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1.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593634

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe macular vessel density and perfusion in COVID-19 patients using coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and to investigate whether there is a correlation between retinal vascular abnormalities and clinical and laboratory parameters. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis conducted at the Hospital Clinico San Carlos in Madrid, Spain. Patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 that were attended in the Emergency Department (ED) from March 23 to March 29, 2020 were included. Fundus examination and OCTA were performed 4 weeks after being attended in ED. Macular OCTA parameters were analyzed and correlated with clinical (severity and hypoxemia- oxygen saturation<92%) and laboratory parameters during hospital stay (D-Dimer-DD, lactate dehydrogenase-LDH and C-reactive protein-CRP). RESULTS: 80 patients were included, mean age 55(SD9) years old; 46.3% male. We reported macular vessel density and perfusion measurements in COVID-19 patients. Those patients with D-Dimer≥500ng/ml during SARS-CoV-2 infection had a decrease of central vessel density (mean difference 2.2; 95%CI 0.4-3.9) and perfusion density (mean difference 4.9; 95%CI 0.9-8.9) after the acute phase of COVID-19. These variations of vessel density and perfusion density were not documented in patients with LDH≥500U/L, CRP≥10mg/L and hypoxemia. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients showed short-term retinal vasculature abnormalities which may be related to a prothrombotic state associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Since the retinal microvasculature shares many morphological and physiological properties with the vasculature of other vital organs, further research is needed to establish whether patients with increased D-Dimer levels require more careful assessment and follow-up after COVID-19.

3.
Cephalalgia ; : 333102420981721, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412894

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The evaluation of red flags is crucial for the accurate the diagnosis of headache disorders, especially for thunderclap headache. We analysed if secondary headache disorders were adequately ruled out in patients that presented to the emergency room with thunderclap headache. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we screened all patients that visited the emergency room for headache, including those that described thunderclap headache. We measured the frequency with which secondary causes were not adequately ruled out. We analysed the order of the exams, the final diagnosis, and the time elapsed between arrival, initial request for imaging, and the completion of the imaging. RESULTS: We screened 2132 patients, and 42 (1.9%) fulfilled eligibility criteria. Mean age was 43.1 ± 17.1 years, and 57% of patients were female. For 22 (52.4%) patients, the work-up was incomplete. Vascular study was missing in 16 (38.1%) patients, cerebrospinal fluid evaluation in nine (21.4%), and magnetic resonance imaging in seven (16.7%), with multiple assessments missing in six (14.3%). There were ten different combinations in which the exams were performed, with the most frequent being the second exam's cerebral spinal fluid evaluation in 18 (52.9%) and the computed tomography angiogram in 10 (29.4%). A secondary cause of thunderclap headache was found in 16 (38.1%) patients, and four (9.5%) had a primary headache diagnosis after an adequate and complete study. CONCLUSIONS: Thunderclap onset was described in one of every 50 patients that visited the emergency room for headache. More than half of these patients were not adequately managed. More than a third of thunderclap headache patients had a secondary cause.

4.
Ann Neurol ; 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33295021

RESUMO

We diagnosed 11 Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) cases among 71,904 COVID patients attended at 61 Spanish emergency departments (ED) during the 2-month pandemic peak. The relative frequency of GBS among ED patients was higher in COVID (0.15‰) than non-COVID(0.02‰) patients (OR=6.30, 95%CI=3.18-12.5) as was the standardized incidence (9.44 and 0.69 cases/100,000-year, respectively, OR=13.5; 95%CI=9.87-18.4). Regarding clinical characteristics, olfactory-gustatory disorders were more frequent in COVID-GBS than non-COVID-GBS (OR=27.59, 95%CI=1.296-587) and COVID-non-GBS (OR=7.875, 95%CI=1.587-39.09) patients. Although COVID-GBS patients were more frequently admitted to intensive care, mortality was not increased versus control groups. Our results suggest SARS-CoV-2 could be another viral infection causing GBS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

5.
Eur J Ophthalmol ; : 1120672120984408, 2020 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356532

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Migraine is one of the most common causes of transient visual loss. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) provides fast and non-invasive imaging of the retinal vessels. We report the first case of monocular retinal oligemia demonstrated using OCTA during a migraine attack with aura. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 27-year-old man with a previous history of migraine with visual aura was seen in the emergency room due to acute left hemicranial pain with positive visual symptoms in his right eye. The patient reported a blue stain in his right eye. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) showed an extensive area of hypoperfusion in the macular region of his right eye. Forty-eight hours later visual symptoms had improved and the OCT-A showed a significant reduction in the area of hypoperfusion. Seven days later the patient was asymptomatic and retinal perfusion had returned to normal values. CONCLUSION: Monocular involvement suggests that these retinal vascular changes are independent from cerebral vascular changes, supporting the hypothesis of selective retinal ganglion cell layer spreading depression as the possible cause of some cases of retinal migraine.

