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1.
Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genet Selektsii ; 26(7): 630-636, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36532621

RESUMO

Recently, the trend of using fruit and berry crops as ingredients for functional and dietary nutrition, the development and implementation of f lavors, pigments, new medicines and dietary supplements has been actualized. Because the direction of use depends on the biochemical properties of fruits, which are determined not only by species and varietal characteristics, but also by reproduction conditions, the study of the biochemical composition of fruits grown in various regions of the world continues to be relevant. In this regard, the collection of N.I. Vavilov Institute (VIR), which has a wide diversity of fruit and berry crops, is of great interest for study. Ribes nigrum fruits have a balanced set of sugars, organic acids, essential oils, microelements, a high content of vitamins, anthocyanins, pectins. Lonicera caerulea fruits are characterized by high values of phenolic substances: biof lavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids, f lavonols, polyphenols, anthocyanins, as well as vitamins, carotenoids, iridoid glycosides and other natural antioxidants. The investigation of L. caerulea and R. nigrum fruit's accessions from the VIR collection using gas-liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry allows us to obtain new information about the biochemical characteristics of fruits, to identify L. caerulea and R. nigrum varieties with optimal economically valuable characteristics, to determine the specif icity of L. caerulea and R. nigrum metabolomic spectra in the setting of Northwest Russia. As a result of the analysis, typical compounds of the metabolomic prof ile of each culture were identif ied. Organic acids, phenol-containing compounds and polyols prevailed in L. caerulea, while mono- and oligosaccharides, in R. nigrum. The qualitative composition of the black currant varieties 'Malen'kii Printz', 'Dobriyi Dzhinn', 'Tisel', 'Orlovskii Val's', and blue honeysuckle 'S 322-4', 'Malvina', 'Leningradsky Velikan' was optimal for food consumption; the varieties of blue honeysuckle 'Bazhovskaya' and black currant 'Aleander' had a good representation of biologically active compounds, which makes samples attractive as raw materials for the production of biologically active additives, including with the use of microorganisms' cultures.

2.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36534625

RESUMO

Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (MNTI) is a neonatal tumor with progressive growth and high recurrence rate. Aggressive growth and localization of tumor often lead to significant cosmetic defects of cranial and facial bones. The authors report MNTI in a 6-month-old boy with lesion of the large fontanel. Total resection was followed by recurrence after 3 weeks. Repeated resection with subsequent radiotherapy was performed. The follow-up period was 6 months after repeated resection. There was no tumor growth throughout this period. Considering this case and world experience, we can conclude that treatment strategy for MNTI is still unclear.


Assuntos
Tumor Neuroectodérmico Melanótico , Masculino , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Lactente , Tumor Neuroectodérmico Melanótico/patologia , Tumor Neuroectodérmico Melanótico/cirurgia , Crânio/patologia
3.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 138(6): 123-132, 2022.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36573956

RESUMO

In recent years, the problem of diagnosing and treating neurotrophic keratopathy (NK) has become relevant in view of its prevalence reaching 1.6-11.0 per 10000 people. While previously it was associated only with neuroparalytic keratitis, at present the violation of sensitive and trophic innervation of the cornea with the development of characteristic keratopathy is observed in many diseases and injuries of the organ of vision. Diagnosis of NK is based on anamnestic information and assessment of clinical and functional parameters: determination of the stability of the tear film, tear production and assessment of staining of the ocular surface with vital dyes. The main role in the diagnosis of NK belongs to corneal sensitivity determined with the Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer. Treatment of NK is designed to restore or increase corneal sensitivity and involves tear replacement therapy, instillations of preparations derived from patient's own blood, anti-inflammatory, metabolic and antibacterial therapy. However, instillations of human erve growth factor (NGF) - the drug Cenegermin (registered in Europe in 2017 at a dose of 20 µg/ml under the name Oxervate), a recombinant form of human rhNGF from Escherichia coli bacteria - exhibit the highest pathogenetic orientation. Its «target¼ is the affected nerve fibers (specific receptors for their growth factor), which makes it possible to eliminate the violation of reparative processes in neural and epithelial cells. A high and long-term clinical efficacy of a course of six (with an interval of 2 hours) instillations of the drug for 8 weeks in the treatment of children and adults with NK has been established. Among the pathogenetically justified methods of surgical treatment, there is the so-called surgical neurotization of the cornea involving the contralateral supraorbital, supratrochlear, great auricular and other nerves, which has a long-term clinical effect.


