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1.
Dalton Trans ; 2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578639

RESUMO

We report the first successful synthesis of a CF2 derivative of the stable endohedral fullerene Sc3N@Ih-C80. Reaction with CF2ClCOONa yields a single Cs-symmetric Sc3N@C80(CF2) adduct where the CF2 group is inserted into a [6,6]-bond and opens it to 2.3 Å between the bridgehead carbon atoms. As evidenced by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy as well as cyclic voltammetry, both the HOMO and the LUMO level of Sc3N@C80(CF2) are slightly (ca. 0.1 eV) downshifted with respect to the parent Sc3N@Ih-C80, so the HOMO-LUMO gap remains essentially unchanged. The DFT calculations suggest that the reaction mechanism is not the previously assumed [2 + 1]-cycloaddition of :CF2 carbene but rather nucleophilic addition of CF2Cl- anion followed by elimination of Cl- and closing of the CF2 bridge via intramolecular nucleophilic substitution. Selective formation of the [6,6]-Sc3N@C80(CF2) turns out to be kinetically controlled and promoted by a particular orientation of the endohedral Sc3N cluster with respect to the CF2Cl- addition site. In its turn, the CF2 addend partly hampers the rotation of Sc3N the endohedral cluster compared to its quasi-free reorientations in the parent Sc3N@Ih-C80.

2.
Inorg Chem ; 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323982

RESUMO

The formation of ferrocenyl-functionalized iron and cobalt carbonyl clusters is reported, based on a reaction of FcPCl2 (3) (Fc = Fe(η5-C5H5)(η5-C5H4)) with Fe2(CO)9 and Co2(CO)8, respectively. Therein, nido-Fe3(CO)9(µ3-PFc)2 (4) and nido-Co4(CO)10(µ3-PFc)2 (5) clusters were obtained as the first diferrocenyl-substituted carbonyl clusters with a symmetrical cluster core. Cluster 4 shows two reversible one-electron processes within the anodic region, based on Fc/Fc+ redox events, as well as two processes in the cathodic region. In situ IR and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements of all electronic states confirmed an Fc-based oxidation and a core-based reduction. On the basis of the results of a single-crystal X-ray analysis of structures of 4 and 5, computational studies of the highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energies, the spin density, quantum theory of atom-in-molecule delocalization indices, and the atomic charges were performed to explain the experimental results. The latter revealed a reorganization of the cluster core upon reduction and the existence of weak P···P interactions in 4 and 5. Ferrocenyl-related redox processes, occurring reversibly in case of 4, were absent for 5, due to a different distribution of the HOMO energies. EPR measurements furthermore confirmed the core-based radical anion and the formation of a decomposition product at potentials lower than [M]2- (M = Fe, Co).

3.
Chemistry ; 26(33): 7497-7503, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298000

RESUMO

Nanographenes (NGs) with tunable electronic and magnetic properties have attracted enormous attention in the realm of carbon-based nanoelectronics. In particular, NGs with biradical character at the ground state are promising building units for molecular spintronics. However, most of the biradicaloids are susceptible to oxidation under ambient conditions and photolytic degradation, which hamper their further applications. Herein, we demonstrated the feasibility of tuning the magnetic properties of zigzag-edged NGs in order to enhance their stability via the controlled Diels-Alder reactions of peri-tetracene (4-PA). The unstable 4-PA (y0 =0.72; half-life, t1/2 =3 h) was transformed into the unprecedented benzo-peri-tetracenes (BPTs) by a one-side Diels-Alder reaction, which featured a biradical character at the ground state (y0 =0.60) and exhibited remarkable stability under ambient conditions for several months. In addition, the fully zigzag-edged circumanthracenes (CAs) were achieved by two-fold or stepwise Diels-Alder reactions of 4-PA, in which the magnetic properties could be controlled by employing the corresponding dienophiles. Our work reported herein opens avenues for the synthesis of novel zigzag-edged NGs with tailor-made magnetic properties.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32190951

RESUMO

Quinoidal azaacenes with almost pure diradical character (y=0.95 to y=0.99) were synthesized. All compounds exhibit paramagnetic behavior investigated by EPR and NMR spectroscopy, and SQUID measurements, revealing thermally populated triplet states with an extremely low-energy gap ΔEST' of 0.58 to 1.0 kcal mol-1 . The species are persistent in solution (half-life≈14-21 h) and in the solid state they are stable for weeks.

