabolic risk prevalence was high in all age groups Prevalence ratios for most risk factors were nearly doubled for overweight or high waist circumference groups. Prevalence ratios were higher in younger than older adults. Low physical activity consistently predicted higher cardiometabolic risk across most outcomes and age-sex groups. The co-occurrence of overweight and high waist circumference was highly predictive of dyslipidemia, elevated glycated haemoglobin and diabetes. High prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors and their strong association with weight status and abdominal obesity in young adults portend increases in cardiometabolic morbidity and mortality. Early interventions will be required to reverse trends.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Atividade Motora , Obesidade Abdominal , Comportamento Sedentário , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Circunferência da Cintura
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