Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 35
Filtrar
1.
Genet Med ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597769

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95), encoded by DLG4, regulates excitatory synaptic function in the brain. Here we present the clinical and genetic features of 53 patients (42 previously unpublished) with DLG4 variants. METHODS: The clinical and genetic information were collected through GeneMatcher collaboration. All the individuals were investigated by local clinicians and the gene variants were identified by clinical exome/genome sequencing. RESULTS: The clinical picture was predominated by early onset global developmental delay, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, all of which point to a brain disorder. Marfanoid habitus, which was previously suggested to be a characteristic feature of DLG4-related phenotypes, was found in only nine individuals and despite some overlapping features, a distinct facial dysmorphism could not be established. Of the 45 different DLG4 variants, 39 were predicted to lead to loss of protein function and the majority occurred de novo (four with unknown origin). The six missense variants identified were suggested to lead to structural or functional changes by protein modeling studies. CONCLUSION: The present study shows that clinical manifestations associated with DLG4 overlap with those found in other neurodevelopmental disorders of synaptic dysfunction; thus, we designate this group of disorders as DLG4-related synaptopathy.

2.
Genet Med ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33299146

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimsed to provide a comprehensive description of the phenotypic and genotypic spectrum of SNAP25 developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (SNAP25-DEE) by reviewing newly identified and previously reported individuals. METHODS: Individuals harboring heterozygous missense or loss-of-function variants in SNAP25 were assembled through collaboration with international colleagues, matchmaking platforms, and literature review. For each individual, detailed phenotyping, classification, and structural modeling of the identified variant were performed. RESULTS: The cohort comprises 23 individuals with pathogenic or likely pathogenic de novo variants in SNAP25. Intellectual disability and early-onset epilepsy were identified as the core symptoms of SNAP25-DEE, with recurrent findings of movement disorders, cerebral visual impairment, and brain atrophy. Structural modeling for all variants predicted possible functional defects concerning SNAP25 or impaired interaction with other components of the SNARE complex. CONCLUSION: We provide a comprehensive description of SNAP25-DEE with intellectual disability and early-onset epilepsy mostly occurring before the age of two years. These core symptoms and additional recurrent phenotypes show an overlap to genes encoding other components or associated proteins of the SNARE complex such as STX1B, STXBP1, or VAMP2. Thus, these findings advance the concept of a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that may be termed "SNAREopathies."

3.
Genet Med ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33149277

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A few de novo missense variants in the cytoplasmic FMRP-interacting protein 2 (CYFIP2) gene have recently been described as a novel cause of severe intellectual disability, seizures, and hypotonia in 18 individuals, with p.Arg87 substitutions in the majority. METHODS: We assembled data from 19 newly identified and all 18 previously published individuals with CYFIP2 variants. By structural modeling and investigation of WAVE-regulatory complex (WRC)-mediated actin polymerization in six patient fibroblast lines we assessed the impact of CYFIP2 variants on the WRC. RESULTS: Sixteen of 19 individuals harbor two previously described and 11 novel (likely) disease-associated missense variants. We report p.Asp724 as second mutational hotspot (4/19 cases). Genotype-phenotype correlation confirms a consistently severe phenotype in p.Arg87 patients but a more variable phenotype in p.Asp724 and other substitutions. Three individuals with milder phenotypes carry putative loss-of-function variants, which remain of unclear pathogenicity. Structural modeling predicted missense variants to disturb interactions within the WRC or impair CYFIP2 stability. Consistent with its role in WRC-mediated actin polymerization we substantiate aberrant regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in patient fibroblasts. CONCLUSION: Our study expands the clinical and molecular spectrum of CYFIP2-related neurodevelopmental disorder and provides evidence for aberrant WRC-mediated actin dynamics as contributing cellular pathomechanism.