Assuntos
Doenças da Córnea , Distrofias Hereditárias da Córnea , Ceratite , Doenças do Nervo Trigêmeo , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Ceratite/diagnóstico , Ceratite/terapia , Córnea , Doenças da Córnea/diagnóstico , Doenças da Córnea/terapia , Doenças do Nervo Trigêmeo/terapia , Doenças do Nervo Trigêmeo/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Her Russ Acad Sci ; 92(4): 488-490, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36091851

RESUMO

The results of a comprehensive study are presented on the development and creation of an original small PDSTP molecule, able to prevent the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus infection from binding to the host cell. The PDSTP molecule was designed to electrostatically interact with heparan sulfate proteoglycans on the cell surface, and coronaviruses, particularly SARS-CoV-2, use this mechanism as the first stage of interaction with the cell. By blocking this process, it is possible to stop the life cycle of the virus, thus leading to its death. The drug candidate PDSTP, with its unique mechanism of action, is characterized by a very low toxicity and a high safety profile and demonstrates good efficacy in animal experiments.

5.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 616: 134-139, 2022 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35667288

RESUMO

Once you have missed the first button …, you'll never manage to button up Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Formate oxidation is a final step of methanol oxidation in methylotrophic prokaryotes and is important for detoxification of formate in other organisms. The structural mechanism of the formate dehydrogenase (FDH) of Pseudomonas sp. 101 has been studied for about 30 years. In the active center of FDH, the oxidation of formic acid into carbon dioxide in a NAD+-dependent way takes place. Residues that form the active center of that enzyme, as well as those that form the so-called substrate channel, are engaged in the catalytic cycle. Our study allowed to characterize a new residue, Tyr102, involved in the work of the enzyme. This residue is located in the outer neck of the substrate channel (at the beginning of the path of the substrate to the active center) and acts as a "button" which connects two enzyme domains into an active, "buttoned up" conformation. Our study of the kinetic parameters of mutant enzymes has shown that Tyr102Phe substitution leads to an approximately 80-fold increase of the Michaelis constant relative to the native enzyme, unlike Phe311Trp and Phe311Tyr substitution of neighboring residue Phe311. Our analysis of the Tyr102Phe mutant in the open conformation by X-ray crystallography has shown that its overall fold remains almost the same as that of the native enzyme. Molecular dynamics simulations of the ternary complexes of the native FDH enzyme and its Tyr102Phe mutant showed that Tyr102Phe substitution results in the loss of an interdomain hydrogen bond between the Tyr102 and Gln313 residues, which, in turn, destabilizes the closed conformation and affects the isolation of the FDH active site from water molecules. Our structural investigations have shown that Tyr102Phe replacement also leads to the destruction of interdomain contacts of Phe102 with Phe311, Pro312 residues, and decreases the stability of the Leu103-Val127 beta bridge. Phylogenetic analysis also confirmed the importance of the Tyr102 residue for enzymes from the FDH family, in which it is absolutely conserved.


Assuntos
Formiato Desidrogenases , NAD , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Formiato Desidrogenases/química , Formiato Desidrogenases/genética , Formiato Desidrogenases/metabolismo , Formiatos , NAD/metabolismo , Filogenia , Pseudomonas
6.
Stomatologiia (Mosk) ; 101(3): 61-69, 2022.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35640181

