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1.
J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry ; 64: 64-71, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Intolerance of uncertainty (IU), or fear of the unknown, is as an important transdiagnostic risk factor across anxiety-related conditions, namely generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and social anxiety disorder (SAD). IU is typically indexed using self-report measures. Given the importance of multi-method assessments and the shortcomings associated with existing behavioral indices of IU, additional methods of assessment are needed. Emerging literature supports the use of interpretation bias (IB) paradigms to index constructs such as IU. However, only one study to date has examined the association between an IU-focused IB paradigm (IU-IB) and self-report IU and no research has investigated whether an IU-IB paradigm would be related to increased anxiety-related symptoms. METHODS: The current investigation examined the utility of an IU-IB paradigm across two separate samples wherein participants completed an interpretation bias task and self-report measures. Sample 1 included 86 participants (74.4% female; Mage = 19.14) and sample 2 included 138 participants (79.7% female; Mage = 18.88). RESULTS: Findings from Study 1 indicated a significant association between an exaggerated IU-IB and symptoms of GAD and OCD, and this relationship held after covarying for negative affect. Study 2 results indicated a significant relationship between an exaggerated IU-IB and symptoms of GAD, OCD, and SAD, after covarying for negative affect. LIMITATIONS: The current study had a variety of limitations, including the use of cross-sectional data and an undergraduate sample. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide an important replication and extension of previous work and highlight the transdiagnostic utility of this IU-IB task.

2.
J Affect Disord ; 227: 512-516, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29161672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A growing body of literature indicates that exposure to interpersonal trauma contributes to the onset or exacerbation of hoarding symptoms. However, little research has explored psychosocial factors that may help to explain the relationship between interpersonal trauma and hoarding symptoms. One outcome of trauma exposure that may be associated with hoarding symptoms is aggression, defined as the tendency to experience and express hostility and anger, and to engage in aggressive behavior. Therefore, the current study examined the relationship between hoarding and aggression, as well as the mediating role of aggression in the relationship between exposure to interpersonal trauma and hoarding symptoms. METHODS: Community participants (n = 258) completed a battery of questionnaires assessing trauma exposure, hoarding symptoms, aggression, and negative affect. RESULTS: Results revealed that when accounting for negative affect, hoarding symptoms were associated with greater aggression, and the relationship between exposure to interpersonal trauma and hoarding symptoms was mediated by aggression. Specificity analyses indicated that depression symptoms and emotion dysregulation did not mediate the relationship between interpersonal trauma exposure and hoarding, providing further support for the importance of aggression. LIMITATIONS: Findings should be interpreted in light of limitations, including the use of cross-sectional and self-report data, and a general community sample. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our findings suggest that interpersonal processes, such as aggression toward others, may be associated with increased hoarding symptoms.


Assuntos
Agressão/efeitos dos fármacos , Depressão/psicologia , Colecionismo/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Adulto , Agressão/psicologia , Ira , Comportamento Compulsivo/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hostilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Sleep Res ; 27(1): 64-72, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28771875

RESUMO

Despite the high levels of comorbidity between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and sleep disturbance, little research has examined the predictors of insomnia and nightmares in this population. The current study tested both PTSD-specific (i.e. PTSD symptoms, comorbid anxiety and depression, nightmares and fear of sleep) and insomnia-specific (i.e. dysfunctional beliefs about sleep, insomnia-related safety behaviours and daily stressors) predictors of sleep quality, efficiency and nightmares in a sample of 30 individuals with PTSD. Participants participated in ecological momentary assessment to determine how daily changes in PTSD- and insomnia-related factors lead to changes in sleep. Multi-level modelling analyses indicated that, after accounting for baseline PTSD symptom severity, PTSD-specific factors were associated with insomnia symptoms, but insomnia-specific factors were not. Only daytime PTSD symptoms and fear of sleep predicted nightmares. Both sleep- and PTSD-related factors play a role in maintaining insomnia among those with PTSD, while nightmares seem to be linked more closely with only PTSD-related factors.


Assuntos
Sonhos/psicologia , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Comorbidade , Sonhos/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
4.
Compr Psychiatry ; 72: 121-129, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27816711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hoarding disorder (HD) is a common and debilitating disorder characterized by an accumulation of and failure to discard one's possessions. The identification and examination of underlying factors that may contribute to hoarding symptoms are needed to elucidate the nature of the disorder and refine existing treatments. Two transdiagnostic vulnerability factors that have been associated with hoarding symptoms are distress intolerance (DI) and intolerance of uncertainty (IU). OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relationships between DI, IU, and symptoms of hoarding in two samples consisting of outpatients and individuals recruited from Amazon's Mechanical Turk. We hypothesized that DI and IU would show unique and interactive associations with hoarding symptoms. RESULTS: Across both samples, DI and IU were significantly associated with hoarding symptoms. However, DI and IU did not interact in their prediction of symptoms, and only IU remained a significant predictor, when accounting for relevant covariates. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that IU is a robust predictor of hoarding symptoms and may be a promising and novel treatment target for HD.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtorno de Acumulação/diagnóstico , Transtorno de Acumulação/psicologia , Incerteza , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Feminino , Colecionismo/diagnóstico , Colecionismo/epidemiologia , Colecionismo/psicologia , Transtorno de Acumulação/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Clin Psychol ; 71(7): 707-14, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25760757

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Insomnia has been shown to have profound negative consequences on multiple aspects of daily functioning. Despite increased interest in the association between insomnia and psychopathology, no research has examined the relationships between insomnia and hoarding. The aim of the current investigation was to examine the associations between insomnia and hoarding severity. METHODS: Participants consisted of patients with hoarding disorder (n = 24). RESULTS: Results revealed that insomnia was a significant predictor of increased hoarding severity. In addition, when examining the relationships among insomnia and specific hoarding symptoms, sleep difficulties were associated with increased acquiring and difficulty discarding behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: These findings add to a growing body of literature on insomnia and various forms of psychopathology, as well as research on symptoms related to hoarding. Reducing insomnia symptoms among hoarders may help to reduce hoarding-related behaviors and increase treatment efficacy.


Assuntos
Transtorno de Acumulação/fisiopatologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Comorbidade , Feminino , Transtorno de Acumulação/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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