5.
Chemistry ; 26(11): 2436-2449, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774196

RESUMO

The substitution of scandium in fullerene single-molecule magnets (SMMs) DySc2 N@C80 and Dy2 ScN@C80 by lutetium has been studied to explore the influence of the diamagnetic metal on the SMM performance of dysprosium nitride clusterfullerenes. The use of lutetium led to an improved SMM performance of DyLu2 N@C80 , which shows a higher blocking temperature of magnetization (TB =9.5 K), longer relaxation times, and broader hysteresis than DySc2 N@C80 (TB =6.9 K). At the same time, Dy2 LuN@C80 was found to have a similar blocking temperature of magnetization to Dy2 ScN@C80 (TB =8 K), but substantially different interactions between the magnetic moments of the dysprosium ions in the Dy2 MN clusters. Surprisingly, although the intramolecular dipolar interactions in Dy2 LuN@C80 and Dy2 ScN@C80 are of similar strength, the exchange interactions in Dy2 LuN@C80 are close to zero. Analysis of the low-frequency molecular and lattice vibrations showed strong mixing of the lattice modes and endohedral cluster librations in k-space. This mixing simplifies the spin-lattice relaxation by conserving the momentum during the spin flip and helping to distribute the moment and energy further into the lattice.

6.
J Org Chem ; 85(1): 215-223, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718187

RESUMO

Herein, we demonstrate an efficient synthesis of two antiaromatic constitutional isomers of pyrene-fused dicyclopenta[a,f]naphthalenes (PCPNs) 1a and 1b featuring 44 π-conjugated electrons. Notably, the thermodynamic stability of PCPNs can be tuned by ortho-fusing pyrene moieties to either the a or b bond of dicyclopentanaphthalene (CPN) leading to labile 1,5- (1a) or stable 2,6-naphthoquinodimethane (NQDM) (1b) configurations, respectively. Both isomers 1a and 1b exhibit moderate open-shell biradical characters (y0) of 0.48 and 0.44 and narrow energy gaps of 1.0 and 1.1 eV, respectively. Moreover, the spectroscopic and spin properties of radical cation and anion species of 1a and 1b are elucidated by in situ EPR/UV-vis-NIR spectroelectrochemical investigations. Furthermore, a solution-processed field-effect transistor of 1b was fabricated, manifesting its promising potential in organic electronics.

7.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(14): 5756-5764, 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860759

RESUMO

Magnetic hysteresis is demonstrated for monolayers of the single-molecule magnet (SMM) Dy2 ScN@C80 deposited on Au(111), Ag(100), and MgO|Ag(100) surfaces by vacuum sublimation. The topography and electronic structure of Dy2 ScN@C80 adsorbed on Au(111) were studied by STM. X-ray magnetic CD studies show that the Dy2 ScN@C80 monolayers exhibit similarly broad magnetic hysteresis independent on the substrate used, but the orientation of the Dy2 ScN cluster depends strongly on the surface. DFT calculations show that the extent of the electronic interaction of the fullerene molecules with the surface is increasing dramatically from MgO to Au(111) and Ag(100). However, the charge redistribution at the fullerene-surface interface is fully absorbed by the carbon cage, leaving the state of the endohedral cluster intact. This Faraday cage effect of the fullerene preserves the magnetic bistability of fullerene-SMMs on conducting substrates and facilitates their application in molecular spintronics.

