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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(1): 1-5, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917782

RESUMO

In May 2018, a study of birth defects in infants born to women with diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Botswana reported an eightfold increased risk for neural tube defects (NTDs) among births with periconceptional exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART) that included the integrase inhibitor dolutegravir (DTG) compared with other ART regimens (1). The World Health Organization* (WHO) and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services† (HHS) promptly issued interim guidance limiting the initiation of DTG during early pregnancy and in women of childbearing age with HIV who desire pregnancy or are sexually active and not using effective contraception. On the basis of additional data, WHO now recommends DTG as a preferred treatment option for all populations, including women of childbearing age and pregnant women. Similarly, the U.S. recommendations currently state that DTG is a preferred antiretroviral drug throughout pregnancy (with provider-patient counseling) and as an alternative antiretroviral drug in women who are trying to conceive.§ Since 1981 and 1994, CDC has supported separate surveillance programs for HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (2) and birth defects (3) in state health departments. These two surveillance programs can inform public health programs and policy, linkage to care, and research activities. Because birth defects surveillance programs do not collect HIV status, and HIV surveillance programs do not routinely collect data on occurrence of birth defects, the related data have not been used by CDC to characterize birth defects in births to women with HIV. Data from these two programs were linked to estimate overall prevalence of NTDs and prevalence of NTDs in HIV-exposed pregnancies during 2013-2017 for 15 participating jurisdictions. Prevalence of NTDs in pregnancies among women with diagnosed HIV infection was 7.0 per 10,000 live births, similar to that among the general population in these 15 jurisdictions, and the U.S. estimate based on data from 24 states. Successful linking of data from birth defects and HIV/AIDS surveillance programs for pregnancies among women with diagnosed HIV infection suggests that similar data linkages might be used to characterize possible associations between maternal diseases or maternal use of medications, such as integrase strand transfer inhibitors used to manage HIV, and pregnancy outcomes. Although no difference in NTD prevalence in HIV-exposed pregnancies was found, data on the use of integrase strand transfer inhibitors in pregnancy are needed to understand the safety and risks of these drugs during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
AIDS Behav ; 24(1): 246-256, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31555932

RESUMO

Prevention of HIV outbreaks among people who inject drugs remains a challenge to ending the HIV epidemic in the United States. The first legal syringe services program (SSP) in Florida implemented routine screening in 2018 leading to the identification of ten anonymous HIV seroconversions. The SSP collaborated with the Department of Health to conduct an epidemiologic investigation. All seven acute HIV seroconversions were linked to care (86% within 30 days) and achieved viral suppression (mean 70 days). Six of the seven individuals are epidemiologically and/or socially linked to at least two other seroconversions. Analysis of the HIV genotypes revealed that two individuals are connected molecularly at 0.5% genetic distance. We identified a risk network with complex transmission dynamics that could not be explained by epidemiological methods or molecular analyses alone. Providing wrap-around services through the SSP, including routine screening, intensive linkage and patient navigation, could be an effective model for achieving viral suppression for people who inject drugs.

3.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 82 Suppl 1: S13-S19, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Focused attention on Data to Care underlines the importance of high-quality HIV surveillance data. This study identified the number of total duplicate and exact duplicate HIV case records in 9 separate Enhanced HIV/AIDS Reporting System (eHARS) databases reported by 8 jurisdictions and compared this approach to traditional Routine Interstate Duplicate Review resolution. METHODS: This study used the ATra Black Box System and 6 eHARS variables for matching case records across jurisdictions: last name, first name, date of birth, sex assigned at birth (birth sex), social security number, and race/ethnicity, plus 4 system-calculated values (first name Soundex, last name Soundex, partial date of birth, and partial social security number). RESULTS: In approximately 11 hours, this study matched 290,482 cases from 799,326 uploaded records, including 55,460 exact case pairs. Top case pair overlaps were between NYC and NYS (51%), DC and MD (10%), and FL and NYC (6%), followed closely by FL and NYS (4%), FL and NC (3%), DC and VA (3%), and MD and VA (3%). Jurisdictions estimated that they realized a combined 135 labor hours in time efficiency by using this approach compared with manual methods previously used for interstate duplication resolution. DISCUSSION: This approach discovered exact matches that were not previously identified. It also decreased time spent resolving duplicated case records across jurisdictions while improving accuracy and completeness of HIV surveillance data in support of public health program policies. Future uses of this approach should consider standardized protocols for postprocessing eHARS data.

