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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5071, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417470

RESUMO

Identification of causal variants and genes underlying genome-wide association study (GWAS) loci is essential to understand the biology of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and drinks per week (DPW). Multi-omics integration approaches have shown potential for fine mapping complex loci to obtain biological insights to disease mechanisms. In this study, we use multi-omics approaches, to fine-map AUD and DPW associations at single SNP resolution to demonstrate that rs56030824 on chromosome 11 significantly reduces SPI1 mRNA expression in myeloid cells and lowers risk for AUD and DPW. Our analysis also identifies MAPT as a candidate causal gene specifically associated with DPW. Genes prioritized in this study show overlap with causal genes associated with neurodegenerative disorders. Multi-omics integration analyses highlight, genetic similarities and differences between alcohol intake and disordered drinking, suggesting molecular heterogeneity that might inform future targeted functional and cross-species studies.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Feto/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Loci Gênicos , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Mapeamento Físico do Cromossomo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
2.
Brain Behav ; 11(8): e02188, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The ENIGMA-EEG working group was established to enable large-scale international collaborations among cohorts that investigate the genetics of brain function measured with electroencephalography (EEG). In this perspective, we will discuss why analyzing the genetics of functional brain activity may be crucial for understanding how neurological and psychiatric liability genes affect the brain. METHODS: We summarize how we have performed our currently largest genome-wide association study of oscillatory brain activity in EEG recordings by meta-analyzing the results across five participating cohorts, resulting in the first genome-wide significant hits for oscillatory brain function located in/near genes that were previously associated with psychiatric disorders. We describe how we have tackled methodological issues surrounding genetic meta-analysis of EEG features. We discuss the importance of harmonizing EEG signal processing, cleaning, and feature extraction. Finally, we explain our selection of EEG features currently being investigated, including the temporal dynamics of oscillations and the connectivity network based on synchronization of oscillations. RESULTS: We present data that show how to perform systematic quality control and evaluate how choices in reference electrode and montage affect individual differences in EEG parameters. CONCLUSION: The long list of potential challenges to our large-scale meta-analytic approach requires extensive effort and organization between participating cohorts; however, our perspective shows that these challenges are surmountable. Our perspective argues that elucidating the genetic of EEG oscillatory activity is a worthwhile effort in order to elucidate the pathway from gene to disease liability.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Encéfalo , Mapeamento Encefálico , Humanos , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador
3.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 166, 2021 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723218

RESUMO

Predictive models for recovering from alcohol use disorder (AUD) and identifying related predisposition biomarkers can have a tremendous impact on addiction treatment outcomes and cost reduction. Our sample (N = 1376) included individuals of European (EA) and African (AA) ancestry from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) who were initially assessed as having AUD (DSM-5) and reassessed years later as either having AUD or in remission. To predict this difference in AUD recovery status, we analyzed the initial data using multimodal, multi-features machine learning applications including EEG source-level functional brain connectivity, Polygenic Risk Scores (PRS), medications, and demographic information. Sex and ancestry age-matched stratified analyses were performed with supervised linear Support Vector Machine application and were calculated twice, once when the ancestry was defined by self-report and once defined by genetic data. Multifeatured prediction models achieved higher accuracy scores than models based on a single domain and higher scores in male models when the ancestry was based on genetic data. The AA male group model with PRS, EEG functional connectivity, marital and employment status features achieved the highest accuracy of 86.04%. Several discriminative features were identified, including collections of PRS related to neuroticism, depression, aggression, years of education, and alcohol consumption phenotypes. Other discriminated features included being married, employed, medication, lower default mode network and fusiform connectivity, and higher insula connectivity. Results highlight the importance of increasing genetic homogeneity of analyzed groups, identifying sex, and ancestry-specific features to increase prediction scores revealing biomarkers related to AUD remission.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Alcoolismo/genética , Encéfalo , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
4.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 186(3): 151-161, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652861

