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1.
Prenat Diagn ; 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498910

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: 17q12 microdeletions containing HNF1B and intragenic variants within this gene are associated with variable developmental, endocrine and renal anomalies, often already noted prenatally as hyperechogenic/cystic kidneys. Here, we describe pre- and postnatal phenotypes of seven individuals with HNF1B aberrations and compare their clinical and genetic data to previous studies. METHODS: Prenatal sequencing and postnatal chromosomal microarray analysis was performed in seven individuals with renal and/or neurodevelopmental phenotypes. We evaluated HNF1B-related clinical features from 82 studies and reclassified 192 reported intragenic HNF1B variants. RESULTS: In a prenatal case, we identified a novel in-frame deletion p.(Gly239del) within the HNF1B DNA binding domain, a mutational hotspot as demonstrated by spatial clustering analysis and high computational prediction scores. The six postnatally diagnosed individuals harbored 17q12 microdeletions. Literature screening revealed variable reporting of HNF1B-associated clinical traits. Overall, both mutation groups showed a high phenotypic heterogeneity. The reclassification of all previously reported intragenic HNF1B variants provided an up-to-date overview of the mutational spectrum. CONCLUSIONS: We highlight the value of prenatal HNF1B screening in renal developmental diseases. Standardized clinical reporting and systematic classification of HNF1B variants is necessary for a more accurate risk quantification of pre- and postnatal clinical features, improving genetic counseling and prenatal decision-making.

2.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 435, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several subunits of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex are implicated in both cancer and neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD). Though there is no clinical evidence for an increased tumor risk in individuals with NDDs due to germline mutations in most of these genes so far, this has been repeatedly proposed and discussed. A young woman with NDD due to a de novo mutation in ARID1B now presented with a large renal (> 19 cm in diameter) and multiple hepatic angiomyolipomas (AMLs) but no other signs of tuberous sclerosis complex. METHODS: We analyzed tumor and healthy tissue samples with exome and panel sequencing. RESULTS: Additionally to the previously known, germline ARID1B variant we identified a post-zygotic truncating TSC2 variant in both renal and hepatic AMLs but not in any of the healthy tissues. We did not detect any further, obvious tumor driver events. The identification of a passenger variant in SIPA1L3 in both AMLs points to a common clonal origin. Metastasis of the renal AML into the liver is unlikely on the basis of discordant histopathological features. Our findings therefore point to very low-grade mosaicism for the TSC2 variant, possibly in a yet unknown mesenchymal precursor cell that expanded clonally during tumor development. A possible contribution of the germline ARID1B variant to the tumorigenesis remains unclear but cannot be excluded given the absence of any other evident tumor drivers in the AMLs. CONCLUSION: This unique case highlights the blurred line between tumor genetics and post-zygotic events that can complicate exact molecular diagnoses in patients with rare manifestations. It also demonstrates the relevance of multiple disorders in a single individual, the challenges of detecting low-grade mosaicisms, and the importance of proper diagnosis for treatment and surveillance.


Assuntos
Angiomiolipoma/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Proteína 2 do Complexo Esclerose Tuberosa/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mosaicismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
3.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(7): 1061-1071, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30809043

RESUMO

Height is a heritable and highly heterogeneous trait. Short stature affects 3% of the population and in most cases is genetic in origin. After excluding known causes, 67% of affected individuals remain without diagnosis. To identify novel candidate genes for short stature, we performed exome sequencing in 254 unrelated families with short stature of unknown cause and identified variants in 63 candidate genes in 92 (36%) independent families. Based on systematic characterization of variants and functional analysis including expression in chondrocytes, we classified 13 genes as strong candidates. Whereas variants in at least two families were detected for all 13 candidates, two genes had variants in 6 (UBR4) and 8 (LAMA5) families, respectively. To facilitate their characterization, we established a clustered network of 1025 known growth and short stature genes, which yielded 29 significantly enriched clusters, including skeletal system development, appendage development, metabolic processes, and ciliopathy. Eleven of the candidate genes mapped to 21 of these clusters, including CPZ, EDEM3, FBRS, IFT81, KCND1, PLXNA3, RASA3, SLC7A8, UBR4, USP45, and ZFHX3. Fifty additional growth-related candidates we identified await confirmation in other affected families. Our study identifies Mendelian forms of growth retardation as an important component of idiopathic short stature.