6.
Headache ; 60(8): 1664-1672, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790215

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the frequency of the main red flags in patients with headache who do have Covid-19. BACKGROUND: Headache is one of the most frequent neurologic symptoms of Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). Diagnosis of secondary headache disorders is still based on the presence of red flags. DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study of hospitalized patients with confirmed Covid-19 disease. We interrogated every patient about the presence of headache and if so, a headache expert conducted a structured interview assessing the presence and type of the main red flags. We evaluated the presence of laboratory abnormalities on admission. RESULTS: We screened 576 consecutive patients, 130/576 (22.6%) described headache, and 104 were included in the study. Mean age of patients was 56.7 (standard deviation: 11.2) and 66/104 (63.4%) were female. Red flags concerning prior medical history were present in 79/104 (76.0%) cases, and those related to the headache itself were observed in 99/104 (95.2%) patients. All patients 104/104 (100%) described systemic symptoms and 86/104 (82.7%) some neurologic symptoms. Laboratory results were abnormal in 98/104 (94.2%) cases. The most frequent red flags were fever, in 93/104 (89.4%) patients, cough, in 89/104 (85.6% cases), and increased C-reactive protein in 84/100 (84.0%) cases. CONCLUSION: In patients with Covid-19 that described the headache red flags were present in most cases. There was not any universal red flag, being necessary the comprehensive evaluation of all of them.

7.
Headache ; 60(8): 1697-1704, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Series of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection report headache in 6%-15% of cases, although some data suggest that the actual frequency is higher, and that headache is not associated with fever. No study published to date has analyzed the characteristics of headache in these patients. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the characteristics of COVID-19 related headaches. METHODS: We conducted a survey of Spaniard healthcare professionals who have been infected by SARS-CoV-2 and presented headache during the course of the disease. The survey addressed respondents' medical history and headache characteristics, and we analyzed the association between both. RESULTS: We analyzed the responses of a sample of 112 healthcare professionals. History of migraine was reported by 20/112 (17.9%) of respondents, history of tension-type headache by 8/112 (7.1%), and history of cluster headache was reported by a single respondent; 82/112(73.2%) of respondents had no history of headache. Headache presented independently of fever, around the third day after symptom onset. The previous history of migraine was associated with a higher frequency of pulsating headache (20% in patients with previous migraine vs 4.3% in those with no history of migraine, P = .013). CONCLUSION: Headache is often holocranial, hemicranial, or occipital, pressing, and worsens with physical activity or head movements. Because the characteristics of the headache and the associated symptoms are heterogeneous in our survey, we suggest that several patterns with specific pathophysiological mechanisms may underlie the headache associated with COVID-19.

8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(29): e20900, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702831

RESUMO

Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a cause of secondary headache with substantial morbimortality. Headache dominates the clinical presentation, but no typical phenotype has been described. We aim to evaluate the presence of red flags in headache in patients with confirmed CVST at the moment of emergency department (ED) presentation.Retrospective STROBE compliant cohort study including patients with confirmed CVST that consulted because of headache at the ED. We analyzed presence and type of red flags at the moment of consult. We evaluated whether CVST was suspected at the moment of imaging request and analyzed delay in the diagnosis.Nineteen patients fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria. Mean age was 48.5 years, 47.4% were female. All the studied patients exhibited at least 1 red flag, being abnormal neurological examination the most frequent (79%), followed by the presence of other neurological symptoms (68%), alarm data related with headache phenotype (63%), or risk factors concerning prior medical history (47%). Temporal pattern of the headache was acute in 42.1%, thunderclap in 31.6%, and subacute in 26.3%. In none patient CVST was the specific suspicion when imaging was requested. Median time since headache onset and ED presentation was 84 hours, being different in patients with associated symptoms (48 hours) when compared with isolated headache patients (168 hours). Time since ED presentation and the diagnosis also differed between the 2 groups, being more prolonged in patients with an isolated headache at presentation.Headache attributed with CVST did not exhibit any distinctive phenotype, but all the patients presented some red flag, being abnormal neurological examination the most frequent.


