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1.
Arch Toxicol ; 94(6): 2179-2206, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367274

RESUMO

The use of flavoring substances is an important element in the development of reduced-risk products for adult smokers to increase product acceptance and encourage switching from cigarettes. In a first step towards characterizing the sub-chronic inhalation toxicity of neat flavoring substances, a study was conducted using a mixture of the substances in a base solution of e-liquid, where the standard toxicological endpoints of the nebulized aerosols were supplemented with transcriptomics analysis. The flavor mixture was produced by grouping 178 flavors into 26 distinct chemical groups based on structural similarities and potential metabolic and biological effects. Flavoring substances predicted to show the highest toxicological effect from each group were selected as the flavor group representatives (FGR). Following Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Testing Guideline 413, rats were exposed to three concentrations of the FGR mixture in an e-liquid composed of nicotine (23 µg/L), propylene glycol (1520 µg/L), and vegetable glycerin (1890 µg/L), while non-flavored and no-nicotine mixtures were included as references to identify potential additive or synergistic effects between nicotine and the flavoring substances. The results indicated that the inhalation of an e-liquid containing the mixture of FGRs caused very minimal local and systemic toxic effects. In particular, there were no remarkable clinical (in-life) observations in flavored e-liquid-exposed rats. The biological effects related to exposure to the mixture of neat FGRs were limited and mainly nicotine-mediated, including changes in hematological and blood chemistry parameters and organ weight. These results indicate no significant additive biological changes following inhalation exposure to the nebulized FGR mixture above the nicotine effects measured in this sub-chronic inhalation study. In a subsequent study, e-liquids with FGR mixtures will be aerosolized by thermal treatment and assessed for toxicity.

2.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 412(11): 2675-2685, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072212

RESUMO

A suite of untargeted methods has been applied for the characterization of aerosol from the Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS2.2), a heated tobacco product developed by Philip Morris Products S.A. and commercialized under the brand name IQOS®. A total of 529 chemical constituents, excluding water, glycerin, and nicotine, were present in the mainstream aerosol of THS2.2, generated by following the Health Canada intense smoking regimen, at concentrations ≥ 100 ng/item. The majority were present in the particulate phase (n = 402), representing more than 80% of the total mass determined by untargeted screening; a proportion were present in both particulate and gas-vapor phases (39 compounds). The identities for 80% of all chemical constituents (representing > 96% of the total determined mass) were confirmed by the use of authentic analytical reference materials. Despite the uncertainties that are recognized to be associated with aerosol-based untargeted approaches, the reported data remain indicative that the uncharacterized fraction of TPM generated by THS2.2 has been evaluated to the fullest practicable extent. To the best of our knowledge, this work represents the most comprehensive chemical characterization of a heated tobacco aerosol to date. Graphical abstract.

4.
Toxicol Rep ; 6: 1206-1215, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768332

RESUMO

The adverse effects of cigarette smoking are well documented, and the two main strategies for reducing smoking prevalence are prevention of smoking initiation and promotion of smoking cessation. More recently, a third and complementary avenue, tobacco harm reduction has emerged, which is aimed to reduce the burden of smoking-related diseases. This has been enabled by the development of novel products such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and heated tobacco products, designed to deliver nicotine with significantly reduced levels of the toxicants that are emitted by cigarettes. Several potential modified risk tobacco products (pMRTP) have been reported to emit significantly less toxicants than cigarettes and significantly reduce toxicant exposure in smokers who switch completely to such products. These are two prerequisites for pMRTPs to reduce harm and the risk of smoking-related disease. However, concerns remain regarding the addictive nature of these products. Smoking addiction is a complex phenomenon involving multiple pharmacological and non-pharmacological factors. Although the main pharmacological substance associated with smoking addiction is nicotine, accumulating evidence suggests that nicotine mostly acts as a primary reinforcer and that other factors are involved in establishing smoking addiction. Inhibition of monoamine oxidases (MAO)-mammalian flavoenzymes with a central role in neurotransmitter metabolism-has also been suggested to be involved in this process. Therefore, we aimed to comparatively investigate the ability of several types of pMRTPs and cigarette smoke (3R4F) to inhibit MAO activity. The results showed that the heated tobacco product Tobacco Heating System (THS) 2.2 and the MESH 1.1 e-cigarette possessed no MAO inhibitory activity while 3R4F significantly inhibits the levels of MAO activity (3R4F MAO-A and B; > 2 µM nicotine). Snus products have similar inhibition profiles as 3R4F but for larger nicotine concentrations (snus MAO-A; ∼68-fold, snus MAO-B; ∼23-fold higher compared to 3R4F). These observations were confirmed by analytical datasets of potential MAO inhibitors emitted by these products. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that specific pMRTPs, namely THS 2.2 and MESH 1.1, have a significantly lower MAO-inhibitory activity than 3R4F. These findings provide a basis for further investigation of the role of MAO inhibitors in cigarette addiction as well as the implications of the findings for abuse liability of pMRTPs in comparison with cigarettes.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12234, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439857