4.
Clin Genet ; 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009816

RESUMO

Ververi-Brady syndrome (VBS, # 617982) is a rare developmental disorder, and loss-of-function variants in QRICH1 were implicated in its etiology. Furthermore, a recognizable phenotype was proposed comprising delayed speech, learning difficulties and dysmorphic signs. Here, we present four unrelated individuals with one known nonsense variant (c.1954C > T; p.[Arg652*]) and three novel de novo QRICH1 variants, respectively. These included two frameshift mutations (c.832_833del; p.(Ser278Leufs*25), c.1812_1813delTG; p.(Glu605Glyfs*25)) and interestingly one missense mutation (c.2207G > A; p.[Ser736Asn]), expanding the mutational spectrum. Enlargement of the cohort by these four individuals contributes to the delineation of the VBS phenotype and suggests expressive speech delay, moderate motor delay, learning difficulties/mild ID, mild microcephaly, short stature and notable social behavior deficits as clinical hallmarks. In addition, one patient presented with nephroblastoma. The possible involvement of QRICH1 in pediatric cancer assumes careful surveillance a key priority for outcome of these patients. Further research and enlargement of cohorts are warranted to learn about the genetic architecture and the phenotypic spectrum in more detail.

5.
Mod Pathol ; 33(11): 2341-2353, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612247

RESUMO

Uterine leiomyomas (ULs) constitute a considerable health burden in the general female population. The fumarate hydratase (FH) deficient subtype is found in up to 1.6% and can occur in hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC) syndrome. We sequenced 13 FH deficient ULs from a previous immunohistochemical screen using a targeted panel and identified biallelic FH variants in all. In eight, we found an FH point mutation (two truncating, six missense) with evidence for loss of the second allele. Variant allele-frequencies in all cases with a point mutation pointed to somatic variants. Spatial clustering of the identified missense variants in the lyase domain indicated altered fumarase oligomerization with subsequent degradation as explanation for the observed FH deficiency. Biallelic FH deletions in five tumors confirm the importance of copy number loss as mutational mechanism. By curating all pathogenic FH variants and calculating their population frequency, we estimate a carrier frequency of up to 1/2,563. Comparing with the prevalence of FH deficient ULs, we conclude that most are sporadic and estimate 2.7-13.9% of females with an FH deficient UL to carry a germline FH variant. Further prospective tumor/normal sequencing studies are needed to develop a reliable screening strategy for HLRCC in women with ULs.

6.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(9): 2037-2048, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710489

RESUMO

The SET domain containing 2, histone lysine methyltransferase encoded by SETD2 is a dual-function methyltransferase for histones and microtubules and plays an important role for transcriptional regulation, genomic stability, and cytoskeletal functions. Specifically, SETD2 is associated with trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 36 (H3K36me3) and methylation of α-tubulin at lysine 40. Heterozygous loss of function and missense variants have previously been described with Luscan-Lumish syndrome (LLS), which is characterized by overgrowth, neurodevelopmental features, and absence of overt congenital anomalies. We have identified 15 individuals with de novo variants in codon 1740 of SETD2 whose features differ from those with LLS. Group 1 consists of 12 individuals with heterozygous variant c.5218C>T p.(Arg1740Trp) and Group 2 consists of 3 individuals with heterozygous variant c.5219G>A p.(Arg1740Gln). The phenotype of Group 1 includes microcephaly, profound intellectual disability, congenital anomalies affecting several organ systems, and similar facial features. Individuals in Group 2 had moderate to severe intellectual disability, low normal head circumference, and absence of additional major congenital anomalies. While LLS is likely due to loss of function of SETD2, the clinical features seen in individuals with variants affecting codon 1740 are more severe suggesting an alternative mechanism, such as gain of function, effects on epigenetic regulation, or posttranslational modification of the cytoskeleton. Our report is a prime example of different mutations in the same gene causing diverging phenotypes and the features observed in Group 1 suggest a new clinically recognizable syndrome uniquely associated with the heterozygous variant c.5218C>T p.(Arg1740Trp) in SETD2.