4.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 14(1): 38, 2019 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30744660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The TUBA1A-associated tubulinopathy is clinically heterogeneous with brain malformations, microcephaly, developmental delay and epilepsy being the main clinical features. It is an autosomal dominant disorder mostly caused by de novo variants in TUBA1A. RESULTS: In three individuals with developmental delay we identified heterozygous de novo missense variants in TUBA1A using exome sequencing. While the c.1307G > A, p.(Gly436Asp) variant was novel, the two variants c.518C > T, p.(Pro173Leu) and c.641G > A, p.(Arg214His) were previously described. We compared the variable phenotype observed in these individuals with a carefully conducted review of the current literature and identified 166 individuals, 146 born and 20 fetuses with a TUBA1A variant. In 107 cases with available clinical information we standardized the reported phenotypes according to the Human Phenotype Ontology. The most commonly reported features were developmental delay (98%), anomalies of the corpus callosum (96%), microcephaly (76%) and lissencephaly (agyria-pachygyria) (70%), although reporting was incomplete in the different studies. We identified a total of 121 specific variants, including 15 recurrent ones. Missense variants cluster in the C-terminal region around the most commonly affected amino acid position Arg402 (13.3%). In a three-dimensional protein model, 38.6% of all disease-causing variants including those in the C-terminal region are predicted to affect the binding of microtubule-associated proteins or motor proteins. Genotype-phenotype analysis for recurrent variants showed an overrepresentation of certain clinical features. However, individuals with these variants are often reported in the same publication. CONCLUSIONS: With 166 individuals, we present the most comprehensive phenotypic and genotypic standardized synopsis for clinical interpretation of TUBA1A variants. Despite this considerable number, a detailed genotype-phenotype characterization is limited by large inter-study variability in reporting.


Assuntos
Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Corpo Caloso/metabolismo , Corpo Caloso/patologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lisencefalia/genética , Lisencefalia/patologia , Masculino , Microcefalia/genética , Microcefalia/patologia , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Fenótipo
5.
Int J Cancer ; 145(4): 941-951, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30694527

RESUMO

Two percent of patients with Wilms tumors have a positive family history. In many of these cases the genetic cause remains unresolved. By applying germline exome sequencing in two families with two affected individuals with Wilms tumors, we identified truncating mutations in TRIM28. Subsequent mutational screening of germline and tumor DNA of 269 children affected by Wilms tumor was performed, and revealed seven additional individuals with germline truncating mutations, and one individual with a somatic truncating mutation in TRIM28. TRIM28 encodes a complex scaffold protein involved in many different processes, including gene silencing, DNA repair and maintenance of genomic integrity. Expression studies on mRNA and protein level showed reduction of TRIM28, confirming a loss-of-function effect of the mutations identified. The tumors showed an epithelial-type histology that stained negative for TRIM28 by immunohistochemistry. The tumors were bilateral in six patients, and 10/11 tumors are accompanied by perilobar nephrogenic rests. Exome sequencing on eight tumor DNA samples from six individuals showed loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH) of the TRIM28-locus by mitotic recombination in seven tumors, suggesting that TRIM28 functions as a tumor suppressor gene in Wilms tumor development. Additionally, the tumors showed very few mutations in known Wilms tumor driver genes, suggesting that loss of TRIM28 is the main driver of tumorigenesis. In conclusion, we identified heterozygous germline truncating mutations in TRIM28 in 11 children with mainly epithelial-type Wilms tumors, which become homozygous in tumor tissue. These data establish TRIM28 as a novel Wilms tumor predisposition gene, acting as a tumor suppressor gene by LOH.

