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1.
J Biophotonics ; : e201960186, 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167235

RESUMO

This review covers original articles using deep learning in the biophotonic field published in the last years. In these years deep learning, which is a subset of machine learning mostly based on artificial neural network geometries, was applied to a number of biophotonic tasks and has achieved state-of-the-art performances. Therefore, deep learning in the biophotonic field is rapidly growing and it will be utilized in the next years to obtain real-time biophotonic decision-making systems and to analyze biophotonic data in general. In this contribution, we discuss the possibilities of deep learning in the biophotonic field including image classification, segmentation, registration, pseudostaining and resolution enhancement. Additionally, we discuss the potential use of deep learning for spectroscopic data including spectral data preprocessing and spectral classification. We conclude this review by addressing the potential applications and challenges of using deep learning for biophotonic data.

2.
ACS Nano ; 14(1): 28-117, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478375

RESUMO

The discovery of the enhancement of Raman scattering by molecules adsorbed on nanostructured metal surfaces is a landmark in the history of spectroscopic and analytical techniques. Significant experimental and theoretical effort has been directed toward understanding the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect and demonstrating its potential in various types of ultrasensitive sensing applications in a wide variety of fields. In the 45 years since its discovery, SERS has blossomed into a rich area of research and technology, but additional efforts are still needed before it can be routinely used analytically and in commercial products. In this Review, prominent authors from around the world joined together to summarize the state of the art in understanding and using SERS and to predict what can be expected in the near future in terms of research, applications, and technological development. This Review is dedicated to SERS pioneer and our coauthor, the late Prof. Richard Van Duyne, whom we lost during the preparation of this article.

3.
Molecules ; 24(23)2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801249

RESUMO

The particle shape, size and distribution of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) are relevant quality indicators of pharmaceutical tablets due to their high impact on the manufacturing process. Furthermore, the bioavailability of the APIs from the dosage form depends largely on these characteristics. Routinely, particle size and shape are only analyzed in the powder form, without regard to the effect of the formulation procedure on the particle characteristics. The monitoring of these parameters improves the understanding of the process; therefore, higher quality and better control over the biopharmaceutical profile can be ensured. A new fiber-array-based Raman hyperspectral imaging technique is presented for direct simultaneous in-situ monitoring of three different active pharmaceutical ingredients- acetylsalicylic acid, acetaminophen and caffeine- in analgesic tablets. This novel method enables a chemically selective, noninvasive assessment of the distribution of the active ingredients down to 1 µm spatial resolution. The occurrence of spherical and needle-like particles, as well as agglomerations and the respective particle size ranges, were rapidly determined for two commercially available analgesic tablet types. Subtle differences were observed in comparison between these two tablets. Higher amounts of acetaminophen were visible, more needle-shaped and bigger acetylsalicylic acid particles, and a higher incidence of bigger agglomerations were found in one of the analgesic tablets.

4.
Molecules ; 24(24)2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835489

RESUMO

Sepsis and septic shock exhibit a rapid course and a high fatality rate. Antibiotic treatment is time-critical and precise knowledge of the antibiotic concentration during the patients' treatment would allow individual dose adaption. Over- and underdosing will increase the antimicrobial efficacy and reduce toxicity. We demonstrated that fiber enhanced Raman spectroscopy (FERS) can be used to detect very low concentrations of ciprofloxacin in clinically relevant doses, down to 1.5 µM. Fiber enhancement was achieved in bandgap shifted photonic crystal fibers. The high linearity between the Raman signals and the drug concentrations allows a robust calibration for drug quantification. The needed sample volume was very low (0.58 µL) and an acquisition time of 30 s allowed the rapid monitoring of ciprofloxacin levels in a less invasive way than conventional techniques. These results demonstrate that FERS has a high potential for clinical in-situ monitoring of ciprofloxacin levels.