RESUMO

African Americans (AA) have lower prevalence of alcohol dependence and higher subjective response to alcohol than European Americans. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genes/variants associated with alcohol dependence specifically in AA; however, the sample sizes are still not large enough to detect variants with small effects. Admixture mapping is an alternative way to identify alcohol dependence genes/variants that may be unique to AA. In this study, we performed the first admixture mapping of DSM-IV alcohol dependence diagnosis, DSM-IV alcohol dependence criterion count, and two scores from the self-rating of effects of ethanol (SRE) as measures of response to alcohol: the first five times of using alcohol (SRE-5) and average of SRE across three times (SRE-T). Findings revealed a region on chromosome 4 that was genome-wide significant for SRE-5 (p value = 4.18E-05). Fine mapping did not identify a single causal variant to be associated with SRE-5; instead, conditional analysis concluded that multiple variants collectively explained the admixture mapping signal. PPARGC1A, a gene that has been linked to alcohol consumption in previous studies, is located in this region. Our finding suggests that admixture mapping is a useful tool to identify genes/variants that may have been missed by current GWAS approaches in admixed populations.

5.
Psychol Med ; 51(7): 1147-1156, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders have distinct genetic backgrounds. METHODS: We examined whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) for consumption and problem subscales of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C, AUDIT-P) in the UK Biobank (UKB; N = 121 630) correlate with alcohol outcomes in four independent samples: an ascertained cohort, the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA; N = 6850), and population-based cohorts: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; N = 5911), Generation Scotland (GS; N = 17 461), and an independent subset of UKB (N = 245 947). Regression models and survival analyses tested whether the PRS were associated with the alcohol-related outcomes. RESULTS: In COGA, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with alcohol dependence, AUD symptom count, maximum drinks (R2 = 0.47-0.68%, p = 2.0 × 10-8-1.0 × 10-10), and increased likelihood of onset of alcohol dependence (hazard ratio = 1.15, p = 4.7 × 10-8); AUDIT-C PRS was not an independent predictor of any phenotype. In ALSPAC, the AUDIT-C PRS was associated with alcohol dependence (R2 = 0.96%, p = 4.8 × 10-6). In GS, AUDIT-C PRS was a better predictor of weekly alcohol use (R2 = 0.27%, p = 5.5 × 10-11), while AUDIT-P PRS was more associated with problem drinking (R2 = 0.40%, p = 9.0 × 10-7). Lastly, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with ICD-based alcohol-related disorders in the UKB subset (R2 = 0.18%, p < 2.0 × 10-16). CONCLUSIONS: AUDIT-P PRS was associated with a range of alcohol-related phenotypes across population-based and ascertained cohorts, while AUDIT-C PRS showed less utility in the ascertained cohort. We show that AUDIT-P is genetically correlated with both use and misuse and demonstrate the influence of ascertainment schemes on PRS analyses.