6.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(1): 50-56, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30548383

RESUMO

Biallelic variants in the AEBP1 gene cause a novel autosomal-recessive connective tissue disorder (CTD) reminiscent of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS). The four previously reported individuals show considerable clinical variability. Unbiased high-throughput sequencing enables the rapid identification of additional cases for such rare entities. We identified the homozygous nonsense variant c.917dup, p.Tyr306* in AEBP1 using clinical exome sequencing in a female individual with previously unsolved CTD. Segregation testing confirmed homozygosity in the clinically affected brother and heterozygous carrier status in the healthy mother. Chromosomal microarray showed that the variant lies in a run of homozygosity, suggesting a common origin of this genomic segment. RT-PCR analysis in the mother revealed a monoallelic expression of the normal transcript supporting a nonsense-mediated mRNA decay and functional nullizygosity as disease mechanism. We describe two individuals from a fourth family with AEBP1-associated CTD. Our results further verify that autosomal-recessive inherited LOF variants in the AEBP1 gene cause clinical features of different EDS subtypes, but also of the marfanoid spectrum. As identification of further individuals is necessary to inform the clinical characterization, we stress the added value of exome sequencing for such rare diseases.

7.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 17201, 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30464253

RESUMO

Genetic integrity of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is essential for their validity as disease models and for potential therapeutic use. We describe the comprehensive analysis in the ForIPS consortium: an iPSC collection from donors with neurological diseases and healthy controls. Characterization included pluripotency confirmation, fingerprinting, conventional and molecular karyotyping in all lines. In the majority, somatic copy number variants (CNVs) were identified. A subset with available matched donor DNA was selected for comparative exome sequencing. We identified single nucleotide variants (SNVs) at different allelic frequencies in each clone with high variability in mutational load. Low frequencies of variants in parental fibroblasts highlight the importance of germline samples. Somatic variant number was independent from reprogramming, cell type and passage. Comparison with disease genes and prediction scores suggest biological relevance for some variants. We show that high-throughput sequencing has value beyond SNV detection and the requirement to individually evaluate each clone.

8.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 29(9): 2298-2309, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30049680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Providing the correct diagnosis for patients with tubulointerstitial kidney disease and secondary degenerative disorders, such as hypertension, remains a challenge. The autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease (ADTKD) subtype caused by MUC1 mutations (ADTKD-MUC1) is particularly difficult to diagnose, because the mutational hotspot is a complex repeat domain, inaccessible with routine sequencing techniques. Here, we further evaluated SNaPshot minisequencing as a technique for diagnosing ADTKD-MUC1 and assessed immunodetection of the disease-associated mucin 1 frameshift protein (MUC1-fs) as a nongenetic technique. METHODS: We re-evaluated detection of MUC1 mutations by targeted repeat enrichment and SNaPshot minisequencing by haplotype reconstruction via microsatellite analysis in three independent ADTKD-MUC1 families. Additionally, we generated rabbit polyclonal antibodies against MUC1-fs and evaluated immunodetection of wild-type and mutated allele products in human kidney biopsy specimens. RESULTS: The detection of MUC1 mutations by SNaPshot minisequencing was robust. Immunostaining with our MUC1-fs antibodies and an MUC1 antibody showed that both proteins are readily detectable in human ADTKD-MUC1 kidneys, with mucin 1 localized to the apical membrane and MUC1-fs abundantly distributed throughout the cytoplasm. Notably, immunohistochemical analysis of MUC1-fs expression in clinical kidney samples facilitated reliable prediction of the disease status of individual patients. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosing ADTKD-MUC1 by molecular genetics is possible, but it is technically demanding and labor intensive. However, immunohistochemistry on kidney biopsy specimens is feasible for nongenetic diagnosis of ADTKD-MUC1 and therefore, a valid method to select families for further diagnostics. Our data are compatible with the hypothesis that specific molecular effects of MUC1-fs underlie the pathogenesis of this disease.

9.
Eur J Med Genet ; 2018 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29959045

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: MED13L-related intellectual disability is characterized by moderate intellectual disability (ID), speech impairment, and dysmorphic facial features. We present 8 patients with MED13L-related intellectual disability and review the literature for phenotypical and genetic aspects of previously described patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the search for genetic aberrations in individuals with ID, two of the patients were identified by chromosomal microarray analysis, and five by exome sequencing. One of the individuals, suspected of MED13L-related intellectual disability, based on clinical features, was identified by Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: All 8 individuals had de novo MED13L aberrations, including two intragenic microdeletions, two frameshift, three nonsense variants, and one missense variant. Phenotypically, they all had intellectual disability, speech and motor delay, and features of the mouth (open mouth appearance, macroglossia, and/or macrostomia). Two individuals were diagnosed with autism, and one had autistic features. One had complex congenital heart defect, and one had persistent foramen ovale. The literature was reviewed with respect to clinical and dysmorphic features, and genetic aberrations. CONCLUSIONS: Even if most clinical features of MED13L-related intellectual disability are rather non-specific, the syndrome may be suspected in some individuals based on the association of developmental delay, speech impairment, bulbous nasal tip, and macroglossia, macrostomia, or open mouth appearance.