7.
BMC Med Imaging ; 20(1): 86, 2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRCA1/2 deleterious variants account for most of the hereditary breast and ovarian cancer cases. Prediction models and guidelines for the assessment of genetic risk rely heavily on criteria with high variability such as family cancer history. Here we investigated the efficacy of MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) texture features as a predictor for BRCA mutation status. METHODS: A total of 41 female breast cancer individuals at high genetic risk, sixteen with a BRCA1/2 pathogenic variant and twenty five controls were included. From each MRI 4225 computer-extracted voxels were analyzed. Non-imaging features including clinical, family cancer history variables and triple negative receptor status (TNBC) were complementarily used. Lasso-principal component regression (L-PCR) analysis was implemented to compare the predictive performance, assessed as area under the curve (AUC), when imaging features were used, and lasso logistic regression or conventional logistic regression for the remaining analyses. RESULTS: Lasso-selected imaging principal components showed the highest predictive value (AUC 0.86), surpassing family cancer history. Clinical variables comprising age at disease onset and bilateral breast cancer yielded a relatively poor AUC (~ 0.56). Combination of imaging with the non-imaging variables led to an improvement of predictive performance in all analyses, with TNBC along with the imaging components yielding the highest AUC (0.94). Replacing family history variables with imaging components yielded an improvement of classification performance of ~ 4%, suggesting that imaging compensates the predictive information arising from family cancer structure. CONCLUSIONS: The L-PCR model uncovered evidence for the utility of MRI texture features in distinguishing between BRCA1/2 positive and negative high-risk breast cancer individuals, which may suggest value to diagnostic routine. Integration of computer-extracted texture analysis from MRI modalities in prediction models and inclusion criteria might play a role in reducing false positives or missed cases especially when established risk variables such as family history are missing.

8.
J Neurosci ; 40(29): 5518-5530, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513829

RESUMO

GABAA receptors (GABAARs) are profoundly important for controlling neuronal excitability. Spontaneous and familial mutations to these receptors feature prominently in excitability disorders and neurodevelopmental deficits following disruption to GABA-mediated inhibition. Recent genotyping of an individual with severe epilepsy and Williams-Beuren syndrome identified a frameshifting de novo variant in a major GABAAR gene, GABRA1 This truncated the α1 subunit between the third and fourth transmembrane domains and introduced 24 new residues forming the mature protein, α1Lys374Serfs*25 Cell surface expression of mutant murine GABAARs is severely impaired compared with WT, due to retention in the endoplasmic reticulum. Mutant receptors were differentially coexpressed with ß3, but not with ß2, subunits in mammalian cells. Reduced surface expression was reflected by smaller IPSCs, which may underlie the induction of seizures. The mutant does not have a dominant-negative effect on native neuronal GABAAR expression since GABA current density was unaffected in hippocampal neurons, although mutant receptors exhibited limited GABA sensitivity. To date, the underlying mechanism is unique for epileptogenic variants and involves differential ß subunit expression of GABAAR populations, which profoundly affected receptor function and synaptic inhibition.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT GABAARs are critical for controlling neural network excitability. They are ubiquitously distributed throughout the brain, and their dysfunction underlies many neurologic disorders, especially epilepsy. Here we report the characterization of an α1-GABAAR variant that results in severe epilepsy. The underlying mechanism is structurally unusual, with the loss of part of the α1 subunit transmembrane domain and part-replacement with nonsense residues. This led to compromised and differential α1 subunit cell surface expression with ß subunits resulting in severely reduced synaptic inhibition. Our study reveals that disease-inducing variants can affect GABAAR structure, and consequently subunit assembly and cell surface expression, critically impacting on the efficacy of synaptic inhibition, a property that will orchestrate the extent and duration of neuronal excitability.

9.
Genet Med ; 22(8): 1374-1383, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398770

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) represents the most common hereditary nephropathy. Despite growing evidence for genetic heterogeneity, ADPKD diagnosis is still primarily based upon clinical imaging criteria established before discovery of additional PKD genes. This study aimed at assessing the diagnostic value of genetic verification in clinical ADPKD. METHODS: In this prospective, diagnostic trial, 100 families with clinically diagnosed ADPKD were analyzed by PKD gene panel and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA); exome sequencing (ES) was performed in panel/MLPA-negative families. RESULTS: Diagnostic PKD1/2 variants were identified in 81 families (81%), 70 of which in PKD1 and 11 in PKD2. PKD1 variants of unknown significance were detected in another 9 families (9%). Renal survival was significantly worse upon PKD1 truncation versus nontruncation and PKD2 alteration. Ten percent of the cohort were PKD1/2-negative, revealing alternative genetic diagnoses such as autosomal recessive PKD, Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, and ALG9-associated PKD. In addition, among unsolved cases, ES yielded potential novel PKD candidates. CONCLUSION: By illustrating vast genetic heterogeneity, this study demonstrates the value of genetic testing in a real-world PKD cohort by diagnostic verification, falsification, and disease prediction. In the era of specific treatment for fast progressive ADPKD, genetic confirmation should form the basis of personalized patient care.