6.
Mol Psychiatry ; 26(4): 1133-1141, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595034

RESUMO

Predictive models have succeeded in distinguishing between individuals with Alcohol use Disorder (AUD) and controls. However, predictive models identifying who is prone to develop AUD and the biomarkers indicating a predisposition to AUD are still unclear. Our sample (n = 656) included offspring and non-offspring of European American (EA) and African American (AA) ancestry from the Collaborative Study of the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) who were recruited as early as age 12 and were unaffected at first assessment and reassessed years later as AUD (DSM-5) (n = 328) or unaffected (n = 328). Machine learning analysis was performed for 220 EEG measures, 149 alcohol-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from a recent large Genome-wide Association Study (GWAS) of alcohol use/misuse and two family history (mother DSM-5 AUD and father DSM-5 AUD) features using supervised, Linear Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier to test which features assessed before developing AUD predict those who go on to develop AUD. Age, gender, and ancestry stratified analyses were performed. Results indicate significant and higher accuracy rates for the AA compared with the EA prediction models and a higher model accuracy trend among females compared with males for both ancestries. Combined EEG and SNP features model outperformed models based on only EEG features or only SNP features for both EA and AA samples. This multidimensional superiority was confirmed in a follow-up analysis in the AA age groups (12-15, 16-19, 20-30) and EA age group (16-19). In both ancestry samples, the youngest age group achieved higher accuracy score than the two other older age groups. Maternal AUD increased the model's accuracy in both ancestries' samples. Several discriminative EEG measures and SNPs features were identified, including lower posterior gamma, higher slow wave connectivity (delta, theta, alpha), higher frontal gamma ratio, higher beta correlation in the parietal area, and 5 SNPs: rs4780836, rs2605140, rs11690265, rs692854, and rs13380649. Results highlight the significance of sampling uniformity followed by stratified (e.g., ancestry, gender, developmental period) analysis, and wider selection of features, to generate better prediction scores allowing a more accurate estimation of AUD development.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Afro-Americanos/genética , Idoso , Alcoolismo/genética , Biomarcadores , Criança , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Estados Unidos
7.
Brain Behav ; 10(11): e01789, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990406

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Family history (FH) of alcohol dependence is likely to increase the risk of trauma exposure, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and alcohol dependence. FH of alcohol dependence and trauma has been separately shown to adversely affect planning/problem-solving aspects of executive function. However, few studies have examined these risk factors in an integrated model. METHODS: Using data from trauma-exposed individuals from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism prospective cohort (N = 1,860), comprising offspring from alcohol-dependent high-risk and comparison families (mean age [SE] = 21.9 [4.2]), we investigated associations of trauma (nonsexual assaultive, nonassaultive, sexual assaultive) with DSM-IV PTSD and alcohol dependence symptom counts, and planning/problem-solving abilities assessed using the Tower of London Test (TOLT). Moderating effects of family history density of alcohol use disorder (FHD) on these associations and sex differences were explored. RESULTS: Family history density was positively associated with PTSD in female participants who endorsed a sexual assaultive trauma. Exposure to nonsexual assaultive trauma was associated with more excess moves made on the TOLT. CONCLUSION: Findings from this study demonstrate associations with PTSD and alcohol dependence symptom counts, as well as poor problem-solving ability in trauma-exposed individuals from families densely affected with alcohol dependence, depending on trauma type, FHD, and sex. This suggests that having a FH of alcohol dependence and exposure to trauma during adolescence may be associated with more PTSD and alcohol dependence symptoms, and poor problem-solving abilities in adulthood.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adolescente , Adulto , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/genética , Adulto Jovem
8.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433515

RESUMO

Aberrant connectivity of large-scale brain networks has been observed among individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) as well as in those at risk, suggesting deficits in neural communication between brain regions in the liability to develop AUD. Electroencephalographical (EEG) coherence, which measures the degree of synchrony between brain regions, may be a useful measure of connectivity patterns in neural networks for studying the genetics of AUD. In 8810 individuals (6644 of European and 2166 of African ancestry) from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA), we performed a Multi-Trait Analyses of genome-wide association studies (MTAG) on parietal resting-state theta (3-7 Hz) EEG coherence, which previously have been associated with AUD. We also examined developmental effects of GWAS findings on trajectories of neural connectivity in a longitudinal subsample of 2316 adolescent/young adult offspring from COGA families (ages 12-30) and examined the functional and clinical significance of GWAS variants. Six correlated single nucleotide polymorphisms located in a brain-expressed lincRNA (ENSG00000266213) on chromosome 18q23 were associated with posterior interhemispheric low theta EEG coherence (3-5 Hz). These same variants were also associated with alcohol use behavior and posterior corpus callosum volume, both in a subset of COGA and in the UK Biobank. Analyses in the subsample of COGA offspring indicated that the association of rs12954372 with low theta EEG coherence occurred only in females, most prominently between ages 25 and 30 (p < 2 × 10-9). Converging data provide support for the role of genetic variants on chromosome 18q23 in regulating neural connectivity and alcohol use behavior, potentially via dysregulated myelination. While findings were less robust, genome-wide associations were also observed with rs151174000 and parieto-frontal low theta coherence, rs14429078 and parieto-occipital interhemispheric high theta coherence, and rs116445911 with centro-parietal low theta coherence. These novel genetic findings highlight the utility of the endophenotype approach in enhancing our understanding of mechanisms underlying addiction susceptibility.