5.
Molecules ; 24(18)2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491881

RESUMO

The fight against counterfeit pharmaceuticals is a global issue of utmost importance, as failed medication results in millions of deaths every year. Particularly affected are antimalarial tablets. A very important issue is the identification of substandard tablets that do not contain the nominal amounts of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), and the differentiation between genuine products and products without any active ingredient or with a false active ingredient. This work presents a novel approach based on fiber-array based Raman hyperspectral imaging to qualify and quantify the antimalarial APIs lumefantrine and artemether directly and non-invasively in a tablet in a time-efficient way. The investigations were carried out with the antimalarial tablet Riamet® and self-made model tablets, which were used as examples of counterfeits and substandard. Partial least-squares regression modeling and density functional theory calculations were carried out for quantification of lumefantrine and artemether and for spectral band assignment. The most prominent differentiating vibrational signatures of the APIs were presented.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/análise , Antimaláricos/química , Medicamentos Falsificados/análise , Medicamentos Falsificados/química , Análise Espectral Raman , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Conformação Molecular , Análise de Regressão , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Comprimidos
6.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 184: 110478, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541890

RESUMO

The incidence of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) is increasing globally, and it is being clinically addressed by chemotherapy, followed by immunotherapy and stem cell transplantation, all with potential life-threatening toxicities. In the need for more effective therapeutics, newly developed disease-targeted nanocompounds can thus hold real potential. In this paper, we propose a novel nanoparticle-based immunotherapeutic agent against ALL, consisting of antiCD19 antibody-conjugated, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-biocompatibilized, and Nile Blue (NB) Raman reporter-tagged gold nanoparticles of urchin-like shape (GNUs), that have a plasmonic response in the Near Infrared (NIR) spectral range. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of particle-incubated CD19-positive (CD19(+)) CCRF-SB cells show that the antiCD19-PEG-NB-GNU nanocomplex is able to recognize the CD19 B-cell-specific antigen, which is a prerequisite for targeted therapy. The therapeutic effect of the particles is confirmed by cell counting, combined with cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry and MTS assay, which additionally offer insights into their mechanisms of action. Specifically, antiCD19-PEG-NB-GNUs proved superior cytotoxic effect against CCRF-SB cells when compared with the free antibody, by reducing the overall viability below 18% after 7 days treatment at a particle-bound antibody concentration of 0.17 ng/µl. Moreover, by combining their remarkable plasmonic properties with the possibility of Raman tagging, the proposed nanoparticles can also serve as spectroscopic imaging agents inside living cells, which validates their theranostic potential in the field of hematological oncology.

7.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 10(9)2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454918

RESUMO

Here we report on a non-linear spectroscopic method for visualization of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP)-induced changes in tissue for reaching a new quality level of CAP application in medicine via online monitoring of wound or cancer treatment. A combination of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging (2P-FLIM) and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy has been used for non-invasive and label-free detection of CAP-induced changes on human skin and mucosa samples. By correlation with histochemical staining, the observed local increase in fluorescence could be assigned to melanin. CARS and SHG prove the integrity of the tissue structure, visualize tissue morphology and composition. The influence of plasma effects by variation of plasma parameters e.g., duration of treatment, gas composition and plasma source has been evaluated. Overall quantitative spectroscopic markers could be identified for a direct monitoring of CAP-treated tissue areas, which is very important for translating CAPs into clinical routine.