RESUMO

The light-driven splitting of water to oxygen (O2) is catalyzed by a protein-bound tetra-manganese penta-oxygen calcium (Mn4O5Ca) cluster in Photosystem II. In the current study, we used a large-scale integration (LSI)-based amperometric sensor array system, designated Bio-LSI, to perform two-dimensional imaging of light-induced O2 evolution from spinach leaves. The employed Bio-LSI chip consists of 400 sensor electrodes with a pitch of 250 µm for fast electrochemical imaging. Spinach leaves were illuminated to varying intensities of white light (400-700 nm) which induced oxygen evolution and subsequent electrochemical images were collected using the Bio-LSI chip. Bio-LSI images clearly showed the dose-dependent effects of the light-induced oxygen release from spinach leaves which was then significantly suppressed in the presence of urea-type herbicide 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU). Our results clearly suggest that light-induced oxygen evolution can be monitored using the chip and suggesting that the Bio-LSI is a promising tool for real-time imaging. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to describe electrochemical imaging of light-induced O2 evolution using LSI-based amperometric sensors in plants.

6.
Front Physiol ; 10: 958, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456690

RESUMO

Oxidative modification of proteins in photosystem II (PSII) exposed to high light has been studied for a few decades, but the characterization of protein radicals formed by protein oxidation is largely unknown. Protein oxidation is induced by the direct reaction of proteins with reactive oxygen species known to form highly reactive protein radicals comprising carbon-centered (alkyl) and oxygen-centered (peroxyl and alkoxyl) radicals. In this study, protein radicals were monitored in Arabidopsis exposed to high light by immuno-spin trapping technique based on the detection of 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) nitrone adducts using the anti-DMPO antibody. Protein radicals were imaged in Arabidopsis leaves and chloroplasts by confocal laser scanning microscopy using fluorescein conjugated with the anti-DMPO antibody. Characterization of protein radicals by standard blotting techniques using PSII protein specific antibodies shows that protein radicals are formed on D1, D2, CP43, CP47, and Lhcb3 proteins. Protein oxidation reflected by the appearance/disappearance of the protein bands reveals that formation of protein radicals was associated with protein fragmentation (cleavage of the D1 peptide bonds) and aggregation (cross-linking with another PSII subunits). Characterization of protein radical formation is important for better understating of the mechanism of oxidative modification of PSII proteins under high light.

7.
Anal Chem ; 91(14): 9129-9137, 2019 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265256

RESUMO

Nontargeted screening methodologies are powerful approaches for comprehensive chemical characterization of complex matrixes. In order to maximize chemical space coverage, three analytical methods using two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry for nonpolar, polar, and volatile compounds have been established. The structural identification process was streamlined with an in-house developed computer-assisted structure identification platform, which facilitated the identification of novel compounds and also delivered semiquantitative concentrations for all compounds. Key performance parameters for this nontargeted platform, including chemical space coverage, confidence for structural identification, accuracy of semiquantification, and performance of differential analysis, were evaluated. The automated structural identification process was assessed using a subset of 243 compounds (out of 2990), which were confirmed to be present in cigarette smoke using reference standards. Consistently high true positive identification rates between 88.2% and 96.2% across the different concentration ranges investigated were demonstrated. Accuracy for semiquantification was assessed by comparison with quantitative data from literature, where a maximum 4-fold deviation from available targeted analysis values was estimated.