10.
Genet Med ; 20(6): 630-638, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29758562

RESUMO

PurposeShort stature is a common condition of great concern to patients and their families. Mostly genetic in origin, the underlying cause often remains elusive due to clinical and genetic heterogeneity.MethodsWe systematically phenotyped 565 patients where common nongenetic causes of short stature were excluded, selected 200 representative patients for whole-exome sequencing, and analyzed the identified variants for pathogenicity and the affected genes regarding their functional relevance for growth.ResultsBy standard targeted diagnostic and phenotype assessment, we identified a known disease cause in only 13.6% of the 565 patients. Whole-exome sequencing in 200 patients identified additional mutations in known short-stature genes in 16.5% of these patients who manifested only part of the symptomatology. In 15.5% of the 200 patients our findings were of significant clinical relevance. Heterozygous carriers of recessive skeletal dysplasia alleles represented 3.5% of the cases.ConclusionA combined approach of systematic phenotyping, targeted genetic testing, and whole-exome sequencing allows the identification of the underlying cause of short stature in at least 33% of cases, enabling physicians to improve diagnosis, treatment, and genetic counseling. Exome sequencing significantly increases the diagnostic yield and consequently care in patients with short stature.


Assuntos
Estatura/genética , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Heterozigoto , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
11.
Hum Pathol ; 77: 139-146, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29689242

RESUMO

Fumarate hydratase-deficient renal cell carcinoma (FH-RCC) is a rare, aggressive RCC type, originally described in the setting of hereditary leiomyomatosis and RCC syndrome, which is defined by germline FH gene inactivation. Inactivation of components of the switch/sucrose nonfermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complex is involved in renal medullary carcinoma (SMARCB1/INI1 loss), clear cell RCC (PBRM1 loss), and subsets of dedifferentiated RCC of clear cell, chromophobe, and papillary types (loss of different SWI/SNF components). FH-RCC and SWI/SNF-deficient RCC share anaplastic nuclear features and highly aggressive course. We analyzed 32 FH-RCCs from 28 patients using 7 commercially available SWI/SNF antibodies (SMARCB1/INI1, SMARCA2, SMARCA4, SMARCC1, SMARCC2, PBRM1, and ARID1A). Variable loss of SMARCB1, ARID1A, and SMARCC1 was observed in 1 of 31, 2 of 31, and 1 of 29 evaluable cases, respectively; 3 of these 4 SWI/SNF-deficient tumors had confirmed FH mutations. No correlation of SWI/SNF loss with solid or sarcomatoid features was observed. Two tumors with SMARCB1 and ARID1A deficiency had available SWI/SNF molecular data; both lacked SMARCB1 and ARID1A mutations. The remaining 5 SWI/SNF components were intact in all cases. Especially PBRM1 seems not to be involved in the pathogenesis or progression of FH-RCC. Our data showed that a subset of FH-RCC (12%) have a variable loss of SWI/SNF complex subunits, likely as secondary genetic events. This should not be confused with SWI/SNF-deficient RCC of other types. Evaluation of FH and SWI/SNF together with comprehensive molecular genetic profiling is needed to explore possible prognostic implications of FH/SWI-SNF double deficiency and to better understand the somatic mutation landscape in high-grade RCC.

12.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 4170, 2018 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29520014

RESUMO

Recently, the Mucin-1 (MUC1) gene has been identified as a causal gene of autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease (ADTKD). Most causative mutations are buried within a GC-rich 60 basepair variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR), which escapes identification by massive parallel sequencing methods due to the complexity of the VNTR. We established long read single molecule real time sequencing (SMRT) targeted to the MUC1-VNTR as an alternative strategy to the snapshot assay. Our approach allows complete VNTR assembly, thereby enabling the detection of all variants residing within the VNTR and simultaneous determination of VNTR length. We present high resolution data on the VNTR architecture for a cohort of snapshot positive (n = 9) and negative (n = 7) ADTKD families. By SMRT sequencing we could confirm the diagnosis in all previously tested cases, reconstruct both VNTR alleles and determine the exact position of the causative variant in eight of nine families. This study demonstrates that precise positioning of the causative mutation(s) and identification of other coding and noncoding sequence variants in ADTKD-MUC1 is feasible. SMRT sequencing could provide a powerful tool to uncover potential factors encoded within the VNTR that associate with intra- and interfamilial phenotype variability of MUC1 related kidney disease.