8.
Anal Chem ; 91(12): 7562-7569, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050402

RESUMO

Stable isotopes are used in ecology to track and disentangle different processes and pathways. Especially for studies focused on the gas exchange of plants, sensing techniques that offer oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) sensitivity with isotopic discrimination are highly sought after. Addressing this challenge, fiber-enhanced Raman gas spectroscopy is introduced as a fast optical technique directly combining 13CO2 and 12CO2 as well as 18O2 and 16O2 measurements in one instrument. We demonstrate how a new type of optical hollow-core fiber, the so-called revolver fiber, is utilized for enhanced Raman gas sensing. Carbon dioxide and oxygen isotopologues were measured at concentrations expected when using 13C- and 18O-labeled gases in plant experiments. Limits of detection have been determined to be 25 ppm for CO2 and 150 ppm for O2. The combination of measurements with different integration times allows the creation of highly resolved broadband spectra. With the help of calculations based on density functional theory, the line at 1512 cm-1 occurring in the oxygen spectrum is assigned to 18O16O. The relative abundances of the isotopologues 18O16O and nitrogen 15N14N were in good agreement with typical values. For CO2, fiber-enhanced Raman spectra show the Fermi diad and hotbands of 12C16O2, 13C16O2, and 12C18O16O. Several weak lines were observed, and the line at 1426 cm-1 was identified as originating from the (0 4 0 2) → (0 2 0 2) transition of 12C16O2. With the demonstrated sensitivity and discriminatory power, fiber-enhanced Raman spectroscopy is a possible alternative means to investigate plant metabolism, directly combining 13CO2 and 12CO2 measurements with 18O2 and 16O2 measurements in one instrument. The presented method thus has large potential for basic analytical investigations as well as for applications in the environmental sciences.

9.
NPJ Vaccines ; 3: 50, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30323957

RESUMO

Vaccines are complex biomedicines. Manufacturing is time consuming and requires a high level of quality control (QC) to guarantee consistent safety and potency. An increasing global demand has led to the need to reduce time and cost of manufacturing. The evolving concepts for QC and the upcoming threat of falsification of biomedicines define a new need for methods that allow the fast and reliable identification of vaccines. Raman spectroscopy is a non-destructive technology already established in QC of classical medicines. We hypothesized that Raman spectroscopy could be used for identification and differentiation of vaccine products. Raman maps obtained from air-dried samples of combination vaccines containing antigens from tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis (DTaP vaccines) were summarized to compile product-specific Raman signatures. Sources of technical variance were emphasized to evaluate the robustness and sensitivity in downstream data analysis. The data management approach corrects for spatial inhomogeneities in the dried sample while offering a proper representation of the original samples inherent chemical signature. Reproducibility of the identification was validated by a leave-one-replicate-out cross-validation. The results highlighted the high specificity and sensitivity of Raman measurements in identifying DTaP vaccine products. The results pave the way for further exploitation of the Raman technology for identification of vaccines in batch release and cases of suspected falsification.

10.
Front Chem ; 6: 257, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30062092

RESUMO

Despite of a large number of imaging techniques for the characterization of biological samples, no universal one has been reported yet. In this work, a data fusion approach was investigated for combining Raman spectroscopic data with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometric data. It betters the image analysis of biological samples because Raman and MALDI information can be complementary to each other. While MALDI spectrometry yields detailed information regarding the lipid content, Raman spectroscopy provides valuable information about the overall chemical composition of the sample. The combination of Raman spectroscopic and MALDI spectrometric imaging data helps distinguishing different regions within the sample with a higher precision than would be possible by using either technique. We demonstrate that a data weighting step within the data fusion is necessary to reveal additional spectral features. The selected weighting approach was evaluated by examining the proportions of variance within the data explained by the first principal components of a principal component analysis (PCA) and visualizing the PCA results for each data type and combined data. In summary, the presented data fusion approach provides a concrete guideline on how to combine Raman spectroscopic and MALDI spectrometric imaging data for biological analysis.

11.
Materials (Basel) ; 11(2)2018 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29495266

RESUMO

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is known as a molecular-specific and highly sensitive method. In order to enable the routine application of SERS, powerful SERS substrates are of great importance. Within this manuscript, a TopUp SERS substrate is introduced which is fabricated by a top-down process based on microstructuring as well as a bottom-up generation of silver nanostructures. The Raman signal of the support material acts as an internal standard in order to improve the quantification capabilities. The analyte molecule coverage of sulfamethoxazole on the surface of the nanostructures is characterized by the SERS signal evolution fitted by a Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm.