8.
Biomolecules ; 9(7)2019 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284470

RESUMO

It is well known that biological systems, such as microorganisms, plants, and animals, including human beings, form spontaneous electronically excited species through oxidative metabolic processes. Though the mechanism responsible for the formation of electronically excited species is still not clearly understood, several lines of evidence suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the formation of electronically excited species. This review attempts to describe the role of ROS in the formation of electronically excited species during oxidative metabolic processes. Briefly, the oxidation of biomolecules, such as lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids by ROS initiates a cascade of reactions that leads to the formation of triplet excited carbonyls formed by the decomposition of cyclic (1,2-dioxetane) and linear (tetroxide) high-energy intermediates. When chromophores are in proximity to triplet excited carbonyls, the triplet-singlet and triplet-triplet energy transfers from triplet excited carbonyls to chromophores result in the formation of singlet and triplet excited chromophores, respectively. Alternatively, when molecular oxygen is present, the triplet-singlet energy transfer from triplet excited carbonyls to molecular oxygen initiates the formation of singlet oxygen. Understanding the mechanism of the formation of electronically excited species allows us to use electronically excited species as a marker for oxidative metabolic processes in cells.


Assuntos
Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Animais , Transferência de Energia , Humanos , Oxirredução , Oxigênio/metabolismo
9.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 136: 43-51, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639921

RESUMO

Recent studies have shown that chlorophyll (Chl) b has an important role in the regulation of leaf senescence. However, there is only limited information about senescence of plants lacking Chl b and senescence-induced decrease in photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI) function has not even been investigated in such plants. We have studied senescence-induced changes in photosynthetic pigment content and PSII and PSI activities in detached leaves of Chl b-deficient barley mutant, chlorina f2f2 (clo). After 4 days in the dark, the senescence-induced decrease in PSI activity was smaller in clo compared to WT leaves. On the contrary, the senescence-induced impairment in PSII function (estimated from Chl fluorescence parameters) was much more pronounced in clo leaves, even though the relative decrease in Chl content was similar to wild type (WT) leaves (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Bonus). The stronger impairment of PSII function seems to be related to more pronounced damage of reaction centers of PSII. Interestingly, exogenously applied plant hormone cytokinin 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) was able to maintain PSII function in the dark senescing clo leaves to a similar extent as in WT. Thus, considering the fact that without BA the senescence-induced decrease in PSII photochemistry in clo was more pronounced than in WT, the relative protective effect of BA was higher in Chl b-deficient mutant than in WT.


Assuntos
Clorofila/deficiência , Citocininas/farmacologia , Hordeum/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorofila/metabolismo , Escuridão , Hordeum/efeitos dos fármacos , Hordeum/fisiologia , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia
10.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 130: 568-575, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30352303

RESUMO

Biomolecule (lipid and protein) oxidation products formed in plant cells exposed to photooxidative stress play a crucial role in the retrograde signaling and oxidative damage. The oxidation of biomolecules initiated by reactive oxygen species is associated with formation of organic (alkyl, peroxyl and alkoxyl) radicals. Currently, there is no selective and sensitive technique available for the detection of organic radicals in plant cells. Here, based on the analogy with animal cells, immuno-spin trapping using spin trap, 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) was used to image organic radicals in Arabidopsis leaves exposed to high light. Using antibody raised against the DMPO nitrone adduct conjugated with the fluorescein isothiocyanate, organic radicals were imaged by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Organic radicals are formed predominantly in the chloroplasts located at the periphery of the cells and distributed uniformly throughout the grana stack. Characterization of protein radicals by standard immunological techniques using anti-DMPO antibody shows protein bands with apparent molecular weights of 32 and 34 kDa assigned to D1 and D2 proteins and two protein bands below the D1/D2 band with apparent molecular weights of 23 and 18 kDa and four protein bands above the D1/D2 band with apparent molecular weights of 41, 43, 55 and 68 kDa. In summary, imaging of organic radicals by immuno-spin trapping represents selective and sensitive technique for the detection of organic radicals that might help to clarify mechanistic aspects on the role of organic radicals in the retrograde signaling and oxidative damage in plant cell.