13.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(3): 468-479, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29429572

RESUMO

Variants affecting the function of different subunits of the BAF chromatin-remodelling complex lead to various neurodevelopmental syndromes, including Coffin-Siris syndrome. Furthermore, variants in proteins containing PHD fingers, motifs recognizing specific histone tail modifications, have been associated with several neurological and developmental-delay disorders. Here, we report eight heterozygous de novo variants (one frameshift, two splice site, and five missense) in the gene encoding the BAF complex subunit double plant homeodomain finger 2 (DPF2). Affected individuals share common clinical features described in individuals with Coffin-Siris syndrome, including coarse facial features, global developmental delay, intellectual disability, speech impairment, and hypoplasia of fingernails and toenails. All variants occur within the highly conserved PHD1 and PHD2 motifs. Moreover, missense variants are situated close to zinc binding sites and are predicted to disrupt these sites. Pull-down assays of recombinant proteins and histone peptides revealed that a subset of the identified missense variants abolish or impaire DPF2 binding to unmodified and modified H3 histone tails. These results suggest an impairment of PHD finger structural integrity and cohesion and most likely an aberrant recognition of histone modifications. Furthermore, the overexpression of these variants in HEK293 and COS7 cell lines was associated with the formation of nuclear aggregates and the recruitment of both wild-type DPF2 and BRG1 to these aggregates. Expression analysis of truncating variants found in the affected individuals indicated that the aberrant transcripts escape nonsense-mediated decay. Altogether, we provide compelling evidence that de novo variants in DPF2 cause Coffin-Siris syndrome and propose a dominant-negative mechanism of pathogenicity.

14.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 25(12): 1364-1376, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29158550

RESUMO

High throughput sequencing has greatly advanced disease gene identification, especially in heterogeneous entities. Despite falling costs this is still an expensive and laborious technique, particularly when studying large cohorts. To address this problem we applied Exome Pool-Seq as an economic and fast screening technology in neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Sequencing of 96 individuals can be performed in eight pools of 12 samples on less than one Illumina sequencer lane. In a pilot study with 96 cases we identified 27 variants, likely or possibly affecting function. Twenty five of these were identified in 923 established NDD genes (based on SysID database, status November 2016) (ACTB, AHDC1, ANKRD11, ATP6V1B2, ATRX, CASK, CHD8, GNAS, IFIH1, KCNQ2, KMT2A, KRAS, MAOA, MED12, MED13L, RIT1, SETD5, SIN3A, TCF4, TRAPPC11, TUBA1A, WAC, ZBTB18, ZMYND11), two in 543 (SysID) candidate genes (ZNF292, BPTF), and additionally a de novo loss-of-function variant in LRRC7, not previously implicated in NDDs. Most of them were confirmed to be de novo, but we also identified X-linked or autosomal-dominantly or autosomal-recessively inherited variants. With a detection rate of 28%, Exome Pool-Seq achieves comparable results to individual exome analyses but reduces costs by >85%. Compared with other large scale approaches using Molecular Inversion Probes (MIP) or gene panels, it allows flexible re-analysis of data. Exome Pool-Seq is thus well suited for large-scale, cost-efficient and flexible screening in characterized but heterogeneous entities like NDDs.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos/métodos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Antígenos Nucleares/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Custos e Análise de Custo , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Testes Genéticos/economia , Testes Genéticos/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sialoglicoproteínas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/economia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/normas
15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(4): 503-515, 2017 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28942966