10.
Hum Mutat ; 41(4): 837-849, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898846

RESUMO

IFIH1 gain-of-function has been reported as a cause of a type I interferonopathy encompassing a spectrum of autoinflammatory phenotypes including Aicardi-Goutières syndrome and Singleton Merten syndrome. Ascertaining patients through a European and North American collaboration, we set out to describe the molecular, clinical and interferon status of a cohort of individuals with pathogenic heterozygous mutations in IFIH1. We identified 74 individuals from 51 families segregating a total of 27 likely pathogenic mutations in IFIH1. Ten adult individuals, 13.5% of all mutation carriers, were clinically asymptomatic (with seven of these aged over 50 years). All mutations were associated with enhanced type I interferon signaling, including six variants (22%) which were predicted as benign according to multiple in silico pathogenicity programs. The identified mutations cluster close to the ATP binding region of the protein. These data confirm variable expression and nonpenetrance as important characteristics of the IFIH1 genotype, a consistent association with enhanced type I interferon signaling, and a common mutational mechanism involving increased RNA binding affinity or decreased efficiency of ATP hydrolysis and filament disassembly rate.

11.
Genet Med ; 22(3): 538-546, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723249

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are genetically heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders. We sought to delineate the clinical, molecular, and neuroimaging spectrum of a novel neurodevelopmental disorder caused by variants in the zinc finger protein 292 gene (ZNF292). METHODS: We ascertained a cohort of 28 families with ID due to putatively pathogenic ZNF292 variants that were identified via targeted and exome sequencing. Available data were analyzed to characterize the canonical phenotype and examine genotype-phenotype relationships. RESULTS: Probands presented with ID as well as a spectrum of neurodevelopmental features including ASD, among others. All ZNF292 variants were de novo, except in one family with dominant inheritance. ZNF292 encodes a highly conserved zinc finger protein that acts as a transcription factor and is highly expressed in the developing human brain supporting its critical role in neurodevelopment. CONCLUSION: De novo and dominantly inherited variants in ZNF292 are associated with a range of neurodevelopmental features including ID and ASD. The clinical spectrum is broad, and most individuals present with mild to moderate ID with or without other syndromic features. Our results suggest that variants in ZNF292 are likely a recurrent cause of a neurodevelopmental disorder manifesting as ID with or without ASD.

12.
Prenat Diagn ; 39(12): 1136-1147, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498910

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: 17q12 microdeletions containing HNF1B and intragenic variants within this gene are associated with variable developmental, endocrine, and renal anomalies, often already noted prenatally as hyperechogenic/cystic kidneys. Here, we describe prenatal and postnatal phenotypes of seven individuals with HNF1B aberrations and compare their clinical and genetic data to those of previous studies. METHODS: Prenatal sequencing and postnatal chromosomal microarray analysis were performed in seven individuals with renal and/or neurodevelopmental phenotypes. We evaluated HNF1B-related clinical features from 82 studies and reclassified 192 reported intragenic HNF1B variants. RESULTS: In a prenatal case, we identified a novel in-frame deletion p.(Gly239del) within the HNF1B DNA-binding domain, a mutational hot spot as demonstrated by spatial clustering analysis and high computational prediction scores. The six postnatally diagnosed individuals harbored 17q12 microdeletions. Literature screening revealed variable reporting of HNF1B-associated clinical traits. Overall, both mutation groups showed a high phenotypic heterogeneity. The reclassification of all previously reported intragenic HNF1B variants provided an up-to-date overview of the mutational spectrum. CONCLUSIONS: We highlight the value of prenatal HNF1B screening in renal developmental diseases. Standardized clinical reporting and systematic classification of HNF1B variants are necessary for a more accurate risk quantification of prenatal and postnatal clinical features, improving genetic counseling and prenatal decision making.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/genética , Fator 1-beta Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Doenças Renais Císticas/diagnóstico , Análise em Microsséries , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Adulto , Criança , Transtornos Cromossômicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa/métodos , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças Renais Císticas/genética , Masculino , Análise em Microsséries/métodos , Mutação , Gravidez , Síndrome
13.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 435, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several subunits of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex are implicated in both cancer and neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD). Though there is no clinical evidence for an increased tumor risk in individuals with NDDs due to germline mutations in most of these genes so far, this has been repeatedly proposed and discussed. A young woman with NDD due to a de novo mutation in ARID1B now presented with a large renal (> 19 cm in diameter) and multiple hepatic angiomyolipomas (AMLs) but no other signs of tuberous sclerosis complex. METHODS: We analyzed tumor and healthy tissue samples with exome and panel sequencing. RESULTS: Additionally to the previously known, germline ARID1B variant we identified a post-zygotic truncating TSC2 variant in both renal and hepatic AMLs but not in any of the healthy tissues. We did not detect any further, obvious tumor driver events. The identification of a passenger variant in SIPA1L3 in both AMLs points to a common clonal origin. Metastasis of the renal AML into the liver is unlikely on the basis of discordant histopathological features. Our findings therefore point to very low-grade mosaicism for the TSC2 variant, possibly in a yet unknown mesenchymal precursor cell that expanded clonally during tumor development. A possible contribution of the germline ARID1B variant to the tumorigenesis remains unclear but cannot be excluded given the absence of any other evident tumor drivers in the AMLs. CONCLUSION: This unique case highlights the blurred line between tumor genetics and post-zygotic events that can complicate exact molecular diagnoses in patients with rare manifestations. It also demonstrates the relevance of multiple disorders in a single individual, the challenges of detecting low-grade mosaicisms, and the importance of proper diagnosis for treatment and surveillance.