Assuntos
Radicais Livres/isolamento & purificação , Lipídeos/isolamento & purificação , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Detecção de Spin , Animais , Óxidos N-Cíclicos/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Radicais Livres/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Lipídeos/química , Oxirredução , Peróxidos/química , Proteínas/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/química , Marcadores de Spin
11.
Data Brief ; 21: 2246-2252, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30555863

RESUMO

This article contains data related to the research article entitled, "Organic radical imaging in plants: Focus on protein radicals" (Kumar et al., 2018). The data presented herein focus on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and organic radical formed within photosynthetic tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana during high light stress and includes (1) Confocal laser scanning microscopic images using 3'-p-(hydroxyphenyl) fluorescein (HPF) as specific probe for the detection of hydroxyl radical (HO•); (2) Confocal laser scanning microscopic images using Singlet Oxygen Sensor Green (SOSG) as a specific probe for the detection of singlet oxygen (1O2) and; (3) Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy using spin traps for the detection of organic radical.

12.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 13685, 2018 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30209276

RESUMO

Formation of singlet oxygen (1O2) was reported to accompany light stress in plants, contributing to cell signaling or oxidative damage. So far, Singlet Oxygen Sensor Green (SOSG) has been the only commercialized fluorescent probe for 1O2 imaging though it suffers from several limitations (unequal penetration and photosensitization) that need to be carefully considered to avoid misinterpretation of the analysed data. Herein, we present results of a comprehensive study focused on the appropriateness of SOSG for 1O2 imaging in three model photosynthetic organisms, unicellular cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and higher plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Penetration of SOSG differs in both unicellular organisms; while it is rather convenient for Chlamydomonas it is restricted by the presence of mucoid sheath of Synechocystis, which penetrability might be improved by mild heating. In Arabidopsis, SOSG penetration is limited due to tissue complexity which can be increased by pressure infiltration using a shut syringe. Photosensitization of SOSG and SOSG endoperoxide formed by its interaction with 1O2 might be prevented by illumination of samples by a red light. When measured under controlled conditions given above, SOSG might serve as specific probe for detection of intracellular 1O2 formation in photosynthetic organisms.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Oxigênio Singlete/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/metabolismo , Cor , Luz , Oxirredução
13.
Front Physiol ; 9: 1109, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30158877

RESUMO

The skin is the largest organ in the body and is consistently exposed to aggressive environmental attacks (biological/physical/chemical, etc.). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are formed during the normal oxidative metabolism which enhances to a lethal level under stress conditions referred to as oxidative stress. While, under normal conditions, cells are capable of dealing with ROS using non-enzymatic and enzymatic defense system, it can lead to a critical damage to cell system via the oxidation of cellular components under stress condition. Lipid peroxidation is a well-established mechanism of cellular injury in all kinds of organisms and it is often used as an indicator of oxidative stress in cells and tissues. In the presence of metal ions, ROS such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produces highly reactive hydroxyl radical (HO•) via Fenton reaction. In the current study, we have used the porcine skin (intact pig ear/skin biopsies) as an ex vivo/in vitro model system to represent human skin. Experimental results have been presented on the participation of HO• in the initiation of lipid peroxidation and thereby leading to the formation of reactive intermediates and the formation of electronically excited species eventually leading to ultra-weak photon emission (UPE). To understand the participation of different electronically excited species in the overall UPE, the effect of a scavenger of singlet oxygen (1O2) on photon emission in the visible and near-infrared region of the spectrum was measured which showed its contribution. In addition, measurement with interference filter with a transmission in the range of 340-540 nm reflected a substantial contribution of triplet carbonyls (3L=O∗) in the photon emission. Thus, it is concluded that during the oxidative radical reactions, the UPE is contributed by the formation of both 3L=O∗ and 1O2. The method used in the current study is claimed to be a potential tool for non-invasive determination of the physiological and pathological state of human skin in dermatological research.