RESUMO

Bromodomain PHD finger transcription factor (BPTF) is the largest subunit of nucleosome remodeling factor (NURF), a member of the ISWI chromatin-remodeling complex. However, the clinical consequences of disruption of this complex remain largely uncharacterized. BPTF is required for anterior-posterior axis formation of the mouse embryo and was shown to promote posterior neuroectodermal fate by enhancing Smad2-activated wnt8 expression in zebrafish. Here, we report eight loss-of-function and two missense variants (eight de novo and two of unknown origin) in BPTF on 17q24.2. The BPTF variants were found in unrelated individuals aged between 2.1 and 13 years, who manifest variable degrees of developmental delay/intellectual disability (10/10), speech delay (10/10), postnatal microcephaly (7/9), and dysmorphic features (9/10). Using CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing of bptf in zebrafish to induce a loss of gene function, we observed a significant reduction in head size of F0 mutants compared to control larvae. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and phospho-histone H3 (PH3) staining to assess apoptosis and cell proliferation, respectively, showed a significant increase in cell death in F0 mutants compared to controls. Additionally, we observed a substantial increase of the ceratohyal angle of the craniofacial skeleton in bptf F0 mutants, indicating abnormal craniofacial patterning. Taken together, our data demonstrate the pathogenic role of BPTF haploinsufficiency in syndromic neurodevelopmental anomalies and extend the clinical spectrum of human disorders caused by ablation of chromatin remodeling complexes.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Antígenos Nucleares/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Adolescente , Animais , Antígenos Nucleares/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Estudos de Coortes , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/patologia , Feminino , Edição de Genes , Haploinsuficiência/fisiologia , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/patologia , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Microcefalia/patologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Fenótipo , Fatores de Transcrição/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 99(4): 912-916, 2016 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27616480

RESUMO

The risk of epilepsy among individuals with intellectual disability (ID) is approximately ten times that of the general population. From a cohort of >5,000 families affected by neurodevelopmental disorders, we identified six consanguineous families harboring homozygous inactivating variants in MBOAT7, encoding lysophosphatidylinositol acyltransferase (LPIAT1). Subjects presented with ID frequently accompanied by epilepsy and autistic features. LPIAT1 is a membrane-bound phospholipid-remodeling enzyme that transfers arachidonic acid (AA) to lysophosphatidylinositol to produce AA-containing phosphatidylinositol. This study suggests a role for AA-containing phosphatidylinositols in the development of ID accompanied by epilepsy and autistic features.


Assuntos
Aciltransferases/genética , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação , Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Ácido Araquidônico/metabolismo , Transtorno Autístico/complicações , Transtorno Autístico/enzimologia , Transtorno Autístico/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Consanguinidade , Epilepsia/complicações , Epilepsia/enzimologia , Epilepsia/metabolismo , Feminino , Homozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Deficiência Intelectual/enzimologia , Deficiência Intelectual/metabolismo , Lisofosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Linhagem , Fosfatidilinositóis/metabolismo
17.
Eur J Med Genet ; 59(10): 549-53, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27613244

RESUMO

Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a relatively common, clinically recognizable microdeletion syndrome. In most cases the typical heterozygous deletion of 1.5 Mb on chromosome 7q11.23 spanning about 26 genes can be identified. Also some larger or smaller atypical deletions have been reported and associated with additional or atypical phenotypic aspects. We report on an individual with typical WBS due to the common deletion and with refractory infantile spasms. Using trio-exome sequencing, we identified a de novo truncating variant c.1200del, p (Lys401Serfs*25) in GABRA1 as the likely cause of the early onset epilepsy. This unique case not only allows to further define the phenotypic spectrum of infantile epileptic encephalopathy associated with rare de novo GABRA1 variants but exemplifies the need for a sensitive review of unclear associations in clinically defined syndromes and for extended diagnostic work-up in individuals with unusual presentations of a genetically confirmed diagnosis.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Receptores de GABA-A/genética , Espasmos Infantis/genética , Síndrome de Williams/genética , Epilepsia/complicações , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Exoma/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Espasmos Infantis/complicações , Espasmos Infantis/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Williams/fisiopatologia
18.
Hum Mutat ; 37(8): 755-64, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27094817