9.
Behav Genet ; 50(3): 175-183, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239439

RESUMO

Shared genetic factors contribute to the high degree of comorbidity among externalizing problems (e.g. substance use and antisocial behavior). We leverage this common genetic etiology to identify genetic influences externalizing problems in participants from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (European ancestry = 7568; African ancestry = 3274). We performed a family-based genome-wide association study (GWAS) on externalizing scores derived from criterion counts of five DSM disorders (alcohol dependence, alcohol abuse, illicit drug dependence, illicit drug abuse, and either antisocial personality disorder or conduct disorder). We meta analyzed these results with a similar measure of externalizing in an independent sample, Spit for Science (combined sample N = 15,112). We did not discover any robust genome-wide significant signals. Polygenic scores derived from the ancestry-specific GWAS summary statistics predicted externalizing problems in an independent European ancestry sample, but not in those of African ancestry. However, these PRS were no longer significant after adjusting for multiple testing. Larger samples with deep phenotyping are necessary for the discovery of SNPs related to externalizing problems.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/genética , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Alcoolismo/genética , Criança , Comorbidade , Transtorno da Conduta/genética , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
10.
Behav Sci (Basel) ; 10(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32121585

RESUMO

: Individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) manifest a variety of impairments that can be attributed to alterations in specific brain networks. The current study aims to identify features of EEG-based functional connectivity, neuropsychological performance, and impulsivity that can classify individuals with AUD (N = 30) from unaffected controls (CTL, N = 30) using random forest classification. The features included were: (i) EEG source functional connectivity (FC) of the default mode network (DMN) derived using eLORETA algorithm, (ii) neuropsychological scores from the Tower of London test (TOLT) and the visual span test (VST), and (iii) impulsivity factors from the Barratt impulsiveness scale (BIS). The random forest model achieved a classification accuracy of 80% and identified 29 FC connections (among 66 connections per frequency band), 3 neuropsychological variables from VST (total number of correctly performed trials in forward and backward sequences and average time for correct trials in forward sequence) and all four impulsivity scores (motor, non-planning, attentional, and total) as significantly contributing to classifying individuals as either AUD or CTL. Although there was a significant age difference between the groups, most of the top variables that contributed to the classification were not significantly correlated with age. The AUD group showed a predominant pattern of hyperconnectivity among 25 of 29 significant connections, indicating aberrant network functioning during resting state suggestive of neural hyperexcitability and impulsivity. Further, parahippocampal hyperconnectivity with other DMN regions was identified as a major hub region dysregulated in AUD (13 connections overall), possibly due to neural damage from chronic drinking, which may give rise to cognitive impairments, including memory deficits and blackouts. Furthermore, hypoconnectivity observed in four connections (prefrontal nodes connecting posterior right-hemispheric regions) may indicate a weaker or fractured prefrontal connectivity with other regions, which may be related to impaired higher cognitive functions. The AUD group also showed poorer memory performance on the VST task and increased impulsivity in all factors compared to controls. Features from all three domains had significant associations with one another. These results indicate that dysregulated neural connectivity across the DMN regions, especially relating to hyperconnected parahippocampal hub as well as hypoconnected prefrontal hub, may potentially represent neurophysiological biomarkers of AUD, while poor visual memory performance and heightened impulsivity may serve as cognitive-behavioral indices of AUD.