8.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(14): 5637-5642, 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867754

RESUMO

Three unprecedented helical nanographenes (1, 2, and 3) containing an azulene unit are synthesized. The resultant helical structures are unambiguously confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The embedded azulene unit in 2 possesses a record-high twisting degree (16.1°) as a result of the contiguous steric repulsion at the helical inner rim. Structural analysis in combination with theoretical calculations reveals that these helical nanographenes manifest a global aromatic structure, while the inner azulene unit exhibits weak antiaromatic character. Furthermore, UV/Vis-spectral measurements reveal that superhelicenes 2 and 3 possess narrow energy gaps (2: 1.88 eV; 3: 2.03 eV), as corroborated by cyclic voltammetry and supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The stable oxidized and reduced states of 2 and 3 are characterized by in-situ EPR/Vis-NIR spectroelectrochemistry. Our study provides a novel synthetic strategy for helical nanographenes containing azulene units as well as their associated structures and physical properties.

9.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(93): 13963-13966, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686083

RESUMO

The hunt for high-performance single-molecule magnets (SMM) revealed that atomic and molecular lanthanide systems combining 4f-shell and valence magnetism (FV-magnetism) may show magnetic bistability up to unexpectedly high temperatures. Here we rationalize the stability of the magnetism in the FV-systems from first principles on the example of LnII(CpiPr5)2 molecules.

10.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 6(20): 1901352, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637168

RESUMO

A new class of single-molecule magnets (SMMs) based on Dy-oxide clusterfullerenes is synthesized. Three isomers of Dy2O@C82 with C s(6), C 3v(8), and C 2v(9) cage symmetries are characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, which shows that the endohedral Dy-(µ2-O)-Dy cluster has bent shape with very short Dy-O bonds. Dy2O@C82 isomers show SMM behavior with broad magnetic hysteresis, but the temperature and magnetization relaxation depend strongly on the fullerene cage. The short Dy-O distances and the large negative charge of the oxide ion in Dy2O@C82 result in the very strong magnetic anisotropy of Dy ions. Their magnetic moments are aligned along the Dy-O bonds and are antiferromagnetically (AFM) coupled. At low temperatures, relaxation of magnetization in Dy2O@C82 proceeds via the ferromagnetically (FM)-coupled excited state, giving Arrhenius behavior with the effective barriers equal to the AFM-FM energy difference. The AFM-FM energy differences of 5.4-12.9 cm-1 in Dy2O@C82 are considerably larger than in SMMs with {Dy2O2} bridges, and the Dy∙∙∙Dy exchange coupling in Dy2O@C82 is the strongest among all dinuclear Dy SMMs with diamagnetic bridges. Dy-oxide clusterfullerenes provide a playground for the further tuning of molecular magnetism via variation of the size and shape of the fullerene cage.