RESUMO

N-terminal acetylation is a common protein modification in eukaryotes associated with numerous cellular processes. Inherited mutations in NAA10, encoding the catalytic subunit of the major N-terminal acetylation complex NatA have been associated with diverse, syndromic X-linked recessive disorders, whereas de novo missense mutations have been reported in one male and one female individual with severe intellectual disability but otherwise unspecific phenotypes. Thus, the full genetic and clinical spectrum of NAA10 deficiency is yet to be delineated. We identified three different novel and one known missense mutation in NAA10, de novo in 11 females, and due to maternal germ line mosaicism in another girl and her more severely affected and deceased brother. In vitro enzymatic assays for the novel, recurrent mutations p.(Arg83Cys) and p.(Phe128Leu) revealed reduced catalytic activity. X-inactivation was random in five females. The core phenotype of X-linked NAA10-related N-terminal-acetyltransferase deficiency in both males and females includes developmental delay, severe intellectual disability, postnatal growth failure with severe microcephaly, and skeletal or cardiac anomalies. Genotype-phenotype correlations within and between both genders are complex and may include various factors such as location and nature of mutations, enzymatic stability and activity, and X-inactivation in females.


Assuntos
Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Acetiltransferase N-Terminal A/deficiência , Acetiltransferase N-Terminal E/deficiência , Acetilação , Feminino , Genes Ligados ao Cromossomo X , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Mosaicismo , Acetiltransferase N-Terminal A/química , Acetiltransferase N-Terminal A/genética , Acetiltransferase N-Terminal E/química , Acetiltransferase N-Terminal E/genética , Linhagem
19.
Sci Rep ; 5: 11649, 2015 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26130459

RESUMO

Skeletal ciliopathies are a heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive osteochondrodysplasias caused by defects in formation, maintenance and function of the primary cilium. Mutations in the underlying genes affect the molecular motors, intraflagellar transport complexes (IFT), or the basal body. The more severe phenotypes are caused by defects of genes of the dynein-2 complex, where mutations in DYNC2H1, WDR34 and WDR60 have been identified. In a patient with a Jeune-like phenotype we performed exome sequencing and identified compound heterozygous missense and nonsense mutations in DYNC2LI1 segregating with the phenotype. DYNC2LI1 is ubiquitously expressed and interacts with DYNC2H1 to form the dynein-2 complex important for retrograde IFT. Using DYNC2LI1 siRNA knockdown in fibroblasts we identified a significantly reduced cilia length proposed to affect cilia function. In addition, depletion of DYNC2LI1 induced altered cilia morphology with broadened ciliary tips and accumulation of IFT-B complex proteins in accordance with retrograde IFT defects. Our results expand the clinical spectrum of ciliopathies caused by defects of the dynein-2 complex.


Assuntos
Dineínas do Citoplasma/genética , Mutação/genética , Cílios/metabolismo , Códon sem Sentido/genética , Dineínas do Citoplasma/química , Exoma/genética , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Imunofluorescência , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 23(5): 602-9, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25099252

RESUMO

Recent studies revealed the power of whole-exome sequencing to identify mutations in sporadic cases with non-syndromic intellectual disability. We now identified de novo missense variants in NAA10 in two unrelated individuals, a boy and a girl, with severe global developmental delay but without any major dysmorphism by trio whole-exome sequencing. Both de novo variants were predicted to be deleterious, and we excluded other variants in this gene. This X-linked gene encodes N-alpha-acetyltransferase 10, the catalytic subunit of the NatA complex involved in multiple cellular processes. A single hypomorphic missense variant p.(Ser37Pro) was previously associated with Ogden syndrome in eight affected males from two different families. This rare disorder is characterized by a highly recognizable phenotype, global developmental delay and results in death during infancy. In an attempt to explain the discrepant phenotype, we used in vitro N-terminal acetylation assays which suggested that the severity of the phenotype correlates with the remaining catalytic activity. The variant in the Ogden syndrome patients exhibited a lower activity than the one seen in the boy with intellectual disability, while the variant in the girl was the most severe exhibiting only residual activity in the acetylation assays used. We propose that N-terminal acetyltransferase deficiency is clinically heterogeneous with the overall catalytic activity determining the phenotypic severity.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Acetiltransferase N-Terminal A/genética , Acetiltransferase N-Terminal E/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Éxons , Facies , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Acetiltransferase N-Terminal A/química , Acetiltransferase N-Terminal E/química , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Conformação Proteica , Alinhamento de Sequência
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