11.
Mol Psychiatry ; 25(8): 1673-1687, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32099098

RESUMO

To provide insights into the biology of opioid dependence (OD) and opioid use (i.e., exposure, OE), we completed a genome-wide analysis comparing 4503 OD cases, 4173 opioid-exposed controls, and 32,500 opioid-unexposed controls, including participants of European and African descent (EUR and AFR, respectively). Among the variants identified, rs9291211 was associated with OE (exposed vs. unexposed controls; EUR z = -5.39, p = 7.2 × 10-8). This variant regulates the transcriptomic profiles of SLC30A9 and BEND4 in multiple brain tissues and was previously associated with depression, alcohol consumption, and neuroticism. A phenome-wide scan of rs9291211 in the UK Biobank (N > 360,000) found association of this variant with propensity to use dietary supplements (p = 1.68 × 10-8). With respect to the same OE phenotype in the gene-based analysis, we identified SDCCAG8 (EUR + AFR z = 4.69, p = 10-6), which was previously associated with educational attainment, risk-taking behaviors, and schizophrenia. In addition, rs201123820 showed a genome-wide significant difference between OD cases and unexposed controls (AFR z = 5.55, p = 2.9 × 10-8) and a significant association with musculoskeletal disorders in the UK Biobank (p = 4.88 × 10-7). A polygenic risk score (PRS) based on a GWAS of risk-tolerance (n = 466,571) was positively associated with OD (OD vs. unexposed controls, p = 8.1 × 10-5; OD cases vs. exposed controls, p = 0.054) and OE (exposed vs. unexposed controls, p = 3.6 × 10-5). A PRS based on a GWAS of neuroticism (n = 390,278) was positively associated with OD (OD vs. unexposed controls, p = 3.2 × 10-5; OD vs. exposed controls, p = 0.002) but not with OE (p = 0.67). Our analyses highlight the difference between dependence and exposure and the importance of considering the definition of controls in studies of addiction.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Comportamento Aditivo/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/genética , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Feminino , Genoma Humano/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial/genética
12.
Brain Sci ; 10(2)2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32093319

RESUMO

Individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) are known to manifest a variety of neurocognitive impairments that can be attributed to alterations in specific brain networks. The current study aims to identify specific features of brain connectivity, neuropsychological performance, and impulsivity traits that can classify adult males with AUD (n = 30) from healthy controls (CTL, n = 30) using the Random Forest (RF) classification method. The predictor variables were: (i) fMRI-based within-network functional connectivity (FC) of the Default Mode Network (DMN), (ii) neuropsychological scores from the Tower of London Test (TOLT), and the Visual Span Test (VST), and (iii) impulsivity factors from the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS). The RF model, with a classification accuracy of 76.67%, identified fourteen DMN connections, two neuropsychological variables (memory span and total correct scores of the forward condition of the VST), and all impulsivity factors as significantly important for classifying participants into either the AUD or CTL group. Specifically, the AUD group manifested hyperconnectivity across the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex and the prefrontal cortex as well as between the bilateral posterior cingulate cortex and the left inferior parietal lobule, while showing hypoconnectivity in long-range anterior-posterior and interhemispheric long-range connections. Individuals with AUD also showed poorer memory performance and increased impulsivity compared to CTL individuals. Furthermore, there were significant associations among FC, impulsivity, neuropsychological performance, and AUD status. These results confirm the previous findings that alterations in specific brain networks coupled with poor neuropsychological functioning and heightened impulsivity may characterize individuals with AUD, who can be efficiently identified using classification algorithms such as Random Forest.