11.
Acc Chem Res ; 52(10): 2981-2993, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571482

RESUMO

A characteristic phenomenon of lanthanide-fullerene interactions is the transfer of metal valence electrons to the carbon cage. With early lanthanides such as La, a complete transfer of six valence electrons takes place for the metal dimers encapsulated in the fullerene cage. However, the low energy of the σ-type Ln-Ln bonding orbital in the second half of the lanthanide row limits the Ln2 → fullerene transfer to only five electrons. One electron remains in the Ln-Ln bonding orbital, whereas the fullerene cage with a formal charge of -5 is left electron-deficient. Such Ln2@C80 molecules are unstable in the neutral form but can be stabilized by substitution of one carbon atom by nitrogen to give azafullerenes Ln2@C79N or by quenching the unpaired electron on the fullerene cage by reacting it with a chemical such as benzyl bromide, transforming one sp2 carbon into an sp3 carbon and yielding the monoadduct Ln2@C80(CH2Ph). Because of the presence of the Ln-Ln bonding molecular orbital with one electron, the Ln2@C79N and Ln2@C80(R) molecules feature a unique single-electron Ln-Ln bond and an unconventional +2.5 oxidation state of the lanthanides. In this Account, which brings together metallofullerenes, molecular magnets, and lanthanides in unconventional valence states, we review the progress in the studies of dimetallofullerenes with single-electron Ln-Ln bonds and highlight the consequences of the unpaired electron residing in the Ln-Ln bonding orbital for the magnetic interactions between Ln ions. Usually, Ln···Ln exchange coupling in polynuclear lanthanide compounds is weak because of the core nature of 4f electrons. However, when interactions between Ln centers are mediated by a radical bridge, stronger coupling may be achieved because of the diffuse nature of radical-based orbitals. Ultimately, when the role of a radical bridge is played by a single unpaired electron in the Ln-Ln bonding orbital, the strength of the exchange coupling is increased dramatically. Giant exchange coupling in endohedral Ln2 dimers is combined with a rather strong axial ligand field exerted on the lanthanide ions by the fullerene cage and the excess electron density localized between two Ln ions. As a result, Ln2@C79N and Ln2@C80(CH2Ph) compounds exhibit slow relaxation of magnetization and exceptionally high blocking temperatures for Ln = Dy and Tb. At low temperatures, the [Ln3+-e-Ln3+] fragment behaves as a single giant spin. Furthermore, the Ln-Ln bonding orbital in dimetallofullerenes is redox-active, which allows its population to be changed by electrochemical reactions, thus changing the magnetic properties because the change in the number of electrons residing in the Ln-Ln orbital affects the magnetic structure of the molecule.

12.
Chemistry ; 25(65): 14858-14869, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31523861

RESUMO

A series of compounds with Sc3 N@Ih -C80 in the neutral, monomeric, and dimeric anion states have been prepared in the crystalline form and their molecular structures and optical and magnetic properties have been studied. The neutral Sc3 N@Ih -C80 ⋅3 C6 H4 Cl2 (1) and (Sc3 N@Ih -C80 )3 (TPC)2 ⋅5 C6 H4 Cl2 (2, TPC=triptycene) compounds both crystallized in a high-symmetry trigonal structure. The reduction of Sc3 N@Ih -C80 to the radical anion resulted in dimerization to form diamagnetic singly bonded (Sc3 N@Ih -C80 - )2 dimers. In contrast to {[2.2.2]cryptand(Na+ )}2 (Sc3 N@Ih -C80 - )2 ⋅2.5 C6 H4 Cl2 (3) with strongly disordered components, we synthesized new dimeric phases {[2.2.2]cryptand- (K+ )}2 (Sc3 N@Ih -C80 - )2 ⋅2 C6 H4 Cl2 (4) and {[2.2.2]cryptand- (Cs+ )}2 (Sc3 N@Ih -C80 - )2 ⋅2 C6 H4 Cl2 (5) in which only one major dimer orientation was found. The thermal stability of the (Sc3 N@Ih -C80 - )2 dimers was studied by EPR analysis of 3 to show their dissociation in the 400-460 K range producing monomeric Sc3 N@Ih -C80 .- radical anions. This species shows an EPR signal with a hyperfine splitting of 5.8 mT. The energy of the intercage C-C bond was estimated to be 234±7 kJ mol-1 , the highest value among negatively charged fullerene dimers. The EPR spectra of crystalline (Bu3 MeP+ )3 (Sc3 N@Ih -C80 .- )3 ⋅C6 H4 Cl2 (6) are presented for the first time. The salt shows an asymmetric EPR signal, which could be fitted by three lines. Two lines were attributed to Sc3 N@Ih -C80 .- . Hyperfine splitting is manifested above 180 K due to the hyperfine interaction of the electron spin with the three scandium atoms (a total of 22 lines with an average splitting of 5.32 mT are observed at 220 K). Furthermore, each of the 22 lines is additionally split into six lines with an average separation of 0.82 mT. The large splitting indicates intrinsic charge and spin density transfer from the fullerene cage to the Sc3 N cluster. Both the monomeric and dimeric Sc3 N@Ih -C80 - anions show an intrinsic shift of the IR bands attributed to the Sc3 N cluster and new bands corresponding to these species appear in the NIR range of their UV/Vis/NIR spectra, which allows these anions to be distinguished from neutral species.