RESUMO

THE AIM THE STUDY: The purpose of the work is to perform automated alignment of two-dimensional archival photographs of the first prosthesis and a digital model of the complete removable prosthesis by superposition in order to determine or deny their possible belonging to one user. MATERIALS END METHODS: The superposition was carried out in the Exocad program (DentalCAD 3.0 Galway) using the standard 2D-3D alignment algorithm of the «SmileDesign¼ module; in the same program. In addition, Keynote and Fusion 360, and Autodesk programs were used. Statistical measurements were carried out at the statistically significant level of p<0.05. RESULTS: A comparison of four different-angle and different-scale photographic images of a removable denture of the upper jaw teeth with a three-dimensional copy of the same version of the prosthesis of the life physician of the royal family E.S. Botkin was made. When superimposing a digital three-dimensional model and a two-dimensional photograph of the original prosthesis with marked anthropometric points (n=51), 21 of them coincided or touched each other (41.2%). Another 26 points were located side by side (distance up to 1.5 mm) (50.9%) and 4 did not coincide (distance >1.5 mm, but no more than 3.5-4 mm) (7.8%). When the reference points were combined, the contours, the configuration of the relief and the peripheral boundaries of all three objects mostly coincided. The linear longitudinal and transverse dimensions of the bases of the prostheses also mostly coincided. The exception was the distal border of the bases, and the level of the cutting edges of the anterior artificial teeth, where complete coincidence was not observed, due to differences in the degree of erasability. CONCLUSION: Comparison of the original prosthesis from Ipatiev's house and its stereolithographic model was a test for the accuracy of the matching method used. The stereotype of the compared images is proved and the consistency of the possibility of computer combination of three-dimensional and two-dimensional objects is confirmed. The use of traditional methods of forensic identification and evaluation of the results by methods of mathematical statistics allowed us to conclude that the two different complete removable dentures of the upper jaw depicted in the photographs belong to one user.


Assuntos
Prótese Total , Odontologia Legal , Prótese Parcial , Humanos , Dente Artificial
7.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 65(3): 39-41, 2022.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35613446

RESUMO

An unusual expert observation of the death of a man from falling into a working disk sawmill is presented. As a result of the forensic medical examination of the corpse, a sawn wound of the right lower limb with subtotal traumatic amputation at the level of the upper third of the lower leg was found. The above observation complements the forensic understanding of the relatively rare sawn injuries caused by circular saws in production conditions. Despite the surgical intervention that took place in the described case, which led to a modification of the primary picture of sawn damage, it remains possible to diagnose the damaging factor, some of its characteristics, the mechanism of action and solve the situational problem.


Assuntos
Amputação Traumática , Amputação Traumática/cirurgia , Cadáver , Medicina Legal , Humanos , Perna (Membro) , Masculino
8.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 65(3): 42-44, 2022.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35613447

RESUMO

A case of suicide using technical electricity is presented. The fact of electrical injury is confirmed by the typical macroscopic and microscopic picture of an electric mark. The location of the conductors on the body indicated the victim's knowledge of the effect of electric current on the human body, the ways of its propagation through the body through the vital organs, preparation and determination in the implementation of suicidal intentions. The interest of this case lies in the fact that electrical injury as a method of suicide is extremely rare in expert practice.


Assuntos
Traumatismos por Eletricidade , Suicídio , Traumatismos por Eletricidade/etiologia , Humanos
9.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 34(29)2022 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35508149

RESUMO

The dispersion, excitation, and amplification of electromagnetic transverse electric (TE) modes at terahertz (THz) frequencies in graphene in the hydrodynamic (HD) regime, with a direct electric current flowing perpendicular to the TE mode wavevector, were theoretically investigated. The expression for the nonlocal HD conductivity of graphene with a direct electric current flowing perpendicular to the TE mode wavevector was derived. The direct electric current in graphene leads to the capacitive nature of the graphene HD conductivity at THz frequencies, which makes TE modes exist in this frequency range. The excitation of TE modes in graphene by an incident THz wave was modeled for the attenuated total reflection geometry. A new physical mechanism of TE mode amplification in graphene effective for a low value of carrier drift velocity was predicted. THz lasing regimes with TE modes in graphene structure with direct electric current were found. The results of this work can be used to create miniature technologically feasible sources and amplifiers of THz radiation.