13.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 44(3): 697-710, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Family history (FH) is an important risk factor for the development of alcohol use disorder (AUD). A variety of dichotomous and density measures of FH have been used to predict alcohol outcomes; yet, a systematic comparison of these FH measures is lacking. We compared 4 density and 4 commonly used dichotomous FH measures and examined variations by gender and race/ethnicity in their associations with age of onset of regular drinking, parietal P3 amplitude to visual target, and likelihood of developing AUD. METHODS: Data from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) were utilized to compute the density and dichotomous measures. Only subjects and their family members with DSM-5 AUD diagnostic information obtained through direct interviews using the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA) were included in the study. Area under receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the diagnostic accuracy of FH measures at classifying DSM-5 AUD diagnosis. Logistic and linear regression models were used to examine associations of FH measures with alcohol outcomes. RESULTS: Density measures had greater diagnostic accuracy at classifying AUD diagnosis, whereas dichotomous measures presented diagnostic accuracy closer to random chance. Both dichotomous and density measures were significantly associated with likelihood of AUD, early onset of regular drinking, and low parietal P3 amplitude, but density measures presented consistently more robust associations. Further, variations in these associations were observed such that among males (vs. females) and Whites (vs. Blacks), associations of alcohol outcomes with density (vs. dichotomous) measures were greater in magnitude. CONCLUSIONS: Density (vs. dichotomous) measures seem to present more robust associations with alcohol outcomes. However, associations of dichotomous and density FH measures with different alcohol outcomes (behavioral vs. neural) varied across gender and race/ethnicity. These findings have great applicability for alcohol research examining FH of AUD.

14.
Addict Biol ; 25(2): e12800, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270906

RESUMO

The level of response (LR) to alcohol as measured with the Self-Report of the Effects of Alcohol Retrospective Questionnaire (SRE) evaluates the number of standard drinks usually required for up to four effects. The need for a higher number of drinks for effects is genetically influenced and predicts higher risks for heavy drinking and alcohol problems. We conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS) in the African-American (COGA-AA, N = 1527 from 309 families) and European-American (COGA-EA, N = 4723 from 956 families) subsamples of the Collaborative Studies on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) for two SRE scores: SRE-T (average of first five times of drinking, the period of heaviest drinking, and the most recent 3 months of consumption) and SRE-5 (the first five times of drinking). We then meta-analyzed the two COGA subsamples (COGA-AA + EA). Both SRE-T and SRE-5 were modestly heritable (h2 : 21%-31%) and genetically correlated with alcohol dependence (AD) and DSM-IV AD criterion count (rg : 0.35-0.76). Genome-wide significant associations were observed (SRE-T: chromosomes 6, rs140154945, COGA-EA P = 3.30E-08 and 11, rs10647170, COGA-AA+EA P = 3.53E-09; SRE-5: chromosome13, rs4770359, COGA-AA P = 2.92E-08). Chromosome 11 was replicated in an EA dataset from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism intramural program. In silico functional analyses and RNA expression analyses suggest that the chromosome 6 locus is an eQTL for KIF25. Polygenic risk scores derived using the COGA SRE-T and SRE-5 GWAS predicted 0.47% to 2.48% of variances in AD and DSM-IV AD criterion count in independent datasets. This study highlights the genetic contribution of alcohol response phenotypes to the etiology of alcohol use disorders.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/genética , Etanol/farmacologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Brain Sci ; 9(10)2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627376

RESUMO

Differences in the connectivity of large-scale functional brain networks among individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUD), as well as those at risk for AUD, point to dysfunctional neural communication and related cognitive impairments. In this study, we examined how polygenic risk scores (PRS), derived from a recent GWAS of DSM-IV Alcohol Dependence (AD) conducted by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, relate to longitudinal measures of interhemispheric and intrahemispheric EEG connectivity (alpha, theta, and beta frequencies) in adolescent and young adult offspring from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) assessed between ages 12 and 31. Our findings indicate that AD PRS (p-threshold < 0.001) was associated with increased fronto-central, tempo-parietal, centro-parietal, and parietal-occipital interhemispheric theta and alpha connectivity in males only from ages 18-31 (beta coefficients ranged from 0.02-0.06, p-values ranged from 10-6-10-12), but not in females. Individuals with higher AD PRS also demonstrated more performance deficits on neuropsychological tasks (Tower of London task, visual span test) as well as increased risk for lifetime DSM-5 alcohol and opioid use disorders. We conclude that measures of neural connectivity, together with neurocognitive performance and substance use behavior, can be used to further understanding of how genetic risk variants from large GWAS of AUD may influence brain function. In addition, these data indicate the importance of examining sex and developmental effects, which otherwise may be masked. Understanding of neural mechanisms linking genetic variants emerging from GWAS to risk for AUD throughout development may help to identify specific points when neurocognitive prevention and intervention efforts may be most effective.