14.
Plant J ; 2018 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29901834

RESUMO

Prenylquinols (tocochromanols and plastoquinols) serve as efficient physical and chemical quenchers of singlet oxygen (1 O2 ) formed during high light stress in higher plants. Although quenching of 1 O2 by prenylquinols has been previously studied, direct evidence for chemical quenching of 1 O2 by plastoquinols and their oxidation products is limited in vivo. In the present study, the role of plastoquinol-9 (PQH2 -9) in chemical quenching of 1 O2 was studied in Arabidopsis thaliana lines overexpressing the SOLANESYL DIPHOSPHATE SYNTHASE 1 gene (SPS1oex) involved in PQH2 -9 and plastochromanol-8 biosynthesis. In this work, direct evidence for chemical quenching of 1 O2 by plastoquinols and their oxidation products is presented, which is obtained by microscopic techniques in vivo. Chemical quenching of 1 O2 was associated with consumption of PQH2 -9 and formation of its various oxidized forms. Oxidation of PQH2 -9 by 1 O2 leads to plastoquinone-9 (PQ-9), which is subsequently oxidized to hydroxyplastoquinone-9 [PQ(OH)-9]. We provide here evidence that oxidation of PQ(OH)-9 by 1 O2 results in the formation of trihydroxyplastoquinone-9 [PQ(OH)3 -9]. It is concluded here that PQH2 -9 serves as an efficient 1 O2 chemical quencher in Arabidopsis, and PQ(OH)3 -9 can be considered as a natural product of 1 O2 reaction with PQ(OH)-9. The understanding of the mechanisms underlying 1 O2 chemical quenching provides information on the role of plastoquinols and their oxidation products in the response of plants to photooxidative stress.

15.
Plant Cell Environ ; 41(8): 1870-1885, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29744884

RESUMO

Light and cytokinins are known to be the key players in the regulation of plant senescence. In detached leaves, the retarding effect of light on senescence is well described; however, it is not clear to what extent is this effect connected with changes in endogenous cytokinin levels. We have performed a detailed analysis of changes in endogenous content of 29 cytokinin forms in detached leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana (wild-type and 3 cytokinin receptor double mutants). Leaves were kept under different light conditions, and changes in cytokinin content were correlated with changes in chlorophyll content, efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry, and lipid peroxidation. In leaves kept in darkness, we have observed decreased content of the most abundant cytokinin free bases and ribosides, but the content of cis-zeatin increased, which indicates the role of this cytokinin in the maintenance of basal leaf viability. Our findings underscore the importance of light conditions on the content of specific cytokinins, especially N6 -(Δ2 -isopentenyl)adenine. On the basis of our results, we present a scheme summarizing the contribution of the main active forms of cytokinins, cytokinin receptors, and light to senescence regulation. We conclude that light can compensate the disrupted cytokinin signalling in detached leaves.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Citocininas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/efeitos da radiação , Arabidopsis/efeitos da radiação , Clorofila/metabolismo , Luz , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação
16.
Plant Cell Environ ; 41(10): 2277-2287, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29601642

RESUMO

The Arabidopsis vte1 mutant is devoid of tocopherol and plastochromanol (PC-8). When exposed to excess light energy, vte1 produced more singlet oxygen (1 O2 ) and suffered from extensive oxidative damage compared with the wild type. Here, we show that overexpressing the solanesyl diphosphate synthase 1 (SPS1) gene in vte1 induced a marked accumulation of total plastoquinone (PQ-9) and rendered the vte1 SPS1oex plants tolerant to photooxidative stress, indicating that PQ-9 can replace tocopherol and PC-8 in photoprotection. High total PQ-9 levels were associated with a noticeable decrease in 1 O2 production and higher levels of Hydroxyplastoquinone (PQ-C), a 1 O2 -specific PQ-9 oxidation product. The extra PQ-9 molecules in the vte1 SPS1oex plants were stored in the plastoglobules and the chloroplast envelopes, rather than in the thylakoid membranes, whereas PQ-C was found almost exclusively in the thylakoid membranes. Upon exposure of wild-type plants to high light, the thylakoid PQ-9 pool decreased, whereas the extrathylakoid pool remained unchanged. In vte1 and vte1 SPS1oex plants, the PQ-9 losses in high light were strongly amplified, affecting also the extrathylakoid pool, and PQ-C was found in high amounts in the thylakoids. We conclude that the thylakoid PQ-9 pool acts as a 1 O2 scavenger and is replenished from the extrathylakoid stock.