12.
Beilstein J Nanotechnol ; 8: 1183-1190, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28685119

RESUMO

The throughput of spontaneous Raman spectroscopy for cell identification applications is limited to the range of one cell per second because of the relatively low sensitivity. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a widespread way to amplify the intensity of Raman signals by several orders of magnitude and, consequently, to improve the sensitivity and throughput. SERS protocols using immuno-functionalized nanoparticles turned out to be challenging for cell identification because they require complex preparation procedures. Here, a new SERS strategy is presented for cell classification using non-functionalized silver nanoparticles and potassium chloride to induce aggregation. To demonstrate the principle, cell lysates were prepared by ultrasonication that disrupts the cell membrane and enables interaction of released cellular biomolecules to nanoparticles. This approach was applied to distinguish four cell lines - Capan-1, HepG2, Sk-Hep1 and MCF-7 - using SERS at 785 nm excitation. Six independent batches were prepared per cell line to check the reproducibility. Principal component analysis was applied for data reduction and assessment of spectral variations that were assigned to proteins, nucleotides and carbohydrates. Four principal components were selected as input for classification models based on support vector machines. Leave-three-batches-out cross validation recognized four cell lines with sensitivities, specificities and accuracies above 96%. We conclude that this reproducible and specific SERS approach offers prospects for cell identification using easily preparable silver nanoparticles.

13.
Anal Chim Acta ; 949: 1-7, 2017 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27876141

RESUMO

Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is a commonly applied antibiotic for treating urinary tract infections; however, allergic reactions and skin eczema are known side effects that are observed for all sulfonamides. Today, this molecule is present in drinking and surface water sources. The allowed concentration in tap water is 2·10-7 mol L-1. SMX could unintentionally be ingested by healthy people when drinking contaminated tap water, representing unnecessary drug intake. To assess the quality of tap water, fast, specific and sensitive detection methods are required, in which consequence measures for improving the purification of water might be initiated in the short term. Herein, the quantitative detection of SMX down to environmentally and physiologically relevant concentrations in the nanomolar range by employing surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and a microfluidic cartridge system is presented. By applying surface-water samples as matrices, the detection of SMX down to 2.2·10-9 mol L-1 is achieved, which illustrates the great potential of our proposed method in environmental science.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Água Potável/análise , Análise Espectral Raman , Sulfametoxazol/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas
14.
Nanomedicine ; 13(3): 835-841, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27965168

RESUMO

In cancer, extracellular vesicles (EV) contribute to tumor progression by regulating local and systemic effects. Being released into body fluids, EV may be used in nanomedicine as a valuable source for diagnostic biomarkers. In this work, infrared and Raman spectroscopy were used for comprehensive comparative analysis of cancer versus non-cancer EV and patient screening. Two different EV fractions enriched in exosomes and microvesicles were isolated by differential centrifugation from serum and plasma of cancer and non-cancer patients and from serum and plasma of a healthy donor. The EV fractions were then subjected to drop-coating deposition and drying on calcium fluoride substrates. Reduction of alpha-helix-rich proteins and enhancement of beta-sheet-rich proteins as a cancer-specific blood EV signature was determined, and subsequently this feature was applied for a pilot study aiming to detect prostate cancer in a test cohort of patients with high-grade prostate carcinoma and benign hypoplasia.


Assuntos
Micropartículas Derivadas de Células/patologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/métodos , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Micropartículas Derivadas de Células/química , Vesículas Extracelulares/química , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Próstata/patologia , Hiperplasia Prostática/sangue , Hiperplasia Prostática/diagnóstico , Hiperplasia Prostática/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/química , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia
15.
Anal Chem ; 88(18): 9173-80, 2016 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27570877