17.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 269, 2019 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636251

RESUMO

Cannabis use and disorders (CUD) are influenced by multiple genetic variants of small effect and by the psychosocial environment. However, this information has not been effectively incorporated into studies of gene-environment interaction (GxE). Polygenic risk scores (PRS) that aggregate the effects of genetic variants can aid in identifying the links between genetic risk and psychosocial factors. Using data from the Pasman et al. GWAS of cannabis use (meta-analysis of data from the International Cannabis Consortium and UK Biobank), we constructed PRS in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) participants of European (N: 7591) and African (N: 3359) ancestry. The primary analyses included only individuals of European ancestry, reflecting the ancestral composition of the discovery GWAS from which the PRS was derived. Secondary analyses included the African ancestry sample. Associations of PRS with cannabis use and DSM-5 CUD symptom count (CUDsx) and interactions with trauma exposure and frequency of religious service attendance were examined. Models were adjusted for sex, birth cohort, genotype array, and ancestry. Robustness models were adjusted for cross-term interactions. Higher PRS were associated with a greater likelihood of cannabis use and with CUDsx among participants of European ancestry (p < 0.05 and p < 0.1 thresholds, respectively). PRS only influenced cannabis use among those exposed to trauma (R2: 0.011 among the trauma exposed vs. R2: 0.002 in unexposed). PRS less consistently influenced cannabis use among those who attend religious services less frequently; PRS × religious service attendance effects were attenuated when cross-term interactions with ancestry and sex were included in the model. Polygenic liability to cannabis use was related to cannabis use and, less robustly, progression to symptoms of CUD. This study provides the first evidence of PRS × trauma for cannabis use and demonstrates that ignoring important aspects of the psychosocial environment may mask genetic influences on polygenic traits.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Uso da Maconha/genética , Herança Multifatorial , Infuência dos Pares , Espiritualidade , Violência , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
Genes Brain Behav ; 18(6): e12580, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099175