Assuntos
Depuradores de Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Plastoquinona/metabolismo , Oxigênio Singlete/metabolismo , Tilacoides/metabolismo , Alquil e Aril Transferases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Luz , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos da radiação
18.
PeerJ ; 5: e3050, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28761775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The growth and development of plants is deleteriously affected by various biotic and abiotic stress factors. Wounding in plants is caused by exposure to environmental stress, mechanical stress, and via herbivory. Typically, oxidative burst in response to wounding is associated with the formation of reactive oxygen species, such as the superoxide anion radical (O2•-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and singlet oxygen; however, few experimental studies have provided direct evidence of their detection in plants. Detection of O2•- formation in plant tissues have been performed using various techniques including electron paramagnetic resonance spin-trap spectroscopy, epinephrine-adrenochrome acceptor methods, staining with dyes such as tetrazolium dye and nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT); however, kinetic measurements have not been performed. In the current study, we provide evidence of O2•- generation and its kinetics in the leaves of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) subjected to wounding. METHODS: Real-time monitoring of O2•- generation was performed using catalytic amperometry. Changes in oxidation current for O2•- was monitored using polymeric iron-porphyrin-based modified carbon electrodes (φ = 1 mm) as working electrode with Ag/AgCl as the reference electrode. RESULT: The results obtained show continuous generation of O2•- for minutes after wounding, followed by a decline. The exogenous addition of superoxide dismutase, which is known to dismutate O2•- to H2O2, significantly suppressed the oxidation current. CONCLUSION: Catalytic amperometric measurements were performed using polymeric iron-porphyrin based modified carbon electrode. We claim it to be a useful tool and a direct method for real-time monitoring and precise detection of O2•- in biological samples, with the potential for wide application in plant research for specific and sensitive detection of O2•-.

19.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 9831, 2017 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28851974

RESUMO

Wounding, one of the most intensive stresses influencing plants ontogeny and lifespan, can be induced by herbivory as well as by physical factors. Reactive oxygen species play indispensable role both in the local and systemic defense reactions which enable "reprogramming" of metabolic pathways to set new boundaries and physiological equilibrium suitable for survival. In our current study, we provide experimental evidence on the formation of singlet oxygen (1O2) after wounding of Arabidopsis leaves. It is shown that 1O2 is formed by triplet-triplet energy transfer from triplet carbonyls to molecular oxygen. Using lipoxygenase inhibitor catechol, it is demonstrated that lipid peroxidation is initiated by lipoxygenase. Suppression of 1O2 formation in lox2 mutant which lacks chloroplast lipoxygenase indicates that lipoxygenase localized in chloroplast is predominantly responsible for 1O2 formation. Interestingly, 1O2 formation is solely restricted to chloroplasts localized at the wounding site. Data presented in this study might provide novel insight into wound-induced signaling in the local defense reaction.


Assuntos
Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Oxigênio Singlete/metabolismo , Ferimentos e Lesões/metabolismo , Arabidopsis , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Imunofluorescência , Lipoxigenases/genética , Microscopia Confocal , Imagem Molecular , Mutação , Fenótipo
20.
PLoS One ; 12(7): e0181732, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28732060

RESUMO

Singlet oxygen (1O2) is formed by triplet-triplet energy transfer from triplet chlorophyll to O2 via Type II photosensitization reaction in photosystem II (PSII). Formation of triplet chlorophyll is associated with the change in spin state of the excited electron and recombination of triplet radical pair in the PSII antenna complex and reaction center, respectively. Here, we have provided evidence for the formation of 1O2 by decomposition of protein hydroperoxide in PSII membranes deprived of Mn4O5Ca complex. Protein hydroperoxide is formed by protein oxidation initiated by highly oxidizing chlorophyll cation radical and hydroxyl radical formed by Type I photosensitization reaction. Under highly oxidizing conditions, protein hydroperoxide is oxidized to protein peroxyl radical which either cyclizes to dioxetane or recombines with another protein peroxyl radical to tetroxide. These highly unstable intermediates decompose to triplet carbonyls which transfer energy to O2 forming 1O2. Data presented in this study show for the first time that 1O2 is formed by decomposition of protein hydroperoxide in PSII membranes deprived of Mn4O5Ca complex.


Assuntos
Clorofila/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Oxigênio Singlete/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica/métodos , Transferência de Energia/fisiologia , Luz , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Peróxidos/metabolismo
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