13.
Chemistry ; 25(59): 13547-13565, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381207

RESUMO

A solution, solid-state, and computational study is reported of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon PAH/PAH(CF3 )n donor/acceptor (D/A) charge-transfer complexes that involve six PAH(CF3 )n acceptors with known gas-phase electron affinities that range from 2.11(2) to 2.805(15) eV and four PAH donors, including seven CT co-crystal X-ray structures that exhibit hexagonal arrays of mixed π-stacks with 1/1, 1/2, or 2/1 D/A stoichiometries (PAH=anthracene, azulene, coronene, perylene, pyrene, triphenylene; n=5, 6). These are the first D/A CT complexes with PAH(CF3 )n acceptors to be studied in detail. The nine D/A combinations were chosen to allow several structural and electronic comparisons to be made, providing new insights about controlling D/A interactions and the structures of CT co-crystals. The comparisons include, among others, CT complexes of the same PAH(CF3 )n acceptor with four PAH donors and CT complexes of the same donor with four PAH(CF3 )n acceptors. All nine CT complexes exhibit charge-transfer bands in solution with λmax between 467 and 600 nm. A plot of E(λmax ) versus [IE(donor)-EA(acceptor)] for the nine CT complexes studied is linear with a slope of 0.72±0.03 eV eV-1 . This plot is the first of its kind for CT complexes with structurally related donors and acceptors for which precise experimental gas-phase IEs and EAs are known. It demonstrates that conclusions based on the common assumption that the slope of a CT E(λmax ) versus [IE-EA] plot is unity may be incorrect in at least some cases and should be reconsidered.

14.
Nucleic Acid Ther ; 29(5): 278-290, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31194620

RESUMO

Murine Krebs-2 tumor-initiating stem cells are known to natively internalize extracellular double-stranded DNA fragments. Being internalized, these fragments interfere in the repair of chemically induced interstrand cross-links. In the current investigation, 756 bp polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product containing bulky photoreactive dC adduct was used as extracellular DNA. This adduct was shown to inhibit the cellular system of nucleotide excision repair while being resistant to excision by this DNA repair system. The basic parameters for this DNA probe internalization by the murine Krebs-2 tumor cells were characterized. Being incubated under regular conditions (60 min, 24°C, 500 µL of the incubation medium, in the dark), 0.35% ± 0.18% of the Krebs-2 ascites cells were shown to natively internalize modified DNA. The saturating amount of the modified DNA was detected to be 0.37 µg per 106 cells. For the similar unmodified DNA fragments, this ratio is 0.73 µg per 106 cells. Krebs-2 tumor cells were shown to be saturated internalizing either (190 ± 40) × 103 molecules of modified DNA or (1,000 ± 100) × 103 molecules of native DNA. On internalization, the fragments of DNA undergo partial and nonuniform hydrolysis of 3' ends followed by circularization. The degree of hydrolysis, assessed by sequencing of several clones with the insertion of specific PCR product, was 30-60 nucleotides.