RESUMO

Genetic influences on alcohol and drug dependence partially overlap, however, specific loci underlying this overlap remain unclear. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of a phenotype representing alcohol or illicit drug dependence (ANYDEP) among 7291 European-Americans (EA; 2927 cases) and 3132 African-Americans (AA: 1315 cases) participating in the family-based Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism. ANYDEP was heritable (h 2 in EA = 0.60, AA = 0.37). The AA GWAS identified three regions with genome-wide significant (GWS; P < 5E-08) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosomes 3 (rs34066662, rs58801820) and 13 (rs75168521, rs78886294), and an insertion-deletion on chromosome 5 (chr5:141988181). No polymorphisms reached GWS in the EA. One GWS region (chromosome 1: rs1890881) emerged from a trans-ancestral meta-analysis (EA + AA) of ANYDEP, and was attributable to alcohol dependence in both samples. Four genes (AA: CRKL, DZIP3, SBK3; EA: P2RX6) and four sets of genes were significantly enriched within biological pathways for hemostasis and signal transduction. GWS signals did not replicate in two independent samples but there was weak evidence for association between rs1890881 and alcohol intake in the UK Biobank. Among 118 AA and 481 EA individuals from the Duke Neurogenetics Study, rs75168521 and rs1890881 genotypes were associated with variability in reward-related ventral striatum activation. This study identified novel loci for substance dependence and provides preliminary evidence that these variants are also associated with individual differences in neural reward reactivity. Gene discovery efforts in non-European samples with distinct patterns of substance use may lead to the identification of novel ancestry-specific genetic markers of risk.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/genética , Estriado Ventral/fisiopatologia , Cromossomos Humanos Par 13/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 3/genética , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Fenótipo , Recompensa , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/etnologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/fisiopatologia
19.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 43(8): 1759-1768, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption and problems are increasing among older adults, who are at elevated risk for alcohol-related accidents and medical problems. This paper describes a pilot follow-up of older adults with a history of alcohol dependence that was designed to determine the feasibility of conducting a more extensive investigation. METHODS: The sample consisted of previously assessed subjects in the Collaborative Studies on the Genetics of Alcoholism who: (i) were age 50+; (ii) had lifetime DSM-IV AD; and (iii) had DNA available. Individuals were located through family contacts, Internet searches, and death registries. A brief telephone interview assessed demographics, health, and alcohol involvement. RESULTS: Of the total sample (N = 2,174), 36% were contacted, 24% were deceased, and 40% were not yet located. Most (89%) contacted subjects were interviewed, and 99% of them agreed to future evaluation. Thirty percent of interviewed subjects reported abstinence for 10+ years, 56% reported drinking within the past year, and 14% last drank between >1 and 10 years ago. There were no age-related past-year differences in weekly consumption (overall sample mean: 16 drinks), number of drinking weeks (30.8), maximum number of drinks in 24 hours (8.1), or prevalence of weekly risky drinking (19%). Among those who drank within the past 5 years, the 3 most common alcohol-related problems were spending excessive time drinking or recovering (49%), drinking more/longer than intended (35%), and driving while intoxicated (35%); and about a third (32%) received some form of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Over a 1-year period, we located 60% of individuals last seen an average of 23 years ago. The majority of contacted individuals were interviewed and willing to be evaluated again. Although the proportion of individuals currently drinking diminished with age, subjects exhibited troublesome levels of alcohol consumption and problems. Our findings suggest the importance and feasibility of a more comprehensive follow-up.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Abstinência de Álcool/estatística & dados numéricos , Dirigir sob a Influência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Prevalência , Assunção de Riscos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Genes Brain Behav ; 18(6): e12579, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090166

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of alcohol dependence (AD) have reliably identified variation within alcohol metabolizing genes (eg, ADH1B) but have inconsistently located other signals, which may be partially attributable to symptom heterogeneity underlying the disorder. We conducted GWAS of DSM-IV AD (primary analysis), DSM-IV AD criterion count (secondary analysis), and individual dependence criteria (tertiary analysis) among 7418 (1121 families) European American (EA) individuals from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). Trans-ancestral meta-analyses combined these results with data from 3175 (585 families) African-American (AA) individuals from COGA. In the EA GWAS, three loci were genome-wide significant: rs1229984 in ADH1B for AD criterion count (P = 4.16E-11) and Desire to cut drinking (P = 1.21E-11); rs188227250 (chromosome 8, Drinking more than intended, P = 6.72E-09); rs1912461 (chromosome 15, Time spent drinking, P = 1.77E-08). In the trans-ancestral meta-analysis, rs1229984 was associated with multiple phenotypes and two additional loci were genome-wide significant: rs61826952 (chromosome 1, DSM-IV AD, P = 8.42E-11); rs7597960 (chromosome 2, Time spent drinking, P = 1.22E-08). Associations with rs1229984 and rs18822750 were replicated in independent datasets. Polygenic risk scores derived from the EA GWAS of AD predicted AD in two EA datasets (P < .01; 0.61%-1.82% of variance). Identified novel variants (ie, rs1912461, rs61826952) were associated with differential central evoked theta power (loss - gain; P = .0037) and reward-related ventral striatum reactivity (P = .008), respectively. This study suggests that studying individual criteria may unveil new insights into the genetic etiology of AD liability.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/genética , Álcool Desidrogenase/genética , Alcoolismo/fisiopatologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recompensa , Ritmo Teta , Estriado Ventral/fisiopatologia
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