Assuntos
Cefaleia/etiologia , Trombose dos Seios Intracranianos/diagnóstico , Afasia/etiologia , Comportamento , Estudos de Coortes , Transtornos da Consciência/etiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Motores/etiologia , Paresia/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Convulsões/etiologia , Transtornos das Sensações/etiologia , Distúrbios da Fala/etiologia , Manobra de Valsalva
9.
J Med Virol ; 2020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32644205

RESUMO

The role of disease-modifying therapies in patients with autoimmune disorders during severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) infection is controversial. Immunocompromised patients could have a more severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) due to the absence of an adequate immune response against the SARS-CoV-2. However, therapies that act on immune response could play a protective role by dampening the cytokine-release syndrome. Fingolimod is a drug used for immune therapy in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) through the sequestration of activated lymphocytes in the lymph nodes. We report the case of a 57-year-old man with relapsing-remitting MS treated with fingolimod that showed a reactivation of COVID-19 with signs of hyperinflammation syndrome after fingolimod withdrawal. Our case suggests that discontinuation of fingolimod during COVID-19 could imply a worsening of SARS-CoV2 infection.

10.
J Med Virol ; 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32691890

RESUMO

It has been suggested that some individuals may present genetic susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection, with particular research interest in variants of the ACE2 and TMPRSS2 genes, involved in viral penetration into cells, in different populations and geographic regions, although insufficient information is currently available. This study addresses the apparently reasonable hypothesis that variants of these genes may modulate viral infectivity, making some individuals more vulnerable than others. Through whole-exome sequencing, the frequency of exonic variants of the ACE2, TMPRSS2, and Furin genes was analyzed in relation to presence or absence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a familial multiple sclerosis cohort including 120 individuals from Madrid. The ACE2 gene showed a low level of polymorphism, and none variant was significantly associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. These variants have previously been detected in Italy. While TMPRSS2 is highly polymorphic, the variants found do not coincide with those described in other studies, with the exception of rs75603675, which may be associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The synonymous variants rs61735792 and rs61735794 showed a significant association with infection. Despite the limited number of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, some variants, especially in TMPRSS2, may be associated with COVID-19.

12.
Front Public Health ; 8: 243, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574308

RESUMO

Introduction: Since the beginning of the Covid-19 epidemic produced by SARS2-Cov virus, olfactory alterations have been observed at a greater frequency than in other coronavirus epidemics. While olfactory alterations may be observed in patients with rhinovirus, influenza virus, or parainfluenza virus infection, they are typically explained by nasal obstruction with mucus or direct epithelial damage; in the case of SARS-CoV-2, olfactory alterations may present without nasal congestion with mucus. We performed a study of patients presenting olfactory/gustatory alterations in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection in order to contribute to the understanding of this phenomenon. Material and Methods: We performed a descriptive, cross-sectional, observational study of the clinical characteristics of olfactory/gustatory alterations using a self-administered, anonymous online questionnaire. Results: A total of 909 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and olfactory/gustatory alterations responded to the questionnaire in the 4-day data collection period; 824 cases (90.65%) reported simultaneous olfactory and gustatory involvement. Patients' responses to the questionnaire revealed ageusia (581, 64.1% of respondents), hypogeusia (256, 28.2%), dysgeusia (22, 2.4%), anosmia (752 82.8%), hyposmia (142, 15.6%), and dysosmia (8, 0.9%). Fifty-four percent (489) did not report concomitant nasal congestion or mucus. Conclusion: Olfactory alterations are frequent in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and is only associated with nasal congestion in half of the cases.

13.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 44: 102297, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Management of disease-modifying therapies in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) during the COVID-19 pandemic is a controversial issue. Alemtuzumab is an immunosuppressive drug that induces lymphocytes depletion. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the frequency and severity of COVID-19 in a case series of patients treated with alemtuzumab in our center. METHODS: Ten patients with a diagnosis of relapsing-remitting MS were phoned and asked about symptoms suggestive and COVID-19 using a semi-structured questionnaire. RESULTS: The mean age was 43.7 ± 9.65 years old, and 8 (80%) were females. The mean time since disease diagnosis was 17.30 ± 8.59 years, and all were patients with relapsing-remitting MS. Mean time from the last dose of Alemtuzumab was 9.80 ± 6.64 months, and last lymphocyte count was 760 ± 231 / µL. Two patients (20%) developed symptoms highly suggestive of COVID-19. Disease duration was 2 and 7 days. None patient required hospital admission. Patients with COVID-19 symptoms had longer clinical course of MS. Conversely, we did not find statistically significant differences regarding age, EDSS, last lymphocyte count, and months since the last dose of alemtuzumab administered between patients having or not symptoms of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that patients receiving alemtuzumab showed very mild symptoms of COVID-19. We speculate that immune reconstitution induced by treatment may induce positive changes in the immune system in the defense against SARS-CoV2. Further research about alemtuzumab and their role in COVID-infection is necessary to confirm these preliminary findings.