Assuntos
Angiomiolipoma/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Proteína 2 do Complexo Esclerose Tuberosa/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mosaicismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
14.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(7): 1061-1071, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30809043

RESUMO

Height is a heritable and highly heterogeneous trait. Short stature affects 3% of the population and in most cases is genetic in origin. After excluding known causes, 67% of affected individuals remain without diagnosis. To identify novel candidate genes for short stature, we performed exome sequencing in 254 unrelated families with short stature of unknown cause and identified variants in 63 candidate genes in 92 (36%) independent families. Based on systematic characterization of variants and functional analysis including expression in chondrocytes, we classified 13 genes as strong candidates. Whereas variants in at least two families were detected for all 13 candidates, two genes had variants in 6 (UBR4) and 8 (LAMA5) families, respectively. To facilitate their characterization, we established a clustered network of 1025 known growth and short stature genes, which yielded 29 significantly enriched clusters, including skeletal system development, appendage development, metabolic processes, and ciliopathy. Eleven of the candidate genes mapped to 21 of these clusters, including CPZ, EDEM3, FBRS, IFT81, KCND1, PLXNA3, RASA3, SLC7A8, UBR4, USP45, and ZFHX3. Fifty additional growth-related candidates we identified await confirmation in other affected families. Our study identifies Mendelian forms of growth retardation as an important component of idiopathic short stature.


Assuntos
Nanismo/genética , Exoma , Herança Multifatorial , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
15.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 14(1): 38, 2019 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30744660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The TUBA1A-associated tubulinopathy is clinically heterogeneous with brain malformations, microcephaly, developmental delay and epilepsy being the main clinical features. It is an autosomal dominant disorder mostly caused by de novo variants in TUBA1A. RESULTS: In three individuals with developmental delay we identified heterozygous de novo missense variants in TUBA1A using exome sequencing. While the c.1307G > A, p.(Gly436Asp) variant was novel, the two variants c.518C > T, p.(Pro173Leu) and c.641G > A, p.(Arg214His) were previously described. We compared the variable phenotype observed in these individuals with a carefully conducted review of the current literature and identified 166 individuals, 146 born and 20 fetuses with a TUBA1A variant. In 107 cases with available clinical information we standardized the reported phenotypes according to the Human Phenotype Ontology. The most commonly reported features were developmental delay (98%), anomalies of the corpus callosum (96%), microcephaly (76%) and lissencephaly (agyria-pachygyria) (70%), although reporting was incomplete in the different studies. We identified a total of 121 specific variants, including 15 recurrent ones. Missense variants cluster in the C-terminal region around the most commonly affected amino acid position Arg402 (13.3%). In a three-dimensional protein model, 38.6% of all disease-causing variants including those in the C-terminal region are predicted to affect the binding of microtubule-associated proteins or motor proteins. Genotype-phenotype analysis for recurrent variants showed an overrepresentation of certain clinical features. However, individuals with these variants are often reported in the same publication. CONCLUSIONS: With 166 individuals, we present the most comprehensive phenotypic and genotypic standardized synopsis for clinical interpretation of TUBA1A variants. Despite this considerable number, a detailed genotype-phenotype characterization is limited by large inter-study variability in reporting.