4.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry ; 31(2): 155-62, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19269536

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study measured rates of and determined factors associated with mental health service use among a cohort of 465 pregnant and postpartum women receiving care from publicly funded obstetric clinics. METHODS: Women underwent a diagnostic evaluation, were provided with at least one mental health referral and were encouraged to seek treatment; follow-up with provision of additional referrals occurred at 1, 3 and 6 months after the initial assessment. Logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between clinical and psychosocial factors and self-reported mental health service use. RESULTS: Of the referred women, 38.1% attended at least one mental health visit, while only 6% remained in treatment during the entire 6-month follow-up interval. Postpartum women were more likely than pregnant women to attend a mental health treatment visit [odds ratio (OR)=4.17]. Being born in the United States (OR=2.06), being exposed to interpersonal violence (OR=2.52) and being unemployed (OR=2.69) were associated with attending at least one mental health-care visit. Women who received a behavioral health referral to the same site as their prenatal or postpartum care were more likely than those referred offsite to attend a mental health treatment visit (OR=3.23). CONCLUSIONS: Despite active follow-up, rates of accessing and particularly continuing in mental health treatment were low. More work is needed to support the integration of specialty behavioral health services in primary care settings accessed by perinatal women.


Assuntos
Depressão Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Gravidez , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Pediatrics ; 120(1): e1-9, 2007 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17606536

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to estimate national hospital costs for infant admissions that are associated with preterm birth/low birth weight. METHODS: Infant (<1 year) hospital discharge data, including delivery, transfers, and readmissions, were analyzed by using the 2001 Nationwide Inpatient Sample from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample is a 20% sample of US hospitals weighted to approximately >35 million hospital discharges nationwide. Hospital costs, based on weighted cost-to-charge ratios, and lengths of stay were calculated for preterm/low birth weight infants, uncomplicated newborns, and all other infant hospitalizations and assessed by degree of prematurity, major complications, and expected payer. RESULTS: In 2001, 8% (384,200) of all 4.6 million infant stays nationwide included a diagnosis of preterm birth/low birth weight. Costs for these preterm/low birth weight admissions totaled $5.8 billion, representing 47% of the costs for all infant hospitalizations and 27% for all pediatric stays. Preterm/low birth weight infant stays averaged $15,100, with a mean length of stay of 12.9 days versus $600 and 1.9 days for uncomplicated newborns. Costs were highest for extremely preterm infants (<28 weeks' gestation/birth weight <1000 g), averaging $65,600, and for specific respiratory-related complications. However, two thirds of total hospitalization costs for preterm birth/low birth weight were for the substantial number of infants who were not extremely preterm. Of all preterm/low birth weight infant stays, 50% identified private/commercial insurance as the expected payer, and 42% designated Medicaid. CONCLUSIONS: Costs per infant hospitalization were highest for extremely preterm infants, although the larger number of moderately preterm/low birth weight infants contributed more to the overall costs. Preterm/low birth weight infants in the United States account for half of infant hospitalization costs and one quarter of pediatric costs, suggesting that major infant and pediatric cost savings could be realized by preventing preterm birth.


Assuntos
Custos Hospitalares , Hospitalização/economia , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Doenças do Prematuro/economia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Seguradoras , Tempo de Internação , Readmissão do Paciente/economia , Transferência de Pacientes/economia , Nascimento Prematuro/economia , Estados Unidos
6.
J Affect Disord ; 102(1-3): 137-43, 2007 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17291588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), diagnosed prospectively during pregnancy, and the risk of delivering a low birth weight (<2500 g) or preterm (<37 weeks gestational age) infant. METHODS: Pregnant women were recruited from obstetrics clinics and screened for major and minor depressive disorder, panic disorder, PTSD, and substance use. Current episodes of PTSD were diagnosed according to the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and pregnancy outcomes were abstracted from hospital records. RESULTS: Among the 1100 women included in analysis, 31 (3%) were in episode for PTSD during pregnancy. Substance use in pregnancy, panic disorder, major and minor depressive disorder, and prior preterm delivery were significantly associated with a diagnosis of PTSD. Preterm delivery was non-significantly higher in pregnant women with (16.1%) compared to those without (7.0%) PTSD (OR=2.82, 95% C.I. 0.95, 8.38). Low birth weight (LBW) was present in 6.5% of women and was not significantly associated with a diagnosis of PTSD in pregnancy after adjusting for potential confounders. However, LBW was significantly associated with minor depressive disorder (OR=1.82, 95% C.I. 1.01, 3.29). LIMITATIONS: There was a low prevalence of PTSD in this cohort, resulting in limited power. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest a possible association between PTSD and preterm delivery. Coupled with the association found between LBW and a depressive disorder, these results support the utility of screening for mental health disorders in pregnancy.


Assuntos
Filho de Pais Incapacitados/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado da Gravidez , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Gravidez , Prevalência , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos
7.
Am J Psychiatry ; 163(5): 881-4, 2006 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16648330

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a community sample of low-income pregnant women who met the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for the disorder. METHOD: Pregnant women (N=948) were screened for trauma, PTSD, depression, and co-occurring illicit substance use. PTSD symptoms were compared in traumatized pregnant women and a sample of nonpregnant traumatized women from the National Comorbidity Survey. RESULTS: Suicidal thoughts and a high degree of psychiatric comorbidity were common in pregnant women with PTSD. Pregnant women were selectively and significantly less likely to endorse reexperiencing symptoms of PTSD (29.5%, N=82), compared to nonpregnant women (79.4%, N=464). CONCLUSIONS: PTSD in pregnancy was associated with comorbidity, poor health behaviors, and lower recall of memory-related PTSD symptoms. Further prospective study is needed.


Assuntos
Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Connecticut/epidemiologia , Coleta de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Diagnóstico Duplo (Psiquiatria) , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Transtornos da Memória/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Memória/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Rememoração Mental , Razão de Chances , Pobreza/psicologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
J Clin Psychopharmacol ; 26(2): 198-202, 2006 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16633152

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Symptoms of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) respond to serotonin reuptake inhibitors when treatment is limited to 14 days of the menstrual cycle. Many women have less than a week of symptoms, and shorter treatment intervals would further reduce medication exposure and costs. METHODS: Twenty women with PMDD were randomly assigned to either paroxetine CR or placebo for 1 cycle and crossed over to the other condition for a second cycle. Subjects initiated treatment when premenstrual symptoms began and stopped within 3 days of beginning menses. RESULTS: Women took capsules for an average of 9 days (range, 3-15 days), including the first few days of menses. Moderate "PMDD level" symptoms occurred in 1 subject (6%) for 2 days and 4 subjects (24%) for 1 day before starting paroxetine or placebo. Daily Record of Severity of Problems scores were lower in the paroxetine group compared with the placebo group, although the differences were not statistically significant. However, the mean on-treatment Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (clinician-rated) score for the paroxetine group was 17.9 +/- 8.3 compared with 31.5 +/- 11.2 in the placebo group (adjusted mean difference = 13.6, P = 0.009). Response (Clinical Global Impressions Scale score of 1 or 2) occurred in 70% of subjects randomized to paroxetine CR and 10% of those assigned to placebo (chi2(1) = 7.5, P = 0.006). Discontinuation symptoms did not differ in the groups. CONCLUSION: These data suggest the need to further evaluate symptom-onset treatment in a larger randomized clinical trial.


Assuntos
Paroxetina/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Pré-Menstrual/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Ciclo Menstrual , Paroxetina/administração & dosagem , Paroxetina/efeitos adversos , Cooperação do Paciente , Síndrome Pré-Menstrual/psicologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/efeitos adversos
9.
Psychiatr Serv ; 55(4): 407-14, 2004 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15067153

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study assessed rates of detection and treatment of minor and major depressive disorder, panic disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder among pregnant women receiving prenatal care at public-sector obstetric clinics. METHODS: Interviewers systematically screened 387 women attending prenatal visits. The screening process was initiated before each woman's examination. After the visit, patients were asked whether their clinician recognized a mood or anxiety disorder. Medical records were reviewed for documentation of psychiatric illness and treatment. RESULTS: Only 26 percent of patients who screened positive for a psychiatric illness were recognized as having a mood or anxiety disorder by their health care provider. Moreover, clinicians detected disorders among only 12 percent of patients who showed evidence of suicidal ideation. Women with panic disorder or a lifetime history of domestic violence were more likely to be identified as having a psychiatric illness by a health care provider at some point before or during pregnancy. All women who screened positive for panic disorder had received or were currently receiving mental health treatment outside the prenatal visit, whereas 26 percent of women who screened positive for major or minor depression had received or were currently receiving treatment outside the prenatal visit. CONCLUSIONS: Detection rates for depressive disorders in obstetric settings are lower than those for panic disorder and lower than those reported in other primary care settings. Consequently, a large proportion of pregnant women continue to suffer silently with depression throughout their pregnancy. Given that depressive disorders among perinatal women are highly prevalent and may have profound impact on infants and children, more work is needed to enhance detection and referral.


Assuntos
Centros Comunitários de Saúde , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Obstetrícia/organização & administração , Transtorno de Pânico/diagnóstico , Transtorno de Pânico/epidemiologia , Administração em Saúde Pública , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Adulto , Connecticut/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde da Mulher/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Teratology ; 66 Suppl 1: S3-6, 2002.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12239736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While overall infant mortality rates (IMR) have declined over the past several decades, birth defects have remained the leading cause of infant death in the United States. To illustrate how this leading cause of infant mortality impacts subgroups within the US population a descriptive analysis of the contribution of birth defects to infant mortality at the national and state level was conducted. METHODS: Descriptive analyses of birth defects-specific IMRs and proportionate infant mortality due to birth defects were conducted for the US using 1999 mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. In 1999, the change to ICD-10 impacted how cause-specific mortality rates were coded. Aggregated 1995-1998 state- birth defects infant death statistics were used for state comparisons. RESULTS: In 1999, birth defects accounted for nearly 1 in 5 infant deaths in the US. Variation in birth defects-specific IMRs were observed by maternal race with black infants having the highest rates when compared with other race groups. However, among black infants prematurity/low birthweight was the leading cause of death, followed by birth defects. There is substantial variation in state-specific birth defects IMRs and the state-specific proportion of infant deaths due to birth defects. CONCLUSIONS: Birth defects remain the leading cause of infant death in the United States, despite the changes that resulted in 1999 from an update in the coding of cause of death from ICD-9 to ICD-10. While birth defects-specific IMRs provide an overall picture of fatal birth defects and a gauge of the impact of life-threatening anomalies, they represent only a fraction of the impact of birth defects, missing those who survive past infancy and those birth defects related losses in the antepartum period. Expansion and support of effective birth defects monitoring systems in each state that include the full spectrum of perinatal outcomes must be a priority. However, paralleling these efforts, analyses of this leading cause of infant mortality provide critical insight into perinatal health and should continue, with appropriate adjustments for the 1999 classification changes.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Causas de Morte , Anormalidades Congênitas/mortalidade , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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