15.
Chem Sci ; 10(14): 4025-4031, 2019 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31105925

RESUMO

Controlling the aromaticity and electronic properties of curved π-conjugated systems has been increasingly attractive for the development of novel functional materials for organic electronics. Herein, we demonstrate an efficient synthesis of two novel wave-shaped polycyclic hydrocarbons (PHs) 1 and 2 with 64 π-electrons. Among them, the wave-shaped π-conjugated carbon skeleton of 2 is unambiguously revealed by single-crystal X-ray crystallography analysis. The wave-shaped geometry is induced by steric congestion in the cove and fjord regions. Remarkably, the aromaticity of these two structural isomers can be tailored by the annulated direction of cyclopenta[b]fluorene units. Isomer 1 (Eoptg = 1.13 eV) behaves as a closed-shell compound with weakly antiaromatic feature, whereas its structural isomer 2 displays a highly stable tetraradical character (y 0 = 0.23; y 1 = 0.22; t 1/2 = 91 days) with a narrow optical energy gap of 0.96 eV. Moreover, the curved PH 2 exhibits remarkable ambipolar charge transport in solution-processed organic thin-film transistors. Our research provides a new insight into the design and synthesis of stable functional curved aromatics with multiradical characters.

16.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(16): 8197-8200, 2019 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816387

RESUMO

The ordering of endohedral clusterfullerenes Sc3N@C80 and YSc2N@C80 co-crystallized with Ni(OEP) and isolated complexes with Ni(OEP) have been investigated theoretically. Having used multiple orientations of M3N clusters inside the cages with Fibonacci sampling, we describe the effect of intermolecular interactions on the orientation of the endohedral cluster.

17.
Chemistry ; 25(21): 5412-5415, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30724396

RESUMO

A thiaazulenic quinone TAQ was synthesized and its optical and redox properties were investigated. The deep blue-colored compound is readily and reversibly reduced to the colorless anionic state. Electrochromic films were prepared and showed reversible switching behavior for the anodically coloring and NIR electrochromic material.

18.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(18): 5891-5896, 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30786125

RESUMO

The azafullerene Tb2 @C79 N is found to be a single-molecule magnet with a high 100-s blocking temperature of magnetization of 24 K and large coercivity. Tb magnetic moments with an easy-axis single-ion magnetic anisotropy are strongly coupled by the unpaired spin of the single-electron Tb-Tb bond. Relaxation of magnetization in Tb2 @C79 N below 15 K proceeds via quantum tunneling of magnetization with the characteristic time τQTM =16 462±1230 s. At higher temperature, relaxation follows the Orbach mechanism with a barrier of 757±4 K, corresponding to the excited states, in which one of the Tb spins is flipped.

19.
Org Lett ; 21(5): 1354-1358, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785760

RESUMO

Two novel nonhexagonal ring fused NBN-dibenzophenalenes (NBN-penta and NBN-hepta) were designed and synthesized. X-ray analysis reveals the planar structure of NBN-penta, while NBN-hepta displays a double-helical structure. Both compounds possess higher oxidation potential compared to the NBN-type zigzag-edged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The resultant NBN-penta and NBN-hepta exhibit global aromatic character based on X-ray analysis and DFT calculations. Furthermore, single crystal transistors of NBN-penta and NBN-hepta were fabricated, manifesting their promising potential in organic electronics.

20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 571, 2019 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718550

RESUMO

Engineering intramolecular exchange interactions between magnetic metal atoms is a ubiquitous strategy for designing molecular magnets. For lanthanides, the localized nature of 4f electrons usually results in weak exchange coupling. Mediating magnetic interactions between lanthanide ions via radical bridges is a fruitful strategy towards stronger coupling. In this work we explore the limiting case when the role of a radical bridge is played by a single unpaired electron. We synthesize an array of air-stable Ln2@C80(CH2Ph) dimetallofullerenes (Ln2 = Y2, Gd2, Tb2, Dy2, Ho2, Er2, TbY, TbGd) featuring a covalent lanthanide-lanthanide bond. The lanthanide spins are glued together by very strong exchange interactions between 4f moments and a single electron residing on the metal-metal bonding orbital. Tb2@C80(CH2Ph) shows a gigantic coercivity of 8.2 Tesla at 5 K and a high 100-s blocking temperature of magnetization of 25.2 K. The Ln-Ln bonding orbital in Ln2@C80(CH2Ph) is redox active, enabling electrochemical tuning of the magnetism.

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