Assuntos
Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Corpo Caloso/metabolismo , Corpo Caloso/patologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lisencefalia/genética , Lisencefalia/patologia , Masculino , Microcefalia/genética , Microcefalia/patologia , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Fenótipo
16.
Int J Cancer ; 145(4): 941-951, 2019 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30694527

RESUMO

Two percent of patients with Wilms tumors have a positive family history. In many of these cases the genetic cause remains unresolved. By applying germline exome sequencing in two families with two affected individuals with Wilms tumors, we identified truncating mutations in TRIM28. Subsequent mutational screening of germline and tumor DNA of 269 children affected by Wilms tumor was performed, and revealed seven additional individuals with germline truncating mutations, and one individual with a somatic truncating mutation in TRIM28. TRIM28 encodes a complex scaffold protein involved in many different processes, including gene silencing, DNA repair and maintenance of genomic integrity. Expression studies on mRNA and protein level showed reduction of TRIM28, confirming a loss-of-function effect of the mutations identified. The tumors showed an epithelial-type histology that stained negative for TRIM28 by immunohistochemistry. The tumors were bilateral in six patients, and 10/11 tumors are accompanied by perilobar nephrogenic rests. Exome sequencing on eight tumor DNA samples from six individuals showed loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH) of the TRIM28-locus by mitotic recombination in seven tumors, suggesting that TRIM28 functions as a tumor suppressor gene in Wilms tumor development. Additionally, the tumors showed very few mutations in known Wilms tumor driver genes, suggesting that loss of TRIM28 is the main driver of tumorigenesis. In conclusion, we identified heterozygous germline truncating mutations in TRIM28 in 11 children with mainly epithelial-type Wilms tumors, which become homozygous in tumor tissue. These data establish TRIM28 as a novel Wilms tumor predisposition gene, acting as a tumor suppressor gene by LOH.


Assuntos
Haploinsuficiência/genética , Proteína 28 com Motivo Tripartido/genética , Tumor de Wilms/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Pré-Escolar , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Feminino , Genes do Tumor de Wilms/fisiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genótipo , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função/genética , Perda de Heterozigosidade/genética , Masculino , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
17.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(1): 50-56, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30548383

RESUMO

Biallelic variants in the AEBP1 gene cause a novel autosomal-recessive connective tissue disorder (CTD) reminiscent of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS). The four previously reported individuals show considerable clinical variability. Unbiased high-throughput sequencing enables the rapid identification of additional cases for such rare entities. We identified the homozygous nonsense variant c.917dup, p.Tyr306* in AEBP1 using clinical exome sequencing in a female individual with previously unsolved CTD. Segregation testing confirmed homozygosity in the clinically affected brother and heterozygous carrier status in the healthy mother. Chromosomal microarray showed that the variant lies in a run of homozygosity, suggesting a common origin of this genomic segment. RT-PCR analysis in the mother revealed a monoallelic expression of the normal transcript supporting a nonsense-mediated mRNA decay and functional nullizygosity as disease mechanism. We describe two individuals from a fourth family with AEBP1-associated CTD. Our results further verify that autosomal-recessive inherited LOF variants in the AEBP1 gene cause clinical features of different EDS subtypes, but also of the marfanoid spectrum. As identification of further individuals is necessary to inform the clinical characterization, we stress the added value of exome sequencing for such rare diseases.