14.
Neurología (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 35(5): 291-294, jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-188625

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: La infección por SARS-CoV-2y la situación de pandemia hacen necesario un cambio en nuestra práctica clínica, en relación con la adopción de nuevas estrategias que permitan la asistencia integral de los pacientes con cefalea y neuralgia. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Ante la elevada capacidad de transmisión del virus, determinados procedimientos, como la infiltración de OnabotulinumtoxinA y la realización de bloqueos anestésicos, deben realizarse adoptando medidas que garanticen un nivel adecuado de seguridad. RESULTADOS: Nuestro objetivo es presentar una serie de recomendaciones basadas en las medidas establecidas por nuestro sistema sanitario para evitar el contagio. Diferenciaremos entre aquellas medidas relacionadas con el paciente y el facultativo, con la técnica, con la infraestructura (sala de espera y consulta) y con la gestión asistencial


INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has given rise to the need for changes in clinical practice, with new strategies to enable integrated care for patients with headache and neuralgia. METHODS: Given the high spreadability of SARS-CoV-2, new safety measures are required in such procedures as onabotulinumtoxinA infiltration and nerve blocks. RESULTS: We present a series of recommendations based on the measures implemented to prevent infection in our healthcare system. We differentiate between measures related to patients and physicians, to technique, to infrastructure (waiting room and consultation), and to healthcare managemen


Assuntos
Humanos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Neuromusculares/administração & dosagem , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Bloqueio Nervoso/normas , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Cefaleia/tratamento farmacológico , Neuralgia/tratamento farmacológico
16.
J Headache Pain ; 20(1): 73, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238877

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality of the therapeutic approach in Specialized Headache Units in Spain. METHODS: An observational (prospective) study was conducted. Anonymized data of 313 consecutive patients during a defined period of time were analyzed and a comparison of performance in 13 consensual quality indicators between Specialized Headache Units and neurology consultations was calculated. Specialized Units and neurology consultations represented the type of provision that Spaniards receive in hospitals. RESULTS: The consensus benchmark standard was reached for 8/13 (61%) indicators. Specialized Headache Units performed better in the indicators, specifically in relation to accessibility, equity, safety, and patient satisfaction. Patients attended in Specialized Headache Units had more complex conditions. CONCLUSION: Although there is variability among Specialized Headache Units, the overall quality was generally better than in traditional neurology consultations in Spain.


Assuntos
Cefaleia/terapia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neurologia , Satisfação do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Espanha
17.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 68(3): 118-122, 1 feb., 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-177243

RESUMO

Objetivo. Elaborar una propuesta de cartera de servicios para una unidad de cefalea y un conjunto básico de indicadores de calidad asistencial en cefalea. Desarrollo. Estudio que aplicó técnicas de búsqueda de consenso con participación de un total de 15 profesionales expertos en tratamiento de cefaleas (experiencia de más de 15 años) y en gestión de calidad. La descripción de los indicadores incluyó: enunciado, definición, estándar, tipo de indicador, dimensión, fuente, nivel de evidencia y aclaraciones de términos. La propuesta de cartera de servicios incluyó los siguientes ámbitos: gestión clínica, atención centrada en el paciente, implicación comunitaria, gestión del conocimiento, investigación traslacional y difusión social. La propuesta se concretó en 13 indicadores que abarcaban cinco dimensiones. Conclusiones. Esta propuesta contribuye a asegurar y evaluar el nivel de calidad de una unidad de cefaleas o de las consultas monográficas de cefaleas


Aim. To develop a proposal for a portfolio of services and a set of indicators for Headache Units. Development. Qualitative study that applied techniques of consensus with the participation of 15 professionals who are experts in the treatment of headaches (experience of 15 years) and in quality assurance. The description of the indicators included: statement, definition, standard, type of indicator, dimension, source, level of evidence, and clarification of terms. The proposal for a portfolio of services included the following areas: clinical management, patient-centered care, community involvement, knowledge management, translational research, and social dissemination. The proposal converged in 13 indicators exploring five dimensions. Conclusions. This proposal contributes to ensure and assess the level of quality of a Headache Unit or outpatient clinic