10.
Biochem Mosc Suppl B Biomed Chem ; 16(2): 148-153, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35601460

RESUMO

Methylene blue, a phenothiazine dye, that is widely used in medicine and is under clinical trials as an agent for treatment of Alzheimer's disease. One of the factors of the unique therapeutic effect of methylene blue is its redox properties, allowing implementation of alternative electron transport: the dye accepts electrons from reducing equivalents in mitochondria and transfer them to other components of the respiratory chain or molecular oxygen. Azure I, an N-dimethylated metabolite of methylene blue, is potentially a more effective compound than methylene blue, but its ability for alternative electron transport has not been studied yet. We have shown that in contrast to methylene blue, azure I is unable to restore the membrane potential in isolated mouse brain mitochondria, inhibited by rotenone and, therefore, is unable to perform bypass of the respiratory chain complex I. Moreover, addition of azure I does not affect the rate of mitochondrial respiration in contrast to methylene blue, which increases the rate of non-phosphorylation respiration. At the same time, both dyes stimulate an increase in H2O2 production. Thus, only methylene blue is capable of alternative electron transport, while azure I does not produce complex I bypass. This limits its therapeutic application only as a mitochondrial-targeted agent, but does not question its antidepressant effects.

11.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 65(2): 37-39, 2022.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35416015

RESUMO

THE AIM OF THE STUDY: Is to determine whether dentures belong to one or different users. The results of a comparative visual comparison of two different-scale and different-angle photographs of removable dentures of the maxilla teeth are presented. The comparison was carried out by 20 experienced orthopedic dentists. The opinion of the overwhelming majority: with a high degree of probability, the dentures belong to one user. Experts based their judgment on 13 independent attributes. From a forensic medical point of view, the assessment contains elements of subjectivity. The conclusion about the possibility of solving the question posed on the basis of objective methods of forensic identification is formulated.


Assuntos
Odontologia
12.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 65(2): 46-50, 2022.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35416017

RESUMO

The article presents the case of the death of a premature and immature newborn infant, who was placed in the refrigerator freezer after birth. To determine the thanatogenesis of the infant's death, medical documents and case materials were studied, which made it possible to determine the development of pathological processes that led to the death of the newborn, defects in the primary examination of the corpse and shortcomings in the histological examination, limiting judgments about the circumstances of the infant's death.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido
13.
Dokl Biochem Biophys ; 502(1): 5-9, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35275298

RESUMO

It was shown for the first time that the treatment of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seeds with gold nanoparticles (average diameter 15.3 nm; solution concentration 20 µg/mL) increases plant tolerance to low temperature. It was found that an increase in tolerance under the influence of nanoparticles is accompanied by a number of changes depending on temperature conditions. In optimal temperature conditions, gold nanoparticles stimulated plant growth and the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus, whereas in conditions of low-temperature hardening (2°C, 7 days) they inhibited growth but maintained photosynthetic activity, contributing to the accumulation of soluble sugars (cryoprotectants) in the leaves. It is concluded that gold nanoparticles can be considered as adaptogens that increase plant tolerance to low temperatures; however, their effectiveness in this role and the subtle mechanisms of action require further study.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Triticum , Temperatura Baixa , Ouro/farmacologia , Temperatura
14.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 65(1): 46-48, 2022.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35142471

RESUMO

Construction and assembly pistols are widely used but single observations are described in the forensic medical literature and, as a rule, concerning shots to the head. An unusual case of suicide by a shot in the neck from a TOUA 307 construction and assembly pistol is presented: a blind shell wound was found to the left half of the neck and with damage to the cervical spine and spinal cord. The above observation complements the existing ideas about the possibility of causing self-harm from an atypical weapon - a construction and assembly pistol.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo , Suicídio , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo , Vértebras Cervicais , Medicina Legal , Humanos
15.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35170282

RESUMO

Depressed skull fractures (ping-pong) in the fetus and newborn are associated with birth canal pathology, maternal trauma and birth trauma following instrumental delivery. The authors report a newborn with a depressed skull fracture (ping-pong) who underwent minimally invasive neurosurgical lifting of bone fragment through a burr hole. Strategy and methods of treatment of similar depressed skull fractures were comprehensively discussed. Moreover, the authors proposed a brief algorithm for the use of vacuum systems and various surgical techniques, including follow-up depending on type, cause, size of the fracture and concomitant intracranial lesions.