Assuntos
Carboxipeptidases/genética , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/genética , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Adulto , Códon sem Sentido/genética , Tecido Conjuntivo/metabolismo , Tecido Conjuntivo/patologia , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos/fisiopatologia , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Genes Recessivos , Heterozigoto , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Homozigoto , Humanos , Mutação com Perda de Função/genética , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Irmãos
18.
Eur J Med Genet ; 62(2): 129-136, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29959045

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: MED13L-related intellectual disability is characterized by moderate intellectual disability (ID), speech impairment, and dysmorphic facial features. We present 8 patients with MED13L-related intellectual disability and review the literature for phenotypical and genetic aspects of previously described patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the search for genetic aberrations in individuals with ID, two of the patients were identified by chromosomal microarray analysis, and five by exome sequencing. One of the individuals, suspected of MED13L-related intellectual disability, based on clinical features, was identified by Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: All 8 individuals had de novo MED13L aberrations, including two intragenic microdeletions, two frameshift, three nonsense variants, and one missense variant. Phenotypically, they all had intellectual disability, speech and motor delay, and features of the mouth (open mouth appearance, macroglossia, and/or macrostomia). Two individuals were diagnosed with autism, and one had autistic features. One had complex congenital heart defect, and one had persistent foramen ovale. The literature was reviewed with respect to clinical and dysmorphic features, and genetic aberrations. CONCLUSIONS: Even if most clinical features of MED13L-related intellectual disability are rather non-specific, the syndrome may be suspected in some individuals based on the association of developmental delay, speech impairment, bulbous nasal tip, and macroglossia, macrostomia, or open mouth appearance.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Complexo Mediador/genética , Fenótipo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/patologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Masculino , Mutação , Síndrome
19.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 17201, 2018 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30464253

RESUMO

Genetic integrity of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is essential for their validity as disease models and for potential therapeutic use. We describe the comprehensive analysis in the ForIPS consortium: an iPSC collection from donors with neurological diseases and healthy controls. Characterization included pluripotency confirmation, fingerprinting, conventional and molecular karyotyping in all lines. In the majority, somatic copy number variants (CNVs) were identified. A subset with available matched donor DNA was selected for comparative exome sequencing. We identified single nucleotide variants (SNVs) at different allelic frequencies in each clone with high variability in mutational load. Low frequencies of variants in parental fibroblasts highlight the importance of germline samples. Somatic variant number was independent from reprogramming, cell type and passage. Comparison with disease genes and prediction scores suggest biological relevance for some variants. We show that high-throughput sequencing has value beyond SNV detection and the requirement to individually evaluate each clone.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/normas , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/normas , Perfil Genético , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/fisiologia , Impressões Digitais de DNA , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Cariotipagem , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 29(9): 2298-2309, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30049680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Providing the correct diagnosis for patients with tubulointerstitial kidney disease and secondary degenerative disorders, such as hypertension, remains a challenge. The autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease (ADTKD) subtype caused by MUC1 mutations (ADTKD-MUC1) is particularly difficult to diagnose, because the mutational hotspot is a complex repeat domain, inaccessible with routine sequencing techniques. Here, we further evaluated SNaPshot minisequencing as a technique for diagnosing ADTKD-MUC1 and assessed immunodetection of the disease-associated mucin 1 frameshift protein (MUC1-fs) as a nongenetic technique. METHODS: We re-evaluated detection of MUC1 mutations by targeted repeat enrichment and SNaPshot minisequencing by haplotype reconstruction via microsatellite analysis in three independent ADTKD-MUC1 families. Additionally, we generated rabbit polyclonal antibodies against MUC1-fs and evaluated immunodetection of wild-type and mutated allele products in human kidney biopsy specimens. RESULTS: The detection of MUC1 mutations by SNaPshot minisequencing was robust. Immunostaining with our MUC1-fs antibodies and an MUC1 antibody showed that both proteins are readily detectable in human ADTKD-MUC1 kidneys, with mucin 1 localized to the apical membrane and MUC1-fs abundantly distributed throughout the cytoplasm. Notably, immunohistochemical analysis of MUC1-fs expression in clinical kidney samples facilitated reliable prediction of the disease status of individual patients. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosing ADTKD-MUC1 by molecular genetics is possible, but it is technically demanding and labor intensive. However, immunohistochemistry on kidney biopsy specimens is feasible for nongenetic diagnosis of ADTKD-MUC1 and therefore, a valid method to select families for further diagnostics. Our data are compatible with the hypothesis that specific molecular effects of MUC1-fs underlie the pathogenesis of this disease.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Mucina-1/genética , Mutação/genética , Rim Policístico Autossômico Dominante/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Animais , Biópsia por Agulha , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Haplótipos , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nefrite Intersticial/genética , Nefrite Intersticial/patologia , Linhagem , Rim Policístico Autossômico Dominante/patologia , Coelhos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA