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1.
Psychol Med ; : 1-10, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder and neuroticism (Neu) share a large genetic basis. We sought to determine whether this shared basis could be decomposed to identify genetic factors that are specific to depression. METHODS: We analysed summary statistics from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of depression (from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, 23andMe and UK Biobank) and compared them with GWAS of Neu (from UK Biobank). First, we used a pairwise GWAS analysis to classify variants as associated with only depression, with only Neu or with both. Second, we estimated partial genetic correlations to test whether the depression's genetic link with other phenotypes was explained by shared overlap with Neu. RESULTS: We found evidence that most genomic regions (25/37) associated with depression are likely to be shared with Neu. The overlapping common genetic variance of depression and Neu was genetically correlated primarily with psychiatric disorders. We found that the genetic contributions to depression, that were not shared with Neu, were positively correlated with metabolic phenotypes and cardiovascular disease, and negatively correlated with the personality trait conscientiousness. After removing shared genetic overlap with Neu, depression still had a specific association with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, coronary artery disease and age of first birth. Independent of depression, Neu had specific genetic correlates in ulcerative colitis, pubertal growth, anorexia and education. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that, while genetic risk factors for depression are largely shared with Neu, there are also non-Neu-related features of depression that may be useful for further patient or phenotypic stratification.

2.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 374(1787): 20190026, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630655

RESUMO

Synaesthesia is a neurological phenomenon affecting perception, where triggering stimuli (e.g. letters and numbers) elicit unusual secondary sensory experiences (e.g. colours). Family-based studies point to a role for genetic factors in the development of this trait. However, the contributions of common genomic variation to synaesthesia have not yet been investigated. Here, we present the SynGenes cohort, the largest genotyped collection of unrelated people with grapheme-colour synaesthesia (n = 723). Synaesthesia has been associated with a range of other neuropsychological traits, including enhanced memory and mental imagery, as well as greater sensory sensitivity. Motivated by the prior literature on putative trait overlaps, we investigated polygenic scores derived from published genome-wide scans of schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), comparing our SynGenes cohort to 2181 non-synaesthetic controls. We found a very slight association between schizophrenia polygenic scores and synaesthesia (Nagelkerke's R2 = 0.0047, empirical p = 0.0027) and no significant association for scores related to ASD (Nagelkerke's R2 = 0.00092, empirical p = 0.54) or body mass index (R2 = 0.00058, empirical p = 0.60), included as a negative control. As sample sizes for studying common genomic variation continue to increase, genetic investigations of the kind reported here may yield novel insights into the shared biology between synaesthesia and other traits, to complement findings from neuropsychology and brain imaging. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Bridging senses: novel insights from synaesthesia'.

3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(38): 19064-19070, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481615

RESUMO

Britain and Ireland are known to show population genetic structure; however, large swathes of Scotland, in particular, have yet to be described. Delineating the structure and ancestry of these populations will allow variant discovery efforts to focus efficiently on areas not represented in existing cohorts. Thus, we assembled genotype data for 2,554 individuals from across the entire archipelago with geographically restricted ancestry, and performed population structure analyses and comparisons to ancient DNA. Extensive geographic structuring is revealed, from broad scales such as a NE to SW divide in mainland Scotland, through to the finest scale observed to date: across 3 km in the Northern Isles. Many genetic boundaries are consistent with Dark Age kingdoms of Gaels, Picts, Britons, and Norse. Populations in the Hebrides, the Highlands, Argyll, Donegal, and the Isle of Man show characteristics of isolation. We document a pole of Norwegian ancestry in the north of the archipelago (reaching 23 to 28% in Shetland) which complements previously described poles of Germanic ancestry in the east, and "Celtic" to the west. This modern genetic structure suggests a northwestern British or Irish source population for the ancient Gaels that contributed to the founding of Iceland. As rarer variants, often with larger effect sizes, become the focus of complex trait genetics, more diverse rural cohorts may be required to optimize discoveries in British and Irish populations and their considerable global diaspora.

4.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 54, 2019 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation changes with age. Chronological age predictors built from DNA methylation are termed 'epigenetic clocks'. The deviation of predicted age from the actual age ('age acceleration residual', AAR) has been reported to be associated with death. However, it is currently unclear how a better prediction of chronological age affects such association. METHODS: In this study, we build multiple predictors based on training DNA methylation samples selected from 13,661 samples (13,402 from blood and 259 from saliva). We use the Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 (LBC1921) and 1936 (LBC1936) to examine whether the association between AAR (from these predictors) and death is affected by (1) improving prediction accuracy of an age predictor as its training sample size increases (from 335 to 12,710) and (2) additionally correcting for confounders (i.e., cellular compositions). In addition, we investigated the performance of our predictor in non-blood tissues. RESULTS: We found that in principle, a near-perfect age predictor could be developed when the training sample size is sufficiently large. The association between AAR and mortality attenuates as prediction accuracy increases. AAR from our best predictor (based on Elastic Net, https://github.com/qzhang314/DNAm-based-age-predictor ) exhibits no association with mortality in both LBC1921 (hazard ratio = 1.08, 95% CI 0.91-1.27) and LBC1936 (hazard ratio = 1.00, 95% CI 0.79-1.28). Predictors based on small sample size are prone to confounding by cellular compositions relative to those from large sample size. We observed comparable performance of our predictor in non-blood tissues with a multi-tissue-based predictor. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that the epigenetic clock can be improved by increasing the training sample size and that its association with mortality attenuates with increased prediction of chronological age.

7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2069, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043600

RESUMO

In the original version of this Article, the legend in the upper panel of Figure 2 incorrectly read 'paternal imprinting' and should have read 'maternal imprinting'. This has been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.

8.
EBioMedicine ; 43: 576-586, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The causes of poor respiratory function and COPD are incompletely understood, but it is clear that genes and the environment play a role. As DNA methylation is under both genetic and environmental control, we hypothesised that investigation of differential methylation associated with these phenotypes would permit mechanistic insights, and improve prediction of COPD. We investigated genome-wide differential DNA methylation patterns using the recently released 850 K Illumina EPIC array. This is the largest single population, whole-genome epigenetic study to date. METHODS: Epigenome-wide association studies (EWASs) of respiratory function and COPD were performed in peripheral blood samples from the Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS) cohort (n = 3781; 274 COPD cases and 2919 controls). In independent COPD incidence data (n = 149), significantly differentially methylated sites (DMSs; p < 3.6 × 10-8) were evaluated for their added predictive power when added to a model including clinical variables, age, sex, height and smoking history using receiver operating characteristic analysis. The Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (LBC1936) was used to replicate association (n = 895) and prediction (n = 178) results. FINDINGS: We identified 28 respiratory function and/or COPD associated DMSs, which mapped to genes involved in alternative splicing, JAK-STAT signalling, and axon guidance. In prediction analyses, we observed significant improvement in discrimination between COPD cases and controls (p < .05) in independent GS:SFHS (p = .016) and LBC1936 (p = .010) datasets by adding DMSs to a clinical model. INTERPRETATION: Identification of novel DMSs has provided insight into the molecular mechanisms regulating respiratory function and aided prediction of COPD risk. Further studies are needed to assess the causality and clinical utility of identified associations. FUND: Wellcome Trust Strategic Award 10436/Z/14/Z.

9.
Exp Neurol ; 316: 20-26, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30965038

RESUMO

Insulin resistance, broadly defined as the reduced ability of insulin to exert its biological action, has been associated with depression and cognitive dysfunction in observational studies. However, it is unclear whether these associations are causal and whether they might be underpinned by other shared factors. To address this knowledge gap, we capitalized on the stability of genetic biomarkers through the lifetime, and on their unidirectional relationship with depression and cognition. Specifically, we determined the association between quantitative measures of cognitive function and depression and genetic instruments of insulin resistance traits in two large-scale population samples, the Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS: SFHS; N = 19,994) and in the UK Biobank (N = 331,374). In the GS:SFHS, the polygenic risk score (PRS) for fasting insulin was associated with verbal intelligence and depression while the PRS for the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was associated with verbal intelligence. Despite this overlap in genetic architecture, Mendelian randomization analyses in the GS:SFHS and in the UK Biobank samples did not yield evidence for causal associations from insulin resistance traits to either depression or cognition. These findings may be due to weak genetic instruments, limited cognitive measures and insufficient power but they may also indicate the need to identify other biological mechanisms that may mediate the relationship from insulin resistance to depression and cognition.

10.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 43(9): 1795-1802, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30842548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between obesity and adverse health is well established, but little is known about the contribution of DNA methylation to obesity-related health outcomes. This study tests associations between an epigenetic score for body mass index (BMI) and health-related, cognitive, psychosocial and lifestyle outcomes in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. This study also tests whether these associations are independent of phenotypic BMI. METHOD: Analyses were conducted using data from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (n = 892). Weights for the epigenetic BMI score were derived using penalised regression on methylation data from unrelated Generation Scotland participants (n = 2562). Associations were tested for replication in an independent sample: the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 (n = 433). RESULTS: A higher epigenetic BMI score was associated with higher BMI (R2 = 0.1), greater body weight (R2 = 0.06), greater time taken to walk 6 m, poorer lung function and poorer general physical health (all R2 = 0.02), greater levels of triglycerides (R2 = 0.09), greater %total HbA1c (R2 = 0.06), lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL; R2 = 0.08), higher HDL ratio (HDL/total cholesterol; R2 = 0.03), lower health-related quality of life, physical inactivity, and greater social deprivation (all R2 = 0.02). The epigenetic BMI score (per SD) was also associated with type 2 diabetes (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.67, 2.84), cardiovascular disease (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.24, 1.71) and high blood pressure (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.13, 1.49; all p < 0.00026 after Bonferroni correction). Associations were replicated for BMI (R2 = 0.06), body weight (R2 = 0.04), health-related quality of life (R2 = 0.02), HbA1c (R2 = 0.07) and triglycerides (R2 = 0.07; all p < 0.0045 after Bonferroni correction). CONCLUSIONS: We observed and replicated associations between an epigenetic score for BMI and variables related to poor physical health and metabolic syndrome. Regression models with both epigenetic and phenotypic BMI scores as predictors accounted for a greater proportion of variance in all outcome variables than either predictor alone, demonstrating independent and additive effects of epigenetic and phenotypic BMI scores.

11.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30842574

RESUMO

Autosomal variants have successfully been associated with trait neuroticism in genome-wide analysis of adequately powered samples. But such studies have so far excluded the X chromosome from analysis. Here, we report genetic association analyses of X chromosome and XY pseudoautosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and trait neuroticism using UK Biobank samples (N = 405,274). Significant association was found with neuroticism on the X chromosome for 204 markers found within three independent loci (a further 783 were suggestive). Most of the lead neuroticism-related X chromosome variants were located in intergenic regions (n = 397). Involvement of HS6ST2, which has been previously associated with sociability behaviour in the dog, was supported by single SNP and gene-based tests. We found that the amino acid and nucleotide sequences are highly conserved between dogs and humans. From the suggestive X chromosome variants, there were 19 nearby genes which could be linked to gene ontology information. Molecular function was primarily related to binding and catalytic activity; notable biological processes were cellular and metabolic, and nucleic acid binding and transcription factor protein classes were most commonly involved. X-variant heritability of neuroticism was estimated at 0.22% (SE = 0.05) from a full dosage compensation model. A polygenic X-variant score created in an independent sample (maximum N ≈ 7,300) did not predict significant variance in neuroticism, psychological distress, or depressive disorder. We conclude that the X chromosome harbours significant variants influencing neuroticism, and might prove important for other quantitative traits and complex disorders.

12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1383, 2019 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30918249

RESUMO

Parent-of-origin effects (POE) exist when there is differential expression of alleles inherited from the two parents. A genome-wide scan for POE on DNA methylation at 639,238 CpGs in 5,101 individuals identifies 733 independent methylation CpGs potentially influenced by POE at a false discovery rate ≤ 0.05 of which 331 had not previously been identified. Cis and trans methylation quantitative trait loci (mQTL) regulate methylation variation through POE at 54% (399/733) of the identified POE-influenced CpGs. The combined results provide strong evidence for previously unidentified POE-influenced CpGs at 171 independent loci. Methylation variation at 14 of the POE-influenced CpGs is associated with multiple metabolic traits. A phenome-wide association analysis using the POE mQTL SNPs identifies a previously unidentified imprinted locus associated with waist circumference. These results provide a high resolution population-level map for POE on DNA methylation sites, their local and distant regulators and potential consequences for complex traits.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Impressão Genômica/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Adulto , Ilhas de CpG , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Escócia
13.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867560

RESUMO

Higher scores on the personality trait of neuroticism, the tendency to experience negative emotions, are associated with worse mental and physical health. Studies examining links between neuroticism and health typically operationalize neuroticism by summing the items from a neuroticism scale. However, neuroticism is made up of multiple heterogeneous facets, each contributing to the effect of neuroticism as a whole. A recent study showed that a 12-item neuroticism scale described one broad trait of general neuroticism and two special factors, one characterizing the extent to which people worry and feel vulnerable, and the other characterizing the extent to which people are anxious and tense. This study also found that, although individuals who were higher on general neuroticism lived shorter lives, individuals whose neuroticism was characterized by worry and vulnerability lived longer lives. Here, we examine the genetic contributions to the two special factors of neuroticism-anxiety/tension and worry/vulnerability-and how they contrast with that of general neuroticism. First, we show that, whereas the polygenic load for neuroticism is associated with the genetic risk of coronary artery disease, lower intelligence, lower socioeconomic status (SES), and poorer self-rated health, the genetic variants associated with high levels of anxiety/tension, and high levels of worry/vulnerability are associated with genetic variants linked to higher SES, higher intelligence, better self-rated health, and longer life. Second, we identify genetic variants that are uniquely associated with these protective aspects of neuroticism. Finally, we show that different neurological pathways are linked to each of these neuroticism phenotypes.

14.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(3): 343-352, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718901

RESUMO

Major depression is a debilitating psychiatric illness that is typically associated with low mood and anhedonia. Depression has a heritable component that has remained difficult to elucidate with current sample sizes due to the polygenic nature of the disorder. To maximize sample size, we meta-analyzed data on 807,553 individuals (246,363 cases and 561,190 controls) from the three largest genome-wide association studies of depression. We identified 102 independent variants, 269 genes, and 15 genesets associated with depression, including both genes and gene pathways associated with synaptic structure and neurotransmission. An enrichment analysis provided further evidence of the importance of prefrontal brain regions. In an independent replication sample of 1,306,354 individuals (414,055 cases and 892,299 controls), 87 of the 102 associated variants were significant after multiple testing correction. These findings advance our understanding of the complex genetic architecture of depression and provide several future avenues for understanding etiology and developing new treatment approaches.


Assuntos
Depressão/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
15.
Pharmacogenomics J ; 2019 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700811

RESUMO

Antidepressants demonstrate modest response rates in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). Despite previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of antidepressant treatment response, the underlying genetic factors are unknown. Using prescription data in a population and family-based cohort (Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study; GS:SFHS), we sought to define a measure of (a) antidepressant treatment resistance and (b) stages of antidepressant resistance by inferring antidepressant switching as non-response to treatment. GWAS were conducted separately for antidepressant treatment resistance in GS:SFHS and the Genome-based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression (GENDEP) study and then meta-analysed (meta-analysis n = 4213, cases = 358). For stages of antidepressant resistance, a GWAS on GS:SFHS only was performed (n = 3452). Additionally, we conducted gene-set enrichment, polygenic risk scoring (PRS) and genetic correlation analysis. We did not identify any significant loci, genes or gene sets associated with antidepressant treatment resistance or stages of resistance. Significant positive genetic correlations of antidepressant treatment resistance and stages of resistance with neuroticism, psychological distress, schizotypy and mood disorder traits were identified. These findings suggest that larger sample sizes are needed to identify the genetic architecture of antidepressant treatment response, and that population-based observational studies may provide a tractable approach to achieving the necessary statistical power.

16.
J Psychopharmacol ; 33(4): 482-493, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30808242

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES:: Antidepressants are the most commonly prescribed psychiatric medication but concern has been raised about significant increases in their usage in high income countries. We aimed to quantify antidepressant prevalence, incidence, adherence and predictors of use in the adult population. METHODS:: The study record-linked administrative prescribing and morbidity data to the Generation Scotland cohort ( N = 11,052), between 2009 and 2016. Prevalence and incidence of any antidepressant use was determined. Antidepressant adherence was measured using Proportion of Days Covered and Medication Possession Ratio. Time-to-event analysis for incident antidepressant use within 5 years of Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS) recruitment was performed to reveal patient-level predictors of use. RESULTS:: Almost one-third (28.0%, 95%CI 26.9-29.1) of the adults in our sample were prescribed at least one antidepressant in the 5-year period 2012-2016. There was a 36.2% increase in annual prevalence between 2010 and 2016. Incidence was 2.4(2.1-2.7)% per year. The majority of antidepressant episodes (57.6%) were greater than 9 months duration and adherence was generally high (69.0% with Proportion of Days Covered >80%). Predictors of new antidepressant use included history of affective disorder, being female, physical comorbidities, higher neuroticism scores, and lower cognitive function scores. CONCLUSIONS:: Antidepressant prevalence is greater than previously reported but incidence remains relatively stable. We found the majority of antidepressant episodes to be of relatively long duration with good estimated adherence. Our study supports the hypothesis that increased long-term use among existing (and returning) users, along with wider ranges of indications for antidepressants, has significantly increased the prevalence of these medications.

17.
EBioMedicine ; 37: 214-220, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30389506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have made robust associations between differential DNA methylation and exposure to cigarette smoke. But whether a DNA methylation phenotype is established immediately upon exposure, or only after prolonged exposure is less well-established. Here, we assess DNA methylation patterns from peripheral blood samples in current smokers in response to dose and duration of exposure, along with the effects of smoking cessation on DNA methylation in former smokers. METHODS: Dimensionality reduction was applied to DNA methylation data at 90 previously identified smoking-associated CpG sites for over 4900 individuals in the Generation Scotland cohort. K-means clustering was performed to identify clusters associated with current and never smoker status based on these methylation patterns. Cluster assignments were assessed with respect to duration of exposure in current smokers (years as a smoker), time since smoking cessation in former smokers (years), and dose (cigarettes per day). FINDINGS: Two clusters were specified, corresponding to never smokers (97·5% of whom were assigned to Cluster 1) and current smokers (81·1% of whom were assigned to Cluster 2). The exposure time point from which >50% of current smokers were assigned to the smoker-enriched cluster varied between 5 and 9 years in heavier smokers and between 15 and 19 years in lighter smokers. Low-dose former smokers were more likely to be assigned to the never smoker-enriched cluster in the first year following cessation. In contrast, a period of at least two years was required before the majority of former high-dose smokers were assigned to the never smoker-enriched cluster. INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that smoking-associated DNA methylation changes are a result of prolonged exposure to cigarette smoke, and can be reversed following cessation. The length of time in which these signatures are established and recovered is dose dependent. Should DNA methylation-based signatures of smoking status be predictive of smoking-related health outcomes, our findings may provide an additional criterion on which to stratify risk.

18.
Genome Biol ; 19(1): 136, 2018 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30257690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide DNA methylation (DNAm) profiling has allowed for the development of molecular predictors for a multitude of traits and diseases. Such predictors may be more accurate than the self-reported phenotypes and could have clinical applications. RESULTS: Here, penalized regression models are used to develop DNAm predictors for ten modifiable health and lifestyle factors in a cohort of 5087 individuals. Using an independent test cohort comprising 895 individuals, the proportion of phenotypic variance explained in each trait is examined for DNAm-based and genetic predictors. Receiver operator characteristic curves are generated to investigate the predictive performance of DNAm-based predictors, using dichotomized phenotypes. The relationship between DNAm scores and all-cause mortality (n = 212 events) is assessed via Cox proportional hazards models. DNAm predictors for smoking, alcohol, education, and waist-to-hip ratio are shown to predict mortality in multivariate models. The predictors show moderate discrimination of obesity, alcohol consumption, and HDL cholesterol. There is excellent discrimination of current smoking status, poorer discrimination of college-educated individuals and those with high total cholesterol, LDL with remnant cholesterol, and total:HDL cholesterol ratios. CONCLUSIONS: DNAm predictors correlate with lifestyle factors that are associated with health and mortality. They may supplement DNAm-based predictors of age to identify the lifestyle profiles of individuals and predict disease risk.

19.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 184, 2018 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30190480

RESUMO

The neuromodulatory gene DISC1 is disrupted by a t(1;11) translocation that is highly penetrant for schizophrenia and affective disorders, but how this translocation affects DISC1 function is incompletely understood. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) play a central role in synaptic plasticity and cognition, and are implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia through genetic and functional studies. We show that the NMDAR subunit GluN2B complexes with DISC1-associated trafficking factor TRAK1, while DISC1 interacts with the GluN1 subunit and regulates dendritic NMDAR motility in cultured mouse neurons. Moreover, in the first mutant mouse that models DISC1 disruption by the translocation, the pool of NMDAR transport vesicles and surface/synaptic NMDAR expression are increased. Since NMDAR cell surface/synaptic expression is tightly regulated to ensure correct function, these changes in the mutant mouse are likely to affect NMDAR signalling and synaptic plasticity. Consistent with these observations, RNASeq analysis of the translocation carrier-derived human neurons indicates abnormalities of excitatory synapses and vesicle dynamics. RNASeq analysis of the human neurons also identifies many differentially expressed genes previously highlighted as putative schizophrenia and/or depression risk factors through large-scale genome-wide association and copy number variant studies, indicating that the translocation triggers common disease pathways that are shared with unrelated psychiatric patients. Altogether, our findings suggest that translocation-induced disease mechanisms are likely to be relevant to mental illness in general, and that such disease mechanisms include altered NMDAR dynamics and excitatory synapse function. This could contribute to the cognitive disorders displayed by translocation carriers.

20.
Alzheimers Dement (Amst) ; 10: 429-437, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30167451

RESUMO

Introduction: The "epigenetic clock" is a DNA methylation-based estimate of biological age and is correlated with chronological age-the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Genetic and environmental risk factors exist for AD, several of which are potentially modifiable. In this study, we assess the relationship between the epigenetic clock and AD risk factors. Methods: Multilevel models were used to assess the relationship between age acceleration (the residual of biological age regressed onto chronological age) and AD risk factors relating to cognitive reserve, lifestyle, disease, and genetics in the Generation Scotland study (n = 5100). Results: We report significant associations between age acceleration and body mass index, total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratios, socioeconomic status, high blood pressure, and smoking behavior (Bonferroni-adjusted P < .05). Discussion: Associations are present between environmental risk factors for AD and age acceleration. Measures to modify such risk factors might improve the risk profile for AD and the rate of biological ageing. Future longitudinal analyses are therefore warranted.

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