Assuntos
Fratura do Crânio com Afundamento , Fraturas Cranianas , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Crânio , Fratura do Crânio com Afundamento/diagnóstico por imagem , Fratura do Crânio com Afundamento/cirurgia , Fraturas Cranianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Cranianas/cirurgia , Trepanação
16.
Biomed Khim ; 67(6): 485-490, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34964442

RESUMO

Methylene blue is a phenothiazine dye that is widely used in medicine and clinical trials for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. One of the factors of the unique therapeutic effect of methylene blue is its redox properties, allowing implementation of alternative electron transport - the dye accepts electrons from reducing equivalents in the mitochondria and transfer it them to other components of the respiratory chain or molecular oxygen. Azure I, an N-dimethylated metabolite of methylene blue, is potentially a more effective compound than methylene blue, but its ability for alternative electron transport has not been studied. We have shown that azure I, unlike methylene blue, is unable to restore the membrane potential in isolated mouse brain mitochondria, inhibited by rotenone and, therefore, is unable to perform bypass of the respiratory chain Complex I. Moreover, the addition of azure I does not affect the rate of mitochondrial respiration in contrast to methylene blue, which increases the rate of non-phosphorylation respiration. At the same time, both dyes stimulate an increase in H2O2 production. As a consequence, only methylene blue is capable of alternative electron transport, while azure I does not produce complex I bypass. This limits its therapeutic application only as a mitochondrial-targeted drug, but not as a substance with a potentially powerful antidepressant effect.


Assuntos
Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Azul de Metileno , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Azul de Metileno/metabolismo , Azul de Metileno/farmacologia , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo
17.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (12): 92-98, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34941215

RESUMO

The review is devoted to the most common general clinical and specific grading systems for peritonitis outcome prediction. Particular attention is paid to methodological approaches, prediction reliability, simplicity of use in clinical practice and their importance in decision-making. It is shown that none of the modern grading systems is universal and absolutely reliable. Combining several systems is quite difficult and will take additional time that is impossible for intraoperative environment. Despite various systems for peritonitis outcome prediction, none of them can completely satisfy surgeons, primarily in choice of surgical access, intervention type and option for its completion.


Assuntos
Peritonite , Cirurgiões , Humanos , Peritonite/diagnóstico , Peritonite/etiologia , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 64(5): 4-9, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644025

RESUMO

The history of the development of the Department of Forensic Medicine and law, Pavlov First Leningrad (Saint Petersburg) State Medical University is outlined. The history is presented in the form of the scientific contribution of the heads of the Department of Forensic Medicine to the development of scientific activities of national forensic medicine. The stated period covers 120 years, starting from 1901. The main scientific works, the development of the educational process and expert activity are presented.


Assuntos
Medicina Legal , Universidades , Medicina Legal/educação , Cabeça , História do Século XX , Humanos , Federação Russa
19.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 64(5): 10-12, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644026

RESUMO

Professor R.V. Babakhanyan - Head of the Department of Forensic Medicine and Law, Pavlov First Saint Petersburg State Medical University is one of the notable teachers and scientists among the St. Petersburg forensic experts. Author of 500 published works, co-author of 6 monographs. He trained 28 candidates of medical sciences. The range of scientific interests - topical issues of forensic toxicology and injuries from non-lethal self-defense weapons.


Assuntos
Medicina Legal , Toxicologia Forense , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 64(5): 13-17, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644027

RESUMO

Objective - to substantiate the identification of a new direction in forensic medicine - forensic gerontology. A statistical analysis of the structure of forensic medical research of corpses in terms of age for a twenty-year period has been carried out. The data on the features of the expert assessment of injuries in old age taking into account geriatric syndromes and aging syndromes have been analyzed. The features and difficulties of postmortem diagnosis among persons aged 75+ in cases of nonviolent death were assessed and a significant disproportion in the structure of morbidity with pathology detected during autopsy was noted. The data obtained made it possible to substantiate the selection of a new direction of forensic science and outline the prospects for research in this area.


Assuntos
Geriatria , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Autopsia , Cadáver , Medicina Legal , Patologia Legal , Humanos
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