RESUMO

The emergence of antibacterial resistance and the development of new drugs lead to a continuous change of guidelines for medical treatments. Hence, new analytical tools are required for the detection of drugs in biological fluids. In this study, the first surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection of nitroxoline (NTX) in purified water and in spiked human urine samples is reported. Insights concerning the nature of the molecule-metal interaction and its influence on the overall SERS signal are provided. Furthermore, three randomly collected urine samples originating from a healthy volunteer were spiked to assess the limit of detection (LOD), the limit of quantification (LOQ), and the linear dynamic range of the lab-on-a-chip SERS (LoC-SERS) method for NTX detection in human urine. The LOD is ∼3 µM (0.57 mg/L), LOQ ∼ 6.5 µM (1.23 mg/L) while the linear range is between 4.28 and 42.8 µM (0.81-8.13 mg/L). This covers the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the most commonly encountered uropathogens. Finally, seven clinical samples having an "unknown" NTX concentration were simulated. The LoC-SERS technique combined with the standard addition method and statistical data analysis provided a good prediction of the unknown concentrations. Additionally, it is also demonstrated that the predictions carried out by multicurve resolution alternating least-squares (MCR-ALS) algorithm provides reliable results, and it is preferred to a univariate statistical approach.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Urinários/urina , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Nitroquinolinas/urina , Análise Espectral Raman/instrumentação , Água/análise , Anti-Infecciosos Urinários/análise , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Nitroquinolinas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/urina
16.
Nanomedicine ; 12(7): 1931-1940, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27085902

RESUMO

In-vitro Raman micro-spectroscopy was used for diagnostics of the processes of uptake and biodegradation of porous silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) in breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cell line). Two types of nanoparticles, with and without photoluminescence in the visible spectral range, were investigated. The spatial distribution of photoluminescent SiNPs within the cells obtained by Raman imaging was verified by high-resolution structured-illumination optical microscopy. Nearly complete biodegradation of SiNPs inside the living cells was observed after 13days of the incubation. The results reveal new prospects of multi-modal visualization of SiNPs inside cancer cells for theranostic applications.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Silício/farmacocinética , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Porosidade , Dióxido de Silício , Análise Espectral Raman
17.
Chembiochem ; 14(6): 727-32, 2013 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23526760

RESUMO

The invasive unicellular green macroalga Caulerpa taxifolia has spread dramatically in the Mediterranean Sea over the last decades. Its success is based on rapid plug formation after wounding, to prevent the loss of cell content. This quick and efficient process involves the rapid transformation of the secondary metabolite caulerpenyne to the reactive 1,4-dialdehyde oxytoxin 2, which acts as a protein crosslinker. The main metabolites of the wound plug were identified as proteins, caulerpenyne derivatives, and sulfated polysaccharides. Because of a methodological deficit, however, the detailed distribution of the compounds within the wound plug of C. taxifolia was unknown. This study demonstrates the suitability of FT-Raman spectroscopy for the noninvasive in vivo determination of caulerpenyne and its derivatives, as well as ß-carotene, from signals with special spectral features within the wound plug and the adjacent intact alga tissue, with a resolution of 100 µm. FT-Raman spectra allowed four different zones with distinct chemical compositions around the region of wounds to be characterized. Gradients of the investigated metabolites within the wound plug and the alga could be determined. Moreover, various caulerpenyne derivatives could be identified spectroscopically, and this has led to a mechanistic proposal for the internal and the external wound plug formation.


Assuntos
Caulerpa/química , Sesquiterpenos/química , beta Caroteno/química , Análise Espectral Raman
18.
J Biomed Opt ; 17(7): 076030, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22894513

RESUMO

We report on a Raman microspectroscopic characterization of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Therefore, Raman maps of human colon tissue sections were analyzed by utilizing innovative chemometric approaches. First, support vector machines were applied to highlight the tissue morphology (=Raman spectroscopic histopathology). In a second step, the biochemical tissue composition has been studied by analyzing the epithelium Raman spectra of sections of healthy control subjects (n=11), subjects with CD (n=14), and subjects with UC (n=13). These three groups exhibit significantly different molecular specific Raman signatures, allowing establishment of a classifier (support-vector-machine). By utilizing this classifier it was possible to separate between healthy control patients, patients with CD, and patients with UC with an accuracy of 98.90%. The automatic design of both classification steps (visualization of the tissue morphology and molecular classification of IBD) paves the way for an objective clinical diagnosis of IBD by means of Raman spectroscopy in combination with chemometric approaches.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/diagnóstico , Doença de Crohn/diagnóstico , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão/métodos , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Biomarcadores/análise , Colite Ulcerativa/metabolismo , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Doença de Crohn/metabolismo , Doença de Crohn/patologia , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
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