Assuntos
Humanos , Serviços Básicos de Saúde , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Clínicas de Dor/organização & administração , Consenso , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Segurança do Paciente
18.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 67(supl.1): s1-s21, nov. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185116

RESUMO

Apuntes en Neurología' es una iniciativa en la cual líderes de primera línea nacional e internacional, con amplio reconocimiento académico, se reunieron para sintetizar los aspectos clínicos más destacables dentro de su área de interés y acercar las novedades en una lengua más próxima. Entender los factores que afectan al inicio y progresión de cualquier enfermedad neurológica a través de una revisión es importante para el desarrollo de estrategias en pro de reducir la carga de estas enfermedades, y conocer los aspectos clínicos es esencial para poder resolver los problemas de la practica clínica diaria. Los datos aquí recogidos reflejan el peso de la evidencia y algunos de ellos anticipan un futuro prometedor en el tratamiento de estas enfermedades. Esta primera edición se centra en trastornos neurológicos comunes paroxísticos como la migraña, la epilepsia y las alteraciones del sueño, y en trastornos neurodegenerativos como la enfermedad de Parkinson y el deterioro cognitivo. Se trata de patologías claramente diferentes, si bien algunas de ellas, como la migraña y la epilepsia, pueden compartir sintomatología clínica. Los trastornos del sueño, por su parte, son manifestaciones importantes de enfermedades neurodegenerativas que, en ocasiones, son clínicamente evidentes mucho antes del inicio de otros síntomas neurológicos. Tras recordar la fisiopatología y el diagnostico, la revisión actual se centra en acercar los principales avances en cinco de las principales enfermedades neurológicas


Introduction. 'Apuntes en Neurologia' is an initiative in which prominent national and international leaders, with broad academic recognition, came together to synthesise the most outstanding clinical aspects within their area of interest and to discuss the latest developments in a more accessible language. Understanding the factors that affect the onset and progression of any neurological disease through a review is important to be able to develop strategies to reduce the burden of these diseases. Moreover, knowledge of the clinical aspects is essential to solve the problems of daily clinical practice. The data collected here reflect the weight of evidence and some of them anticipate a promising future in the treatment of these diseases. This first edition focuses on common paroxysmal neurological disorders such as migraine, epilepsy and sleep disorders, as well as neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson' disease and cognitive impairment. These are clearly different pathologies, although some of them such as migraine and epilepsy, may share clinical symptoms. Sleep disorders, however, are important manifestations of neurodegenerative diseases that are sometimes clinically apparent long before the onset of other neurological symptoms. After recalling pathophysiology and diagnosis, the current review focuses on bringing together the main advances in five of the major neurological diseases


Assuntos
Humanos , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/terapia , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/terapia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/terapia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/diagnóstico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/terapia , Doença de Parkinson , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/diagnóstico , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Doença de Parkinson/terapia
19.
J Pain Res ; 11: 1583-1588, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30197533

RESUMO

Background: Atypical odontalgia (AO) manifests as continuous pain in the region of one or several teeth, in the absence of signs of dental pathology. Currently, there is insufficient evidence to establish treatment guidelines for AO. The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness and safety of treatment with OnabotulinumtoxinA (OnabotA) on a series of patients with AO. Methods: Nine patients with AO (four males and five females, aged between 31 and 77 years) received injections of OnabotA in the region of pain. The dosage used in each procedure ranged between 10 and 30 U, spread between 4 and 12 injection sites along the gums (n=9), the lips (n=3), and the hard palate (n=1). The median follow-up time was 27 months (interquartile range, IQR 20-40) and the median number of injection sessions per patient was seven (IQR 4.5-9). The assessment variables included the change in the maximal intensity of pain on a 0-10 numerical rating scale (NRS), the response latency, and the duration of the effect. Results: All patients experienced a significant improvement, with ≥50% of reduction in the intensity of the maximal pain. The median of reduction of maximal pain after treatment was six points on the NRS (IQR 5-8.5). The response latency was 2-15 days and the duration of the effect was 2-6 months. No significant adverse reactions were registered. Conclusion: OnabotA may be a safe and effective option for the treatment of AO.

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